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Earl of Orkney

Earl of Orkney

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Ruins on the Brough of Birsay, once the seat of the early Norse jarls of Orkney. The Brough is now a tidal islet but in earlier times it was connected to Mainland Orkney by an isthmus.[1]

The Earl of Orkney was originally a Norse jarl ruling the Norðreyjar (the islands of Orkney and Shetland). Originally founded by Norse invaders, the status of the rulers of the Norðreyjar as Norwegian vassals was formalised in 1195. Although the Old Norse term jarl looks similar to "earl", and the jarls were succeeded by earls in the late 15th century, a Norwegian jarl is not the same thing.[2] In the Norse context the distinction between jarls and kings did not become significant until the late 11th century[3] and the early jarls would therefore have had considerable independence of action until that time. The position of Jarl of Orkney was eventually the most senior rank in mediaeval Norway except for the king himself.

The jarls were periodically subject to the kings of Alba for those parts of their territory in what is now mainland Scotland (i.e. Caithness and Sutherland). In 1232, a Scottish dynasty descended from the Mormaers of Angus replaced the previous family descended from the late 10th century jarl Torf-Einarr, although the Norðreyjar remained formally subject to Norway. This family was in turn replaced by the descendants of the Mormaers of Strathearn and later still by the Sinclair family, during whose time Orkney and Shetland passed to Scots control.

The second earldom was created by James VI of Scotland in 1581 for his half-brother Robert Stewart but after only two incumbents the title was forfeited in 1614. After the third creation of 1696, which title still exists today, the earls' influence on Orcadian affairs became negligible.

Norse Jarls

Jarldom of Orkney - Norse
Creation date c. 892
Monarch Haraldr Hárfagri?
Peerage Peerage of Norway
First holder Sigurd Eysteinsson
Last holder Jon Haraldsson
Subsidiary titles Mormaer of Caithness
Status Extinct
Extinction date 1230[4]
Former seat(s) Brough of Birsay

Rognvald Eysteinsson, Earl of Møre fl. 865–890 [a][5][6][7] is sometimes credited with being the founder of the jarldom. By implication the Orkneyinga saga identifies him as such for he is given "dominion" over Orkney and Shetland by King Harald Finehair, although there is no concrete suggestion he ever held the title. The Heimskringla states that his brother Sigurd was the first to formally hold the title.[8][9]

Sigurd's son Guthorm ruled for a year and died childless.[10] Rognvald's son Hallad then inherited the title. However, unable to constrain Danish raids on Orkney, he gave up the earldom and returned to Norway, which "everyone thought was a huge joke".[11] Torf-Einarr then succeeded in defeating the Danes and founded a dynasty which retained control of the islands for centuries after his death.[12] Smyth (1984) concludes that the role of the brothers Eysteinsson lacks historical credibility and that Torf-Einarr “may be regarded as the first historical earl of Orkney”.[13]

Drawing on Adam of Bremen's assertion that Orkney was not conquered until the time of Harald Hardrada, who ruled Norway from 1043–66, Woolf (2007) speculates that Sigurd “the Stout” Hlodvirsson, Torf-Einarr’s great-grandson, may have been the first Earl of Orkney.[14] Dates are largely conjectural, at least until his death recorded in 1014.

Assuming Torf-Einarr is a genuine historical figure, all of the subsequent earls were descended from him, save for Sigurd Magnusson, whose short rule was imposed by his father Magnus Barelegs, and who later became Sigurd I of Norway.[b]

One of the main sources for the lives and times of these earls is the Orkneyinga saga, which has been described as having "no parallel in the social and literary record of Scotland".[17] One of the key events of the saga is the "martyrdom" of Earl Magnus Erlendsson, later Saint Magnus, c. 1115. The last quarter of the saga is taken up with a lengthy tale of Earl Rögnvald Kali Kolsson and Sweyn Asleifsson — indeed the oldest version ends with the latter's death in 1171.[18][19]

After the murder of Earl Jon Haraldsson some sixty years later, Magnus, son of Gille Brigte became the first of the Scottish earls. He may have been a descendent of Earl Rögnvald Kali Kolsson, although this has never been corroborated. However, the line of specifically Norse earls is said to have come to an end when Earl Magnus II was granted his title by Haakon IV of Norway c. 1236.[7][20]

Name Byname Relationship to predecessor Rule commences Rule ends
Sigurd Eysteinsson Sigurðr inn riki
"the Mighty"
Brother of Rognvald Eysteinsson c. 892[21][c]
Guthorm Sigurdsson Son of Sigurd Eysteinsson c. 892 c. 893[21]
Hallad Rognvaldsson Son of Rognvald Eysteinsson c. 893 c. 895
Einarr Rognvaldsson Torf-Einarr
"Turf"-Einarr
Son of Rognvald Eysteinsson c. 895[13][22] 910[7][21][23]
Arnkel Torf-Einarsson Son of Torf-Einarr Rognvaldsson 910 Date of death based on the assumption Arnkel and Erlend Turf-Einarsson died at the Battle of Stainmore beside Eric Bloodaxe.[25]
Erlend Torf-Einarsson Son of Torf-Einarr Rognvaldsson 910 with Arnkel and Thorfinn to 954[24][25]
Thorfinn Torf-Einarsson Þorfinnr hausakljúfr
"Skull-splitter"
Son of Torf-Einarr Rognvaldsson 910 with Erlend and Arnkel to 954[24]

alone 954–963[21][d]

Arnfinn Thorfinnsson Son of Thorfinn Torf-Einarsson 963
Havard Thorfinnsson Hávarðr inn ársæli
"Harvest-happy"
Son of Thorfinn Torf-Einarsson On Arnfinn's death
Ljot Thorfinnsson Son of Thorfinn Torf-Einarsson On Havard's death c. 980[e]
Hlodvir Thorfinnsson Son of Thorfinn Torf-Einarsson c. 980 991[28][f]
Sigurd Hlodvirsson Sigurðr digri
"the Stout"
Son of Hlodvir Thorfinnsson 991 1014[29]
Sumarlidi Sigurdsson Son of Sigurd Hlodvirsson 1014 "He died in his bed not long after his father's death" and is not referred to in an incident dated to 1018.[30]
Brusi Sigurdsson Son of Sigurd Hlodvirsson 1014 with Einar and Sumarlidi to 1016
with Einar to 1025

with Einar and Thorfinn to c. 1031[7][31]

Einar Sigurdsson Einar rangmunnr
"Wry-mouth"
Son of Sigurd Hlodvirsson 1014 with Brusi and Sumarlidi to 1016[7]
with Brusi to 1025
with Brusi and Thorfinn to 1026
Thorfinn Sigurdsson Þorfinnr inn riki
"the Mighty"
Son of Sigurd Hlodvirsson c. 1025[g] with Brusi and Einar to 1026
with Brusi to 1031
alone to 1036
with Rögnvald 1036 to 1046
alone to c.1064[7][33]
Rögnvald Brusason Son of Brusi Sigurdsson c. 1036[34] with Thorfinn to c. 1046[7]
Paul Thorfinnsson Son of Thorfinn Sigurdsson 1064 with Erlend to 1098[7][35]
Erlend Thorfinnsson Son of Thorfinn Sigurdsson 1064 with Paul to 1098[7][35]
Sigurd Magnusson Sigurðr Jórsalafari
"the Jerusalem-farer"
Son of Magnus Barelegs 1098 1103
Haakon Paulsson Son of Paul Thorfinsson 1104[36] alone to 1106
with Magnus to 1116
alone to 1123[7]
Magnus Erlendsson Later "Saint Magnus" Son of Erlend Thorfinnsson 1106[36] with Haakon to 1116[7]
Harald Haakonsson "Smooth-tongue" Son of Haakon Paulsson 1123 with Paul to c. 1130[37]
Paul Haakonsson Son of Haakon Paulsson 1123 with Harald to 1130
alone to 1136[37]
Rögnvald Kali Kolsson Later "Saint Rögnvald" Son of Gunnhild, daughter of Erlend Thorfinnsson 1136[38][39] alone to 1138
with Harald Maddadsson 1138 to 1151[39] and 1154 to 1158[7]
with Harald and Erlend Haraldsson 1151 to 1154
Harald Maddadsson "the Old" Son of Margaret, daughter of Haakon Paulsson 1138[39] with Rögnvald to 1151 and 1154 to 1158
with Rögnvald and Erlend Haraldsson 1151 to 1154
alone 1158 to 1191
with Harald Eiriksson to 1198
alone to 1206[40]
Erlend Haraldsson Son of Harald Haakonsson 1151[39] with Harald Maddadsson and Rögnvald Kali Kolsson to 1154[37]
Harald Eiriksson Haraldr ungi
"the Young"
Son of Ingiríðr, daughter of Rögnvald Kali Kolsson 1191 with Harald Maddadsson to 1198[7]
David Haraldsson Son of Harald Maddadsson 1206 with Jon to 1214[7][40]
Jon Haraldsson Son of Harald Maddadsson 1206 with David to 1214
alone to 1231[7][4]

Scottish Jarls under the Norwegian Crown

Jarldom of Orkney - Scots
Creation date c. 1236
Monarch Haakon Haakonsson
Peerage Peerage of Norway
First holder Magnus
Last holder William Sinclair
Subsidiary titles Mormaer of Caithness
Status Extinct
Extinction date 1472

After the close of the Jarls' Saga on the death of Jon Haraldsson in 1230, the history of Orkney is "plunged into a darkness which is illuminated by very few written sources".[41] The first jarl known to have held the title after the Norse dynasty came to and end in 1230 was Magnus II but the title may have been held by an unknown other prior to his investiture.[42] Although successive Jarls of Orkney were related, they each acquired the position by being personally appointed to the role by the Norwegian king; the Jarldom was not inheritable.

The Angus Jarls

Name Relationship to predecessor Rule commences Rule ends
Magnus II His parentage is unknown. Possibly a descendent of Ingrid, a daughter of Rögnvald Kali Kolsson.[42] 1236 1239
?Gilbert Possibly married to a niece of Magnus II, his existence is not certain.[42] 1239 ?
Gilbert (Gille Brigte) Possibly the son of Gilbert, but there may have only been a single Gilbert.[43] ? 1256
Magnus Gilbertsson Son of Gilbert[44] 1256 1273
Magnus Magnusson Son of Magnus Gilbertsson.[45][46] 1273 1284
Jón Magnússon Son of Magnus Gilbertsson.[47][46] 1284 1303
Magnus Jónsson Son of Jón Magnússon.[48] 1303 1320

Strathearn and Sinclair Jarls

Arms of the feudal Earldom of Orkney[h]

The lack of haste with which a new title was granted by the Norwegians to Orkney has led to the suggestion that Magnus Jonsson may have had an heir who was a minor, but who died before 1330. It is also likely that unravelling the genealogy of his potential successors and providing proofs of their descent was a time-consuming project.[51] Whatever the reason, about a decade after Magnus's death the title was granted to Maol Íosa, Mormaer of Strathearn, a distant relative of Earl Gilbert. He ruled Orkney and Caithness from 1330 to 1350 and had several daughters, but no sons.[52]

The earldom was then left vacant for about three years,[i] following which Erengisle Suneson was a titular earl for a few years but when his right to the title lapsed prior to 1360[54] the jarldom lay vacant again. Haakon VI, the Norwegian king, had married the daughter of Valdemar IV, the King of Denmark. The sudden death of the Swedish king's rebel son, from plague, triggered the foreign policy obligations Haakon had to Valdemar, as a result of the marriage. These drew Haakon's attention away from Orkney, until the death of Valdemar, in 1375.

In 1375, Haakon decided upon Alexander of Ard, the son of Maol Íosa's daughter Matilda and Weland of Ard[55] (Aird, west of Inverness)[53] as Suneson's successor. However, Alexander was merely appointed "Lieutenant, Captain and Keeper" of Orkney for a year on 30 June 1375.[53] This was to be a probationary role, the intention being that if Haakon had been satisfied by Alexander's behaviour after a year, he would be appointed as jarl. However, Haakon did not do so, possibly because Alexander failed to deal with the violence that had become rife during the long absence of an earl's authority.[56] In 1379, the jarldom was granted to another grandson of Maol Íosa, Henry Sinclair, by Haakon VI on 2 August 1379.[57]

Name Relationship to predecessor Rule commences Rule ends
Maol Íosa A descendent of Malise II, Earl of Strathearn and Matilda, a daughter of Earl Gilbert.[52] 1330 1350
Vacant 1350 1353
Erengisle Suneson Married to Agneta, daughter of Maol Íosa.[58] 1353 before 1360
Vacant before 1360 1375
Alexander of Ard Son of Maol Íosa's daughter Matilda and Weland of Ard.[53] Appointed as "Lieutenant" only. 1375 1376?
Vacant 1376 1379
Henry Sinclair Son of Maol Íosa's daughter Isabella and William de Sinclair of Rosslyn.[53] 1379 1401
Henry II Son of Henry I 1404? 1420
William Son of Henry II. David Menzies acted as "Guardian" from 1422-1434. William was de facto jarl from 1424. He was granted the newly created title "Earl of Caithness" in 1455. 1434 1470

When James III of Scotland married Margaret of Denmark, her father, Christian I, king of Norway-Denmark, was unable to immediately provide a dowry. Instead, he promised that he would provide the dowry at a later date, and pledged the Norðreyjar as security for his promise. In 1470, James persuaded William to quitclaim his rights over Orkney and Shetland only, in return for lands in Fife; technically the Norðreyjar remained in existence as a Norwegian Jarldom, but William's authority became limited to the mainland parts, while Orkney and Sheltland became jarl-free. After a few years, it became clear that the dowry was unlikely ever to be paid, so in 1472, James declared the Norðreyjar to be forfeit (and forewent the dowry). As an immediate consequence, the diocese of Caithness was transferred from the Archdiocese of Niðaróss (Trondheim), in Norway, to that of St Andrews, in Scotland.[59]

Scottish Earls

Dukes of Orkney

Earls of Orkney, Second Creation

The second earldom was created by James VI of Scotland. The Stewart earls were based at Kirkwall Castle, which had been built by Henry I Sinclair. It was demolished on the forfeiture of the title in 1614.[60]

Name Relationship to predecessor Rule commences Rule ends
Robert Stewart Illegitimate son of James V 1581 1593
Patrick Stewart, 2nd Earl of Orkney Son of Robert Stewart 1593 1614 (forfeited)

Earls of Orkney, Third Creation (1696)

The last creation of the earldom was in favour of the man who would become the first British Field Marshal, George Hamilton, the fifth son of William Douglas, Duke of Hamilton. The peerage was created with "remainder to the heirs whatsoever of his body",[61] meaning that the title can be passed on through both male and female lines. The title passed to the O'Brien family, then to the Fitzmaurice family, and finally to the St John family. The subsidiary titles of Viscount of Kirkwall and Lord Dechmont were created at the same time as the earldom.[61]

None of these earls appear to have any connection with Orkney other than the honorific itself. The current earl, for example, was born and lives in Canada.[62]

Name Relationship to predecessor Period
George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney None 1695–1737[61]
Anne O'Brien, 2nd Countess of Orkney Daughter of 1st Earl 1737-1756[61]
Mary O'Brien, 3rd Countess of Orkney Daughter of 2nd Countess 1756-1790[61]
Mary FitzMaurice, 4th Countess of Orkney Daughter of 3rd Countess 1790-1831[61]
Thomas FitzMaurice, 5th Earl of Orkney Grandson of 4th Countess 1831-1877[61]
George FitzMaurice, 6th Earl of Orkney Son of 5th Earl 1877-1889[61]
Edmond FitzMaurice, 7th Earl of Orkney Nephew of 6th Earl 1889-1951[61]
Cecil FitzMaurice, 8th Earl of Orkney First cousin twice removed of 7th Earl - great-grandson of Frederick Fitzmaurice, third son of the fifth Earl. 1951-1998[61]
Peter St John, 9th Earl of Orkney Third cousin of 8th Earl 1998 to date.[61]

The 9th Earl is the son of Frederick Oliver St John, son of Isabella Annie Fitzmaurice, daughter of James Terence Fitzmaurice, fifth son of the fifth Earl. The heir apparent is the present holder's son Oliver Robert St John (b. 1969), who holds the courtesy title, Viscount Kirkwall.[61]

Family tree
George Hamilton,
1st Earl of Orkney

1666–1737
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anne O'Brien,
2nd Countess of Orkney

d. 1756
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mary O'Brien,
3rd Countess of Orkney

1835
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mary FitzMaurice,
4th Countess of Orkney

1755–1831
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
John FitzMaurice,
Viscount Kirkwall

1778–1820
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thomas FitzMaurice,
5th Earl of Orkney

1803–1877
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
George FitzMaurice,
6th Earl of Orkney

1827–1889
 
Hon. Henry FitzMaurice
1828-1875
 
Hon. Frederick
O'Bryen FitzMaurice
1830-1867
 
Hon. James FitzMaurice
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Edmond FitzMaurice,
7th Earl of Orkney

1867–1951
 
Douglas FitzMaurice
1861-1932
 
Isabella FitzMaurice
d. 1948
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Douglas FitzMaurice
1890-1937
 
Frederick St. John
1886-1977
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cecil O'Bryen FitzMaurice,
8th Earl of Orkney

1919-1998
 
Peter St John,
9th Earl of Orkney

b. 1938
 
 

See also

References

Earldom of Orkney
(Third creation of 1696)

Creation date 3 January 1696 (Third creation)
Monarch William II of Scotland
Peerage Peerage of Scotland
First holder Lord George Hamilton
Present holder Peter St John, 9th Earl of Orkney
Heir apparent Oliver Robert St John, Viscount Kirkwall
Subsidiary titles Viscount of Kirkwall
Lord Dechmont

Notes

  1. ^ Assuming an identification of Rognvald with "Ragnall son of Albdann" in 865.
  2. ^ Anders Stølen has argued that Magnus Barelegs's mother was a daughter of "Ragnvald jarl" as stated in the genealogical text Sunnmørsættleggen[15] who has in turn been identified as Rognvald Brusason (grandson of Sigurd Hlodvirsson) by Ola Kvalsund.[16]
  3. ^ Muir (2008) suggests Sigurd Eysteinsson may have died c. 874.[7]
  4. ^ Muir (2005) has a death date for Thorfinn of 976, which leaves only four years for three subsequent earls to rule before his son Hlodvir.[7]
  5. ^ Muir (2005) dates the meeting of Ljot's brother Skuli with Malcolm II to 978. Subsequent to that Skuli and "Earl MacBeth" fought two battles with Ljot. Skuli was killed in the first, Ljot in the second.[26] Canmore states that the battle at Skitten Mire where Ljot Thorfinnsson was mortally wounded took place "between 943 and 945" although this does not square with either Muir (2005) or Earl Thorfinn (his father) dying c. 963.[27]
  6. ^ Woolf (2007) implies Hlodvir's death may have taken place earlier as his son Sigurd "may well have been an active leader since the 980s".[14]
  7. ^ "When Thorfinn came of age he asked Earl Einar for a third of the islands".[32] Thorfinn is said to have been five years old when his father died at the Battle of Clontarf in 1014.[9]
  8. ^ Blazon: "Azure, a lymphad at anchor or flagged gules sails furled argent oars erect in saltire within a double tressure flory of the second" as shown today in the 1st quarter of the arms of Sinclair, Earl of Caithness.[49][50]
  9. ^ Crawford (2013) states that there was no Earl of either Orkney or Caithness from c. 1350 to 1379[41] but later in the text elaborates on Erengisle Suneson's status as earl from 1353-1360.[53] It is possible Suneson never actually visited the earldom although he continued to use the title for decades after the death of his wife prior to 1360, at which point his rights to it would have ceased.[54]
  10. ^ Blazon. Quarterly: 1st and 4th grandquarters, Argent on a Saltire Gules a Lymphad sails furled Or a Chief Ermine (Fitz-Maurice); 2nd grandquarter, quarterly: 1st and 4th, Gules three Cinquefoils Ermine (Hamilton); 2nd, Argent a Lymphad sails furled Sable (Arran); 3rd, Argent a Heart Gules imperially crowned Or on a Chief Azure three Mullets of the first (Douglas); over all at the fess point an Escallop Or for difference (for Lord George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney); 3rd grandquarter, quarterly: 1st and 4th, Gules three Lions passant guardant per pale Or and Argent (O'Brien); 2nd, Argent three Piles meeting in the point issuing from the chief Gules; 3rd, Argent a Pheon Azure.

Citations

  1. ^ Crawford (2013), pp. 15, 73, 143
  2. ^ Crawford (2013), p. 83
  3. ^ Crawford (2013), p. 165
  4. ^ a b Thomson (2008), p. 132
  5. ^ Radner (1978), FA 330
  6. ^ Thomson (2008), p. 22
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Muir (2005), Preface: Genealogical table of the Earls of Orkney
  8. ^ Pálsson & Edwards (1981), p. 10, Chapter 4
  9. ^ a b Sturluson (1992), Chapter 99 "History Of The Earls Of Orkney".
  10. ^ Pálsson & Edwards (1981), p. 10, Chapter 5 "A poisoned tooth"
  11. ^ Thomson (2008), p. 30, quoting chapter 5 of the Orkneyinga saga.
  12. ^ Thomson (2008), p. 29
  13. ^ a b Smyth (1984), p. 153
  14. ^ a b Woolf (2007), p. 307
  15. ^ Stølen (1988), p. 259
  16. ^ Larsen & Sulebust (1994), p. 213
  17. ^ Crawford (1987), p. 221
  18. ^ Pálsson & Edwards (1981), p. 10, Introduction
  19. ^ Beuermann (2011), pp. 148-49
  20. ^ Muir (2005), p. 127
  21. ^ a b c d Crawford (1987), p. 54
  22. ^ Crawford (1987), p. 55
  23. ^ Johnston, A.W. (July 1916) "Orkneyinga Saga". JSTOR/The Scottish Historical Review. Vol. 13, No. 52. p. 393. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  24. ^ a b c Clouston (1918), p. 15
  25. ^ a b Cannon (2009), Stainmore, battle of,
  26. ^ Muir (2005), p. 21
  27. ^ "Upper Bowertower, Stone Lud". Canmore. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  28. ^ Muir (2005), p. 27
  29. ^ Woolf (2007), p. 243 quoting the Annals of Ulster
  30. ^ Muir (2005), pp. 44-45
  31. ^ Muir (2005), p. 47:"Earl Brusi died in the early 1030s."
  32. ^ Muir (2005), p. 45
  33. ^ Muir (2005), p. 53
  34. ^ Thomson (2008), p. 82
  35. ^ a b Muir (2005), p. 61
  36. ^ a b Muir (2005), p. 63
  37. ^ a b c Thomson (2008), p. 101
  38. ^ Thomson (2008), p. 103
  39. ^ a b c d Thomson (2008), p. 89
  40. ^ a b Thomson (2008), p. 128
  41. ^ a b Crawford (2013), p. 26
  42. ^ a b c Crawford (2013), pp. 280-81
  43. ^ Crawford (2013), p. 282
  44. ^ Crawford (2013), p. 293
  45. ^ Crawford (2013), pp. 307, 429
  46. ^ a b Thomson (2008), pp. 145-46
  47. ^ Crawford (2013), pp. 307, 427
  48. ^ Crawford (2013), p. 429
  49. ^ Debrett's Peerage & Baronetage (1968) p. 206, as shown in 1st quarter of arms of Sinclair, Earl of Caithness.
  50. ^ Moule, Thomas (1842) Heraldry of Fish: Notices of the Principal Families Bearing Fish in Their Arms London, p. 175, retrieved 14 April 2018.
  51. ^ Thomson (2008), pp. 149-50
  52. ^ a b Crawford (2013), pp. 317-20
  53. ^ a b c d e Crawford (2013), p. 320
  54. ^ a b Crawford (2013), p. 322
  55. ^ Crawford (2013), p. 321
  56. ^ Crawford (2013), pp. 327-28
  57. ^ Crawford (2013), p. 328
  58. ^ Crawford (2013), pp. 319-322
  59. ^ Thomson (2008), p. 220
  60. ^ "Kirkwall, Castle". CANMORE. Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Retrieved 1 April 2018. 
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Orkney, Earl of (S, 1695/6)" Cracroft's Peerage. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  62. ^ "Peter St. John" University of Manitoba. Retrieved 1 April 2018.

Bibliography

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  • Orkneyinga Saga: The History of the Earls of Orkney, translated by Pálsson, Hermann; Edwards, Paul Geoffrey, London: Penguin, 1981, ISBN 0-14-044383-5 
  • Radner, Joan N. (editor and translator) (1978). "Fragmentary Annals of Ireland". CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts. University College Cork. Retrieved 10 March 2007. 
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  • Sturluson, Snorri (1992), Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway, translated by Hollander, Lee M., Austin: University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-73061-6 
  • Smyth, Alfred P. (1984), Warlords and Holy Men: Scotland AD 80–1000, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 0-7486-0100-7 
  • Thomson, William P. L. (2008), The New History of Orkney, Edinburgh: Birlinn, ISBN 978-1-84158-696-0 
  • Woolf, Alex (2007), From Pictland to Alba, 789–1070, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, ISBN 978-0-7486-1234-5 

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