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Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg

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Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg
1235–1806
Coat of arms
Brunswick-Lüneburg as part of the Holy Roman Empire, c. 1648
Status Duchy
Capital Brunswick,
Lüneburg
Common languages West Low German
Government Duchy
Historical era Middle Ages
• Henry the Lion defeated; Saxony divided; Henry reinvested with Welf allod
1180

1181
• Allod elevated to Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg
1235
• Partition into Lüneburg and Brunswick
1269
• Grubenhagen formed
1291
• Göttingen formed
1345
• Brunswick splits into Wolfenbüttel and Calenberg
1432
• The end of the Holy Roman Empire
1806
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Duchy of Saxony
Electorate of Hanover
Duchy of Brunswick
Today part of Germany

The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (German: Herzogtum Braunschweig-Lüneburg), or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was an historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire. The duchy was located in what is now northwestern Germany. Its name came from the two largest cities in the territory: Brunswick and Lüneburg.

The dukedom emerged in 1235 from the allodial lands of the House of Welf in Saxony and was granted as an imperial fief to Otto the Child, a grandson of Henry the Lion. The duchy was divided several times during the High Middle Ages amongst various lines of the House of Welf, but each ruler was styled "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg" in addition to his own particular title.[1][2] By 1692, the territories had consolidated to two: the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.

In 1714, the Hanoverian branch of the family succeeded to the throne of Great Britain, which they would rule in personal union with Hanover until 1837. For this reason, many cities and provinces in former British colonies are named after Brunswick or Lüneburg. The Hanoverians never ruled Brunswick while they held the British throne, as the city was part of neighboring Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. After the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, the Brunswick-Lüneburg territories became the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick.

History

Otto the Child is enfeoffed with Brunswick-Lüneburg by Emperor Frederick II, Lüneburg Sachsenspiegel, 1448

When the imperial ban was placed on Henry the Lion in 1180, he lost his titles as Duke of Saxony and Duke of Bavaria. He went into exile for several years, but was then allowed to stay on the (allodial) estates inherited from his mother's side until the end of his life.

At the Imperial Diet of 1235 in Mainz, as part of the reconciliation between the Hohenstaufen and Welf families, Henry's grandson, Otto the Child, transferred his estates to Emperor Frederick II and was enfeoffed in return with the newly created Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, which was formed from the estates transferred to the Emperor as well as other large areas of the imperial fisc. After his death in 1252, he was succeeded by his sons, Albert the Tall and John, who ruled the dukedom jointly.

In 1269 the duchy was divided, Albert receiving the southern part of the state around Brunswick and John the northern territories in the area of Lüneburg. The towns of Lüneburg and Brunswick remained in the overall possession of the House of Welf until 1512 and 1671 respectively. In 1571 the Amt of Calvörde became an exclave of the Duchy. The various parts of the duchy were further divided and re-united over the centuries, all of them being ruled by the Welf or Guelph dynasty, who maintained close relations with one another—not infrequently by marrying cousins—a practice far more common than is the case today, even among the peasantry of the Holy Roman Empire, for the salic inheritance laws in effect, encouraged the practice of retaining control of lands and benefits. The seats of power moved in the meantime from Brunswick and Lüneburg to Celle and Wolfenbüttel as the towns asserted their independence.

History of the subordinate principalities

Territorial division of the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg and dynastic relationships within the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg and to the Kingdom of Great Britain.

The subsequent history of the dukedom and its subordinate principalities was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications. The subordinate states that were repeatedly created, and which had the legal status of principalities, were generally named after the residence of their rulers. The estates of the different dynastic lines could be inherited by a side line when a particular family died out. For example, over the course of the centuries there were the Old, Middle and New Houses (or Lines) of Brunswick, and the Old, Middle and New Houses of Lüneburg. The number of simultaneously reigning dynastic lines varied from two to five.

Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel

In 1269 the Principality of Brunswick was formed following the first division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1432, as a result of increasing tensions with the townsfolk of Brunswick, the Brunswick Line moved their Residence to Wolfenbüttel, into the water castle, which was expanded into a Schloss, whilst the town was developed into a royal seat. The name Wolfenbüttel was given to this principality. From 1546 Wolfenbüttel became the residence of the senior prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince Henry, Duke of Brunswick-Dannenberg. With sole rights to the duchy Brunswick-Lüneburg, he provided a conditional lease of the principality of Lüneburg to the princes of Calenburg with the conditions of payment to Wolfenbüttel heirs, together with the guarantee that only his descendants would inherit this senior principality of Wolfenbüttel. Not until 1753/1754 was the Residence moved back to Brunswick, into the newly built Brunswick Palace. In 1814 the principality became the Duchy of Brunswick, with its own subordinate principalities that are all apart from the Calenburg principality from which sprang the de facto Kingdom of Hanover, a Kingdom which was declared a usurpation by the head of house, Charles II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, in his edict of May 10, 1827. In 1866 Prussia annexed the territories and refused to recognize the Kingdom of Hanover. Prince Charles II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel protested the violent annexation from his places of exile in Paris, as well as Geneva Switzerland, signed and sealed the 12th of April 1873.[3]

Principality of Calenberg (later Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg)

In 1432 the estates gained by the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel between the Deister and Leine split away as the Principality of Calenberg. To the north this new state bordered on the County of Hoya near Nienburg and extended from there in a narrow, winding strip southwards up the River Leine through Wunstorf and Hanover where it reached the Principality of Wolfenbüttel. In 1495 it was expanded around Göttingen and in 1584 went back to the Wolfenbüttel Line. In 1634, as a result of inheritance distributions, it went to the House of Lüneburg, before becoming an independent principality again in 1635, when it was given to George, younger brother of Prince Ernest II of Lüneburg, who chose Hanover as his Residenz. New territory was added in 1665 in the vicinity of Grubenhagen and in 1705 around the Principality of Lüneburg. In 1692 Duke Ernest Augustus from the Calenberg Line acquired the right to be a prince-elector as the Prince-Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Colloquially the Electorate was also known as the Electorate of Hanover or as Kurhannover. In 1814 it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Hanover.

Principality of Lüneburg

The Principality of Lüneburg emerged alongside the Principality of Brunswick in 1269 when the inheritance of the Duchy was divided. After the death of Duke George William of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1705, King George I inherited the state of Lüneburg with his wife, the Duke's daughter, Sophie Dorothea, later known as the "Princess of Ahlden". It was united with the Principality of Calenberg, which had been elevated in 1692 into the Electorate.

Principality of Göttingen

The southernmost principality in the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg stretched from Münden in the south down the River Weser to Holzminden. In the east it ran through Göttingen along the River Leine via Northeim to Einbeck. It emerged in 1345 as the result of a division of the Principality of Brunswick and was united in 1495 with Calenberg.

Principality of Grubenhagen

From 1291 to 1596 Grubenhagen was an independent principality, its first ruler being Henry the Admirable, son of Albert of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. The state lay ran from the northern part of the Solling hills and the River Leine near Einbeck and north of the Eichsfeld on and in the southwestern Harz. After being split in the course of the years into smaller and smaller principalities it Grubenhagen finally returned in 1596 to Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.

Other branches

Other branches that did not have full sovereignty existed in the Dannenberg, Harburg, Gifhorn, Bevern, Osterode, Herzberg, Salzderhelden and Einbeck.

While a total of about a dozen subdivisions that existed, some were only dynastic and not recognised as states of the Empire, which at one time had over 1500 such legally recognized entities. In the List of Reichstag participants (1792), the following four subdivisions of Brunswick-Lüneburg had recognized representation:

By 1705 only two Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg survived, one ruling Calenberg, Lüneburg and other possessions, and the other ruling Wolfenbüttel.

From Lüneburg to Hanover

One of the dynastic lines was that of the princes of Lüneburg, who in 1635 acquired Calenberg for George, a junior member of the family who set up residence in the city of Hanover. His son Christian Louis and his brothers inherited Celle in 1648 and thereafter shared it and Calenberg between themselves; a closely related branch of the family ruled separately in Wolfenbüttel.

As a latter day development, what became the Electorate of Hanover was initially called the Elector of Brunswick-Lunenberg when the Holy Roman Emperor appointed Ernest Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lunenberg an Elector in 1696 (two years before his death) in a somewhat controversial move to increase the number of Protestant electors—thereby offending the entrenched interests of the extant prince-electors who would no longer be so few. As with most matters in Europe during these times, this was part of the centuries-long religious unrest accompanied by outright warfare (see Thirty Years' War) triggered by the zealous advocates on either side of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation.

The territories of Calenberg and Lüneburg-Celle were made an Electorate by the Emperor Leopold I in 1692 in expectation of the imminent inheritance of Celle by the Duke of Calenberg, though the actual dynastic union of the territories did not occur until 1705 under his son George I Louis, and the Electorate was not officially approved by the Imperial Diet until 1708.

The resulting state was known under many different names (Brunswick-Lüneburg, Calenberg, Calenberg-Celle; its ruler was often known as the "Elector of Hanover". Coincidentally, in 1701 the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg found himself in the line of succession for the British crown, later confirmed in 1707 by the Act of Union, which he subsequently inherited, thereby creating a personal union of the two crowns on 20 October 1714.

After a little over a decade, the matter of the disputed electorate was settled upon the heir, and the new Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (acceded as duke on 23 January 1698), George I Louis was able to style himself the Elector of Brunswick and Lüneburg from 1708. It was not just happenstance but similar religious driven politics that brought about the circumstance that he was also put into the line of succession for the British crown by the Act of Settlement— which was written to ensure a Protestant succession to the thrones of Scotland and England at a time when anti-Catholic sentiment ran high in much of Northern Europe and much of Great Britain. In the event, George I succeeded his second cousin Anne, Queen of Great Britain — the last reigning member of the House of Stuart, and subsequently formed a personal union from 1 August 1714 between the British crown and the duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg (electorate of Hanover) which would last until well after the end of the Napoleonic wars more than a century later—including even through the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire and the rise of a new successor kingdom. In that manner, the "Electorate of Hanover" (the core duchy) was enlarged with the addition of other lands and became the kingdom of Hanover in 1814 at the peace conferences (Congress of Vienna) settling the future shape of Europe in the aftermath of the Napoleonic wars.

History of the relationship to the British Crown

The first Hanoverian King of Great Britain, George I of Great Britain, was the reigning Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and was finally made an official and recognized prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire in 1708. His possessions were enlarged in 1706 when the hereditary lands of the Calenberg branch of the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg merged with the lands of the Lüneburg-Celle branch to form the state of Hanover. Subsequently, George I was referred to as Elector of Hanover.

In 1700 and 1701, when the English Parliament had addressed the question of an orderly succession, with a particular religious bias toward a Protestant ruler, from the childless ruling Queen Anne (House of Stuart), it passed the provisions of the Act of Settlement 1701 to Sophia of Hanover, granddaughter of James I. Sophia predeceased Queen Anne by a few weeks, but her son and heir, George I, succeeded as King of Great Britain when Anne, his second cousin, died in August 1714. Great Britain and Hanover remained united in personal union until the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837.

George I was followed by his son George II and great-grandson George III. The last mentioned retained the position of elector even after the Holy Roman Empire was abolished by its last emperor in 1806. George III contested the validity of the dissolution of the Empire and maintained separate consular offices and staff for the Electorate of Hanover until the peace conferences at the war's end. After the fall of Napoleon, George III regained his lands plus lands from Prussia as King of Hanover, whilst giving up some other smaller scattered territories.

After the Congress of Vienna

After the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Calenberg-Celle and its possessions were added to by the Congress of Vienna ending the Napoleonic war, being born anew under the name of Kingdom of Hanover (including Brunswick-Lüneburg). During the first half of the 19th century, the Kingdom of Hanover was ruled as personal union by the British crown from its creation under George III of the United Kingdom, the last elector of Hanover until the death of William IV in 1837. At that point, the crown of Hanover went to William's younger brother, Ernest, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale under the Salic laws requiring the next male heir to inherit, whereas the British throne was inherited by an elder brother's only daughter, Queen Victoria.

Subsequently, the kingdom was lost in 1866 by his son George V of Hanover during the Austro-Prussian War when it was annexed by Prussia, and became the Prussian province of Hanover.

Duchy of Brunswick

The Wolfenbüttel Line retained its independence, except from 1807 to 1813, when it and Hanover were merged into the Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia. The Congress of Vienna of 1815 turned it into an independent state under the name Duchy of Brunswick. The Duchy remained independent and joined first the North German Confederation and in 1871 the German Empire.

When the main line of descent became extinct in 1884, the German Emperor withheld the rightful heir, the Crown Prince of Hanover, from taking control, instead installing a regent. Decades later, the families were reconciled by the marriage of the Crown Prince's son to the Emperor's only daughter, and the Emperor allowed his son-in-law to assume rule (his father having renounced his own right).

Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg and successors

House of Welf

Partitions of Brunswick-Lüneburg under Welf rule[edit]

Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
(1235–1269)
Brunswick
(1269–1291)
Lüneburg
(1st creation)
(1269–1369)
Grubenhagen
(1291–1596)
       Wolfenbüttel
(1st creation)
(1291–1292)
      
Göttingen
(1291–1463)
Wolfenbüttel
(2nd creation)
(1344–1400)
      
       Lüneburg under
Ascanian rule

(1373–1388)
      
Lüneburg
(2nd creation)
(1388–1705)
             
       Wolfenbüttel
(3rd creation)
(1409–1485)
Calenberg
(1st creation)
(1432–1584)
      
      
             
Wolfenbüttel
(4th creation)
(1494–1807)
      
       (annexed Grubenhagen 1617)
       Calenberg
(2nd creation)
(1634–1692)
Recalled Hanover 1692
      
Electorate of Hanover
(1692–1866)
Annexed by
Kingdom of France
Brunswick
(1813–1918)
Annexed by Kingdom of Prussia

Table of rulers[edit]

(Note: Here the numbering of the princes is the same for all duchies, as all were titled Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg, despite of the different parts of land and its particular numbering of the rulers. The princes are numbered by the year of their succession.)

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Otto I the Child
1204 1235–1252 9 June 1252 Brunswick-Lüneburg Matilda of Brandenburg
1228
ten children
Grandson of Henry the Lion, founded the Duchy and was recognised as such in 1235, by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Albert I the Tall
1236 1252–1269 15 August 1279 Brunswick-Lüneburg Elisabeth of Brabant
1254
no children

Alexia of Montferrat
1263
seven children
Shared rule with his brother John. In 1269 divided the land with him, and became Prince of Brunswick.
John I 1242 13 December 1277 Brunswick-Lüneburg Liutgard of Holstein-Itzehoe
1265
five children
Shared rule with his brother Albert. In 1269 divided the land with him, and became Prince of Luneburg.
All Welf lines continued to bear the title "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg" between the division of 1269 and the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. This was an additional title to the representation of their actual territorial lordship. However, as this is list of rulers, the list goes beyond the use of the title, going through all generations until the end of the noble family representation in the land, in 1918.
Albert I the Tall 1236 1269–1279 15 August 1279 Brunswick Elisabeth of Brabant
1254
no children

Alexia of Montferrat
1263
seven children
In 1269 became Prince of Wolfenbuttel.
John I 1242 1269-1277 13 December 1277 Lüneburg Liutgard of Holstein-Itzehoe
1265
five children
Shared rule with his brother Albert. In 1269 divided the land with him, and became Prince of Luneburg.
Albert I the Tall
(regent)
1236 1277–1279 15 August 1279 Lüneburg Elisabeth of Brabant
1254
no children

Alexia of Montferrat
1263
seven children
Regents on behalf of their nephew
Conrad of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince-Bishop of Verden
(regent)
Before 1279 1277–1282 After 1282 Lüneburg
Otto II the Strict
1266 1282-1330 10 April 1330 Lüneburg Matilda of Bavaria
1288
five children
His rule was marked by several feuds, financed by pledges (Verpfändungen), involving border and property disputes with his neighbours. Otto restricted the rights of the knights and safeguarded public order.
Henry I the Admirable August 1267 1279–1291 7 September 1322 Brunswick Agnes of Meissen
1282
sixteen children
Sons of Albert I, ruled jointly. In 1291 divided the land: Henry received Grubenhagen, William Wolfenbüttel and Albert Göttingen. William died without descendants, and Albert reunited his land with his brother's.
1291–1322 Grubenhagen
William I 1270 1279-1291 30 September 1292 Brunswick Elisabeth of Hesse
190
no children
1291–1292 Wolfenbüttel
Albert II the Fat 1268 1279-1291 22 September 1318 Brunswick Rixa of Mecklenburg-Werle
1284
ten children
1291–1292 Göttingen
1292–1318 Göttingen and Wolfenbüttel
Otto III the Mild 24 June 1292 1318–1344 30 August 1344 Göttingen and Wolfenbüttel Judith of Hesse
1311
no children

Agnes of Brandenburg-Salzwedel
1319
no children
Sons of Albert II, ruled jointly. After Otto's death Magnus and Ernest divided the land: Magnus received Wolfenbüttel and Ernest Göttingen.
Magnus I the Pious 1304 1318–1344 1369 Göttingen and Wolfenbüttel Sophia of Brandenburg-Stendal
1327
eight children
1344-1369 Wolfenbüttel
Ernest I 1305 1318–1344 24 April 1367 Göttingen and Wolfenbüttel Elizabeth of Hesse
1337
three children
1344–1367 Göttingen
Henry II Before 1296 1322–1351 After 1351 Grubenhagen Jutta of Brandenburg-Stendal
1318
four children

Helvis of Ibelin
1324
six children
Sons of Henry I, ruled jointly.
Ernest II 1297 1322–1361 9 March 1361 Grubenhagen Adelheid of Everstein-Polle
June 1335
nine children
William II 1298 1322–1360 1360 Grubenhagen Unmarried
John II Before 1296 1322–1325 After 1367 Grubenhagen Unmarried
Otto IV 1296 1330–1352 19 August 1352 Lüneburg Matilda of Mecklenburg
1311
three children
Sons of Otto II, ruled jointly. After Otto's death in 1352, William ruled alone. His death without descendants precipitated the Lüneburg War of Succession in 1370.
William III the Elder c.1300 1330–1369 23 November 1369 Lüneburg Hedwig of Ravensberg
7 April 1328
one child

Maria
After 1387
one child

Sophia of Anhalt-Bernburg
12 March 1346
no children

Agnes of Saxe-Lauenburg
1363
no children
Albert III c.1339 1361–1383 1383 Grubenhagen Agnes of Brunswick-Lüneburg
c.1380?
one child
Sons of Ernest II, ruled jointly. John abdicated 1364 to join the clergy and Albert became sole ruler.
John III c.1339 1361–1364 18 January 1401 Grubenhagen Adelheid of Everstein-Polle
June 1335
nine children
Otto V the Evil 1330 1367–1394 13 November 1394 Göttingen Margarethe of Jülich-Berg
1379
two children
Magnus II of the Necklace (Torquatus) 1304 1369–1373 25 July 1373 Wolfenbüttel and Lüneburg Katherine of Anhalt-Bernburg
1327
eight children
Inherited Wolfenbüttel from his father. However, the Lüneburg War of Succession allowed his succession also in this duchy. However, the War of Succession brought, after his death, the dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg to the government.
Frederick I 1357 1373–1400 5 June 1400 Wolfenbüttel Anna of Saxe-Wittenberg
1386
two children
Fulfilling the agreement of Hanover, married the daughter of the Duke Wenceslaus of Saxe-Wittenberg.
After the death of Magnus II with the Necklace, a treaty (the Reconciliation of Hanover) was agreed between the widow of Magnus II and her sons and the claimers, Albert of Saxe-Wittenberg and his uncle Duke Wenceslaus I of Saxe-Wittenberg: the estates of the Principality were to pay homage both to the Welfs and to the Ascanians, and the two noble houses would govern the state alternately. Initially, the land would be given to the two Ascanians from Wittenberg, and after their death it would go to the sons of the fallen Duke Magnus II. After their death, rule of the Principality was to revert to the Ascanians. In order to underpin the agreement, in 1374 Albert of Saxe-Lüneburg married Catharina, the widow of Magnus II. The treaty also envisaged the creation of a statutory body representing the estates, which was to supervise the treaty. However, 1373–1388 would be the only period in which a Brunswick-Luneburg land was not ruled by a Welf.
Albert IV (Ascanian) before 1350 1373–1385 28 June 1385 Lüneburg Katherine of Anhalt-Bernburg
10 November 1373
Hanover
11 July 1374
Celle
one child
Inherited Lüneburg as he was son of Elisabeth, daughter of William the Elder. To reinforce his claim married the widow of the previous duke, Katherine. Albert also moved the residence to Celle after the slighting of Lüneburg Castle. With no male heirs, his co-ruler and uncle, Wenceslaus I of Saxe-Wittenberg, took the entire government of Lüneburg.
Wenceslaus I (Ascanian) 1337 1373–1388 15 May 1388 Lüneburg Cecilia da Carrara
23 January 1376
six children
Took the entire government of the duchy after the death of his nephew, the natural heir. After his death,according to the treaty, the duchy was returned to the Welfs.
In the wake of his death, Elector Wenceslas appointed Bernard, his brother-in-law, as co-regent involved him in the government. But his younger brother Henry did not agree with this ruling, and after vain attempts to reach an agreement, the fight flared up again in the spring of 1388. Elector Wenceslas had to assemble an army without the help of Bernard, supported by the town of Lüneburg. From Winsen an der Aller, he wanted to attack Celle, which was held by Henry and his mother. During the preparations, however, Elector Wenceslas fell seriously ill and died shortly thereafter. According to legend, he was poisoned. Lüneburg continued the preparations, formed an alliance with the Bishop of Minden and Count of Schaumburg and set up his own army. On 28 May 1388, battle was joined at Winsen an der Aller; it ended in victory for Henry. According to the provisions of the Treaty of Hanover from the year 1373, after the death of Wensceslas, the Principality passed to the House of Welf. In 1389, a inheritance agreement between the Welfs and the Ascanians was concluded, the treaty of 1374 was abolished, and the Principality was finally secured for the Welfs.
Frederick I, Duke of Brunswick-Osterode (regent) c.1383 1383–1401 28 May 1427 Grubenhagen Adelaide of Anhalt-Zerbst
c.1395?
one child
Brother of Albert III, regent on behalf of his nephew, Eric
Eric I the Winner c.1383 1401–1427 28 May 1427 Grubenhagen Elisabeth of Brunswick-Göttingen
six children
Henry III the Mild 1355 1388–1400 14 October 1416 Lüneburg Sophia of Pomerania
11 November 1388
two children

Margaret of Hesse
30 January 1409
one child
Sons of Magnus II, ruled jointly. They permanently recovered Lüneburg for the Welfs. In 1400 inherited Wolfenbüttel and in 1416 divided their lands: Henry retained Lüneburg and Bernard kept Wolfenbüttel until 1428, when exchanged it with Lüneburg from his nephews.
1400-1409 Lüneburg and Wolfenbüttel
1409–1416 Lüneburg
Bernard I between 1358 and 1364 1388–1400 11 June 1434 Lüneburg Margaret of Saxe-Wittenberg
1386
three children
1400–1409 Lüneburg and Wolfenbüttel
1409-1428 Wolfenbüttel
Otto VI the One-Eyed 1380 1394–1463 6 February 1463 Göttingen Agnes of Hesse
1408
one child
With no male heirs, after his death Gottingen is absorbed by Calenberg.
William IV the Victorious 1392 1416–1428 25 July 1482 Lüneburg Cecilia of Brandenburg
30 May/6 June 1423
Berlin
two children

Matilda of Holstein-Schauenburg-Pinneberg
1466
one child
Sons of Henry III, ruled jointly. In 1428 they exchanged, with their uncle Bernard I, Lüneburg for Wolfenbüttel. In 1432 founded the Principality of Calenberg, a split-off from Lüneburg, and left the remaining Wolfenbüttel to his brother Henry IV. After the latter's death William took his lands. In 1463, attached the Principality of Göttingen to Calenberg.
1428–1432 Wolfenbüttel
1432–1482 Calenberg (and Göttingen)
1473–1482 Wolfenbüttel
Henry IV the Peaceful 1411 1416–1428 7 December 1473 Lüneburg Helena of Clèves
1436
one child
1428-1473 Wolfenbüttel
Henry V 1416 1427–1464 20 December 1464 Grubenhagen (Part 1 from 1440) Margaret of Żagań
before 27 June 1457
two children
In 1440 divided Grubenhagen with his brother Albert.
Bernard I between 1358 and 1364 1428–1434 11 June 1434 Lüneburg Margaret of Saxe-Wittenberg
1386
three children
In 1428, Bernard recovered Luneburg from his nephews.
Otto VII the Lame ? 1434–1446 1446 Lüneburg Elisabeth of Eberstein
1425
one child
Ruled jointly. Their rule was marked by major building work to Celle Castle and also by numerous reforms which improved the legal situation of farmers vis-a-vis their local lords.
Frederick II the Pious 1418 1434–1457 19 March 1478 Lüneburg Magdalene of Brandenburg
3 July 1429
Tangermünde
three children
Albert V 1 November 1419 1440–1485 15 August 1485 Grubenhagen (Part 2) Elisabeth of Waldeck
15 October 1471
two children
In 1440 Henry V divided Grubenhagen with his brother, Albert.
Bernard II 1437 1457–1464 1464 Lüneburg Unmarried Also Prince-Bishop of Hildesheim. Ruled jointly with his brother Otto.
Otto VIII Magnanimous 1439 1457–1471 9 January 1471 Lüneburg Anna of Nassau-Dillenburg
25 September 1467
Celle
two children
Ruled jointly with his brother Bernard until 1464.
Albert V (regent) 1 November 1419 1464–1479 15 August 1485 Grubenhagen (Part 1) Elisabeth of Waldeck
15 October 1471
two children
Appointed regent for his nephew Henry.
Henry VI 1460 1479–1526 6 December 1526 Grubenhagen (Part 1) Elisabeth of Saxe-Lauenburg
26 August 1494
Einbeck
no children
With his uncle Albert V, officialized the division of Grubenhagen. However, his death without descendants allowed his cousins (sons of Albert) to reunite Grubenhagen.
Frederick II the Pious 1418 1471–1478 19 March 1478 Lüneburg Magdalene of Brandenburg
3 July 1429
Tangermünde
three children
2nd rule.
Anna of Nassau-Dillenburg (regent) 1441 1478–1486 8 April 1513 Lüneburg Otto VIII
25 September 1467
Celle
two children

Philipp I, Count of Katzenelnbogen
1474
no children
Regent on behalf of his son after the death of his grandfather.
Henry VII the Middle 15 September 1468 1486–1520 19 February 1532 Lüneburg Margaret of Saxony
27 February 1487
Celle
seven children

Anna von Camp
c.1528?
no children
As he opposed to the newly elected Emperor Charles V, the latter deposed him from the duchy and gave it to his sons.
Frederick III the Turbulent 1424 1482–1485 7 July 1503 Calenberg Anna of Brunswick-Grubenhagen-Einbeck
After 1460
no children

Margaret of Rietberg
10 May 1483
no children
Imprisoned by his brother William, who took his place.
William V the Younger 1425 1482–1485 7 July 1503 Wolfenbüttel Elizabeth of Stolberg-Wernigerode
1444
three children
Inherited Wolfenbüttel from his father. Joined Wolfenbüttel to his domains in 1485, when he imprisoned his brother. Abdicated to his sons in 1491.
1485–1491 Calenberg and Wolfenbüttel
Philip I 1476 1485–1551 4 September 1551 Grubenhagen (Part 2 until 1526) Unknown
before 1509
one child

Catherine of Mansfeld-Vorderort
c.1510?
nine children
Son of Albert V, in 1526 reunited Grubenhagen under his hands.
Henry VIII the Elder 14 June 1463 1491–1494 23 June 1514 Calenberg and Wolfenbüttel Catherine of Pomerania-Wolgast
1486
nine children
Sons of William V, ruled jointly. In 1494, they divided their lands. Henry retained Wolfenbüttel and Eric retained Calenberg.
1494–1514 Wolfenbüttel
Eric II the Elder 16 February 1470 1491-1494 30 July 1540 Calenberg and Wolfenbüttel Katharina of Saxony
1496/97
no children

Elisabeth of Brandenburg
7 July 1525
Stettin
four children
1494–1540 Calenberg
Henry IX the Younger 10 November 1489 1514–1568 11 June 1568 Wolfenbüttel Maria of Württemberg
1515
eight children

Sophia of Poland
22/25 February 1556
no children
He was the last Catholic of his family. Under him the medieval fortress (Burg) was rebuilt into a castle (Schloss); he was a passionate opponent of the Lutherans, and driving force behind the Catholic alliance established against the Schmalkaldic League; the disinheritance of a third son could not be carried out.
Otto IX 24 August 1495 1520–1527 11 August 1549 Lüneburg Meta von Camp
1527
no children
Sons of Henry VII, ruled jointly. Otto abdicated in 1527 and founded his own estate, the Lordship of Harburg, which passed to his own descendants. Ernest was a champion of the Protestant cause during the early years of the Protestant Reformation. Francis started his co-rulership in 1536, and abdicated three years later to rule in his own estate, the Principality of Gifhorn, which was reannexed to Lüneburg after his death as he left no descendants.
Ernest III the Confessor 27 June 1497 1520–1546 11 January 1546 Lüneburg Sophia of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
2 June 1528
Schwerin
seven children
Francis I 23 November 1508 1536–1539 23 November 1549 Lüneburg Clara of Saxe-Lauenburg
29 September 1547
Amt Neuhaus
seven children
Interin government: 1546–1555
Elisabeth of Brandenburg (regent) 24 August 1510 1540–1545 25 May 1558 Calenberg Eric II the Elder
7 July 1525
Stettin
four children

Poppo XII of Henneberg
1546
no children
Regent on behalf of her son, Eric. Called The Reformation Princess, implemented the Reformation in Calenberg. She also wrote a "government manual" for Eric II, with important advice that should serve him as a guide.
Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse (regent) 13 November 1504 31 March 1567 Calenberg Christine of Saxony
11 December 1523
Dresden
ten children

Margarethe von der Saale
4 March 1540
(morganatic and bigamous)
nine children
Regent on behalf of Eric III.
Eric III 10 August 1528 1545–1584 17 November 1584 Calenberg Sidonie of Saxony
17 May 1545
Hann. Münden
no children

Dorothea of Lorraine
26 November 1575
Nancy
no children
Left no descendants, and Calenberg was annexed to Wolfenbüttel.
Ernest IV 17 December 1518 1551–1567 2 April 1567 Grubenhagen Margaret of Pomerania-Wolgast
9 October 1547
Wolgast
one child
Left no male descendants. The land passed to his brother Wolfgang.
Francis Otto 20 June 1530 1555–1559 29 April 1559 Lüneburg Elizabeth Magdalene of Brandenburg
1559
no children
Left no descendants. The land passed to his brothers.
Henry X 1533 1559–1569 19 January 1598 Lüneburg Ursula of Saxe-Lauenburg
1569
seven children
Brothers of Francis Otto, ruled jointly. In 1569 Henry founded the duchy of Dannenberg, which left to his own descendants. William ruled alone from 1569.
William VI the Younger 4 July 1535 1559–1592 20 August 1592 Lüneburg Dorothea of Denmark
12 October 1561
fifteen children
Wolfgang 6 April 1531 1567–1595 14 May 1595 Grubenhagen Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg
10 December 1570
Osterode am Harz
no children
Like most of his predecessors, he had financial problems, so he was often forced to sell or pledge major parts of his possession and he had to demand high taxes. As he left no male descendants, the land passed to his brother Philip.
Julius 29 June 1528 1568–1584 3 May 1589 Wolfenbüttel Hedwig of Brandenburg
25 February 1560
Cölln
eleven children
In 1584 absorbes the Principality of Calenberg. By embracing the Protestant Reformation, establishing the University of Helmstedt, and introducing a series of administrative reforms, Julius was one of the most important Brunswick dukes in the early modern era.
1584–1589 Wolfenbüttel and Calenberg
Henry Julius 15 October 1564 1589–1596 30 July 1613 Wolfenbüttel and Calenberg Dorothea of Saxony
26 September 1585
Wolfenbüttel
one child

Elizabeth of Denmark
19 April 1590
Cölln
ten children
In 1596 occupied Grubenhagen.
Ernest V 31 December 1564 1592–1611 2 March 1611 Lüneburg Unmarried Left no descendants. The land passed to his brother, Christian.
Philip II 2 May 1533 1595–1596 4 April 1596 Grubenhagen Clara of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1 July 1560
Wolfenbüttel
no children
As he left no male descendants, the land had no heir and was occupied by the Principality of Wolfenbüttel.
Henry Julius 15 October 1564 1596–1613 30 July 1613 Wolfenbüttel, Calenberg and Grubenhagen Dorothea of Saxony
26 September 1585
Wolfenbüttel
one child

Elizabeth of Denmark
19 April 1590
Cölln
ten children
Christian the Elder 9 November 1566 1611–1617 8 November 1633 Lüneburg Unmarried In 1617 annexed Grubenhagen to his domains
Frederick Ulrich 5 April 1591 1613–1616 11 August 1634 Wolfenbüttel, Calenberg and Grubenhagen Anna Sophia of Brandenburg
4 September 1614
Wolfenbüttel
no children
Because of his alcoholism, was deposed by his own mother, who took the regency in his name.
Elizabeth of Denmark (regent) 25 August 1573 1616–1622 19 July 1625 Wolfenbüttel, Calenberg and Grubenhagen Henry Julius
19 April 1590
Cölln
ten children
With the help of her brother, Christian IV of Denmark, she managed to depose her son, as he was alcoholic and at that point unfit for ruling. However she lost in 1617 the Principality of Grubenhagen. Left the government business for Anton von Streithorst, who nearly ruined the state by minting coins from cheap metals and thus causing inflation. Because of the bad situation of the state, the king of Denmark had Frederick take control of the government again.
Christian the Elder 9 November 1566 1617–1633 8 November 1633 Lüneburg and Grubenhagen Unmarried Absorbed Grubenhagen from Wolfenbüttel. As he left no descendants, the land passed to his brother, Augustus. Grubenhagen is definitively annexed to Lüneburg.
Frederick Ulrich 5 April 1591 1622–1634 11 August 1634 Wolfenbüttel and Calenberg Anna Sophia of Brandenburg
4 September 1614
Wolfenbüttel
no children
Left no descendants. His lands passed to collateral lines of the Lüneburg Welfs.
Augustus I the Elder 18 November 1568 1633–1636 1 October 1636 Lüneburg (and Grubenhagen) Unmarried No legitimate issue. The land passed to his brother, Frederick IV.
George I 17 February 1582 1634–1641 2 April 1641 Calenberg Anne Eleonore of Hesse-Darmstadt
14 December 1617
Darmstadt
eight children
Younger son of William VI. Inherited Calenberg from his cousin Frederick Ulrich, who had left no descendants. Abdicated to his son in 1641.
Augustus II the Younger 10 April 1579 1634–1666 17 September 1666 Wolfenbüttel Clara Maria of Pomerania-Barth
13 December 1607
Strelitz
two children

Dorothea of Anhalt-Zerbst
26 October 1623
Zerbst
five children

Elisabeth Sophie of Mecklenburg
1635
two children
Younger son of Henry X. Inherited Wolfenbüttel from his cousin Frederick Ulrich, who had left no descendants. In 1643 he moved into the Residence at Wolfenbüttel, was the founder of a barock theatre and the Bibliotheca Augusta.
Frederick IV 28 August 1574 1636–1648 10 December 1648 Lüneburg (and Grubenhagen) Unmarried As he left no descendants, the land passed to a nephew, Christian Louis, son of Frederick's brother George.
Christian Louis 25 February 1622 1641–1648 15 March 1665 Calenberg Sophia Dorothea of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
9 October 1653
no children
In 1648 inherited the Principality of Lüneburg from his uncle Frederick IV, he gave Calenberg to his younger brother George William, and instead ruled the larger territory of Lüneburg.
1648-1665 Lüneburg
George William 26 January 1624 1648–1665 28 August 1705 Calenberg Éléonore Desmier d'Olbreuse
1676
one child
When his brother, Christian Louis died childless in 1665, George William inherited Luneburg. He then gave Calenberg to his next brother, John Frederick. At his death without male descendants, the land passed to his son-in-law, the Elector of Hanover. Lüneburg is annexed to Hanover.
1665-1705 Lüneburg
Rudolf Augustus 16 May 1627 1666–1704 26 January 1704 Wolfenbüttel Christiane Elizabeth of Barby-Mühlingen
1650
three children

Rosine Elisabeth Menthe
1681
(morganatic)
no children
Sons of Augustus II, ruled jointly from 1685 to 1702. According to reports dating to 1677, Rudolf Augustus slashed a way through the Lechlum Forest, the Alten Weg ("Old Way"), later the "Barock Road" between the Lustschloss of Antoinettenruh via the little barock castle [later the Sternhaus] to the Großes Weghaus at Stöckheim; in 1671 captured the town and fortress of Brunswick. After the death of Rudolf Augustus, Anthony Ulrich returned to the throne and ruled alone. A politician, art lover and poet, he founded a museum named after him in Brunswick; he had also Salzdahlum Castle built.
Anthony Ulrich 4 October 1633 1685-1702

1704–1714
27 March 1714 Wolfenbüttel Elizabeth Juliana of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Nordborg
17 August 1656
thirteen children
John Frederick 25 April 1625 1665–1679 18 December 1679 Calenberg Benedicta Henrietta of the Palatinate
30 November 1668
Hanover
three children
Brother of Christian Louis and George William. As he left no male heirs, the land passed to his younger brother, Ernest Augustus.
Ernest Augustus I 20 November 1629 1679–1692 23 January 1698 Calenberg Sophia of the Palatinate
30 September 1658
Heidelberg
seven children
Youngest son of George I. Brother of Christian Louis, George William and John Frederick. In 1692, he was appointed Prince-elector by Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, thus raising the House of Welf to electoral dignity. The old Principality of Calenberg thus adopted the new name of Electorate of Hanover.
1692-1698 Electorate of Hanover
George II Louis 28 May 1660 1698–1705 11 June 1727 Electorate of Hanover Sophia Dorothea of Brunswick-Lüneburg
22 November 1682
Celle
(annulled 1694)
two children
The electorship became effective under his rule. In 1705 reunited his father-in-law's princedom of Lüneburg to the Electorate. In 1714 was chosen for King of Great Britain, starting a personal union between Hanover and this new country. Lüneburg was definitely annexed to the Electorate. Thus the Wolfenbüttel was the remaining old land of Brunswick-Lüneburg that remained separate. Usually numbered I as Elector and King of Great Britain.
1705–1727 Electorate of Hanover and Lüneburg
Augustus William 8 March 1662 1714–1731 23 March 1731 Wolfenbüttel Christine Sophie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1681
no children

Sophie Amalie of Holstein-Gottorp
1695
no children

Elisabeth Sophie Marie of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderborg-Norburg
1710
no children
Son of Anthony Ulrich. Ruler of the only land that was still not in Hanoverian lands, to which it would never belong.
George III Augustus 30 October / 9 November 1683O.S./N.S. 1727–1760 25 October 1760 Electorate of Hanover Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
22 August / 2 September 1705O.S./N.S.
Hanover
ten children
In personal union with Great Britain. Usually numbered II as Elector and King of Great Britain.
Louis Rudolph 22 July 1671 1731–1735 1 March 1735 Wolfenbüttel Christine Louise of Oettingen-Oettingen
22 April 1690
Aurich
three children
Left no male heirs, and his land passed to a collateral line.
Ferdinand Albert 29 May 1680 1735 2 September 1735 Wolfenbüttel Antoinette Amalie of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
15 October 1712
Brunswick
thirteen children
From the line of Brunswick-Bevern. Grandson of Augustus II.
Charles I 1 August 1713 1735–1773 26 March 1780 Wolfenbüttel Philippine Charlotte of Prussia
2 June 1733
Berlin
thirteen children
Founder of the Collegium Carolinum in Brunswick, the porcelain makers of Fürstenberg, the fire office; in 1753 the Residence was moved to Brunswick.
George IV William Frederick 4 June 1738 1760-1811 29 January 1820 Electorate of Hanover Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
8 September 1761
London
fifteen children
In personal union with Great Britain. Usually numbered III as Elector and King of Great Britain. Born in England, never visited Hanover.
Charles II William Ferdinand 9 October 1735 1773–1806 10 November 1806 Wolfenbüttel Augusta of Great Britain
16 January 1764
London
seven children
Due to financial problems, was obliged to replace his father. He was the head of the Prussian Army; died in the Battle of Jena; because his son and heir died young, and two other sons were not eligible, rule passed to his youngest son.
With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the title of Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg ceased to exist. However, its successor states continued.
Frederick William the Black Duke 9 October 1771 1806–1807 16 June 1815 Wolfenbüttel Marie Elisabeth Wilhelmine of Baden
1 November 1802
Karlsruhe
three children
Duke of Oels/Silesia, the "Black Duke"; recruited a Freikorps (volunteer corps), the Black Brunswickers, at the outbreak of the War of the Fifth Coalition in Bohemia in 1809, and made his way via Brunswick to the North Sea and then on to Great Britain.
On the Eve of Napoleonic era, in 1807 the Duchy was briefly annexed to the Kingdom of France, to appear again in 1813 as Duchy of Brunswick.
George V Augustus Frederick 12 August 1762 1811–1830 26 June 1830 Electorate of Hanover (until 1814)
Kingdom of Hanover (from 1814)
Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
8 April 1795
London
one child
In personal union with Great Britain. Named regent of his father due to his illness, succeeding him after his death in 1820. Usually numbered IV as King of Hanover and Great Britain. Left no male descendants. The land passed to his brother.
Frederick William the Black Duke 9 October 1771 1813–1815 16 June 1815 Brunswick Marie Elisabeth Wilhelmine of Baden
1 November 1802
Karlsruhe
three children
Restored to his duchy.
George IV of Great Britain (regent) 12 August 1762 1815-1823 26 June 1830 Brunswick Caroline Amelia Elizabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
8 April 1795
London
one child
Regent on behalf of the Duke of Brunswick, Charles.
Charles III 30 October 1804 1815–1830 18 August 1873 Brunswick Unmarried On the eve of the July Revolution of 1830, Charles was in Paris, and did not manage to keep the duchy for himself; his brother William took over with the agreement of the people and his international neighbours.
William VII Henry 21 August 1765 1830–1837 20 June 1837 Kingdom of Hanover Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
13 July 1818
London
four children
In personal union with Great Britain. Usually numbered IV as King of Hanover and Great Britain. As he left no descendants, the land passed to his brother.
William VIII 25 April 1806 1830–1884 18 October 1884 Brunswick Unmarried
Ernest Augustus 5 June 1771 1837–1851 18 November 1851 Kingdom of Hanover Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
29 May 1815
Neustrelitz
three children
End of personal union with Great Britain, as in this country the successor in 1837 was Queen Victoria (in Hanover the Salic Law was still active).
George VI Frederick 27 May 1819 1851–1866 12 June 1878 Kingdom of Hanover Marie of Saxe-Altenburg (I)
18 February 1843
Hanover
three children
Usually numbered V as King of Hanover. He was the last king of Hanover, as his reign ended with the Unification of Germany.
Albert of Prussia (regent) 8 May 1837 1885–1906 13 September 1906 Brunswick Marie of Saxe-Altenburg (II)
9 April 1873
Berlin
three children
John Albert of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (regent) 8 December 1857 1906–1913 20 February 1920 Brunswick Elisabeth Sybille of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
6 November 1886
Weimar
no children

Elisabeth of Stolberg-Rossla
15 December 1909
no children
The regency came to an end on 1 November 1913 when Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover's son Ernest Augustus was permitted to ascend to Duchy following his marriage to Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia
Ernest Augustus 17 November 1887 1913–1918 30 January 1953 Brunswick Victoria Louise of Prussia
24 May 1913
Berlin
five children
In 1918, with the abolition of the monarchy, all nobles titles were equally abolished.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Royal Arms of Britain". Heraldica. Retrieved 10 May 2016. The House of Brunswick Luneburg being one of the most illustrious and most ancient in Europe, the Hanoverian branch having filled for more than a century one of the most distinguished thrones, its possessions being among the most considerable in Germany;
  2. ^ Riedesel, Friedrich Adolf (1868). von Eelking, Max, ed. Memoirs, and Letters and Journals, of Major General Riedesel During His Residence in America. 1. Translated by Stone, William L. Albany: J. Munsell. p. 29. I remain ever, Your affectionate Charles, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg. Brunswick, February 14, 1776. To Colonel Riedesel.
  3. ^ "Le Duc de Brunswick: Sa vie et ses moeurs. Extraits der notes et ..." pgs 411-412

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