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Anscarids

Anscarids

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House of Ivrea
Maison d'Ivrée
Anscarids
Royal family
Country Holy Roman Empire
Kingdom of Italy
Frankish Empire
Papal States
County of Burgundy
Galicia, Castile and León
Ethnicity FrankishBurgundian
Founded 9th century
Founder Anscar I
Final ruler Italy: Arduin
Burgundy: Joan II
Castile, Galicia and León: Peter
Orange: Philibert
Titles
Dissolution 1369 (1369)
Cadet branches
Coat of arms of the count of Burgundy (up to 1231).

The Anscarids (Latin: Anscarii) or the House of Ivrea were a medieval Frankish dynasty of Burgundian origin which rose to prominence in Italy in the tenth century, even briefly holding the Italian throne. The main branch ruled the County of Burgundy from the eleventh to fourteenth centuries and it was one of their members who first declared himself a count palatine. The cadet Castilian branch of Ivrea ruled the Kingdom of Galicia from 1111 and the Kingdoms of Castile and León from 1126 until 1369. The House of Trastamara, which ruled in Castile, Aragon, Naples, and Navarre at various points between the late 14th and early 16th centuries, was an illegitimate cadet branch of that family.

Ivrea

The founder of the family's fortunes was a petty Burgundian count named Anscar, who, with the support of his powerful brother, the archbishop of Rheims Fulk the Venerable, brought Guy III of Spoleto to Langres to be crowned King of France in 887. Their plot failing, Anscar accompanied Guy back to Italy to seek that vacant throne and, in gratefulness to Anscar, Guy created the March of Ivrea to bestow on his Burgundian faithful. Anscar's descendants held the march until 1030. Perhaps the most illustrious scion of the house was his grandson Berengar, the first of three Anscarids to be crowned king of Italy.

Berengar seized the throne in 950 after the death of Lothair II. He was opposed, immediately, by Lothair's widow Adelaide, whom he imprisoned after his attempt to force her marriage to his son, Adalbert II, failed. Emperor Otto I came down the peninsula and forced him to do homage in 952. For the next eleven years, Berengar and his co-crowned son governed Italy until Otto finally formally deposed them in 963.

From 1002 to 1014 Arduin of Italy held the Italian throne in opposition to the German Henry II.

Counts of Burgundy

Adalbert was eventually forced to flee to Burgundy, where he died at Autun. His widow remarried to Otto-Henry, Duke of Burgundy and her son by Adalbert, Otto William, inherited the duchy of Burgundy. Henry I of France confiscated the duchy, leaving only a small portion around Dole to Otto. This was the kernel of the later Free County.

The greatest of the free counts was Renaud III, who, from 1127, used the title franc-compte as a sign of independence of German or Imperial authority, but was forced to submit to Conrad III. His daughter and heiress, Beatrice, married Frederick Barbarossa and united the Anscarid inheritance with that of the Hohenstaufen. Burgundy was inherited by her son Otto I, who had an Anscarid name. Thus the county was lost for the House of Ivrea, but it came back when Hugh of Chalon married to Adelaide countess of Burgundy, daughter of Beatrice II of Hohenstaufen (Otto I's daughter). However in 1315 died Robert, Count of Burgundy, last male of the main line and the county inherited to the Dampierre family and finally to the Capetian-Valois dukes of Burgundy.

John I of Chalon-Arlay, a younger brother of Hugh of Chalon, became the founder of the line of Chalon-Arlay. His descendant, John III of Chalon-Arlay married Mary de Beaux princess of Orange, thus the principality was acquired by the family. The last male offspring was Philibert of Chalon who died in 1530. The possesions inherited to his sister's, Claudia of Chalon, son, i.e. René of Nassau.

Castilian branch of Ivrea

Raymond, fourth son of Count William I of Burgundy, travelled to Castile-León in the late eleventh century and there married Urraca, the future monarch. She was succeeded by their son, Alfonso VII. Subsequent monarchs of Castile and León were their agnatic descendants until the 16th century, although the crown had passed to an illegitimate cadet branch, the House of Trastámara, in the late 14th century.

Family tree of House of Ivrea

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anscar I
margrave of Ivrea
HOUSE OF IVREA
 
Fulk
arhbishop of Reims
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adalbert I
margrave of Ivrea
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Berengar II
margrave of Ivrea,
king of Lombards in Italy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anscar II
dike of Slopeto
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gerberga
of Chalon
 
Adalbert II
co-king of Lombards in Italy
 
Guy
margrave of Ivrea
 
Conrad
margrave of Ivrea
 
Dado
count of Pombia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Otto William
count of Burgundy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Arduin
margrave of Ivrea,
king of Lombards in Italy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reginald I
κόμης της Βουργουνδίας
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
William I
count of Burgundy
 
Guy
count of Brionne
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reginald II
count of Burgundy
 
 
 
 
 
Stephen I
count of Burgundy
 
(Guy)
Pope Callixtus II
 
Raymond
count of Galicia
CASTILIAN HOUSE OF IVREA
 
Urraca
queen of Castile & León
HOUSE OF JIMENEZ
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
William II
count of Burgundy
 
Reginald III
count of Burgundy
 
William III
count of Mâcon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
William III
count of Burgundy
 
Beatrice I
countess of Burgundy
 
Stephen II
count of Auxonne
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Otto I of Hohenstaufen
count of Burgundy
 
Stephen III
count of Auxonne
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Betrice I of Hohenstaufen
countess of Burgundy
 
John
count of Chalon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adelaide of Andechs
countess of Burgundy
 
Hugh
 
John I
count of Auxerre
 
John I
lord of Arlay
HOUSE OF ARLAY
 
Hugh
archbishop of Besançon
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Otto IV
count of Burgundy
 
Reginald
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Joan II
countess of Burgundy
 
Robert
count of Burgundy
 
Othenin
count of Montbéliard

See also

Sources

  • Wickham, Chris. Early Medieval Italy: Central Power and Local Society 400-1000. MacMillan Press: 1981.
Royal house
House of Ivrea
Preceded by
(founder)

counts of Burgundy

982–1190
Succeeded by
House of Hohenstaufen
Royal house
House of Ivrea
Preceded by
House of Andechs

counts of Burgundy

1279–1330
Succeeded by
House of Capet


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