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List of Russian rulers

List of Russian rulers

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Monarchy of Russia
Last Monarch
Nicholas II
1 November 1894 – 15 March 1917
Details
Style His/Her Imperial Majesty
First monarch Ivan IV (as Tsar)
Last monarch Nicholas II (as Emperor)
Formation 1547
Abolition 15 March 1917
Residence Winter Palace
Appointer Hereditary
Pretender(s) Disputed:
Maria Vladimirovna
Andrew Romanov
Prince Karl Emich of Leiningen

This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia. It includes titles Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev, Grand Prince of Vladimir, Grand Prince of Moscow, Tsar of All Rus'(Russia), and Emperor of All Russia. The list started with a semi-legendary Prince of Novgorod Rurik sometime in the mid 9th century (862) and ended with the Emperor of All Russia Nicholas II who abdicated in 1917, and was executed with his family in 1918.

The vast territory known today as Russia covers an area that has been known historically by various names, including Rus', Kievan Rus',[1][2] the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, and the sovereigns of these many nations and throughout their histories have used likewise as wide a range of titles in their positions as chief magistrates of a country. Some of the earliest titles include Kniaz and Velikiy Kniaz, which mean "Prince" and "Great Prince" respectively but are often rendered as "Duke" and "Grand Duke" in Western literature; then the title of Tsar, meaning "Caesar", which was disputed to be the equal of either a king or emperor; finally culminating in the title of Emperor. According to Article 59 of the 1906 Russian Constitution, the Russian Tsar held several dozen titles, each one representing a region which the monarch governed.

The Patriarchs of Moscow, who were the head of Russian Orthodox Church, also have acted as the leaders of Russia from time to time, usually in periods of political upheaval as during the Polish occupation and interregnum of 1610–13.

Princes of Rus', 862–1547

The land that is today known as Russia was populated by various East Slavic peoples from before the 9th century. The first states to exert hegemony over the region were those of the Rus' people, a branch of Nordic Varangians who moved into the region occupied by modern Russia sometime in the ninth century, and set up a series of states starting with the Rus' Khaganate circa 830. Little is known of the Rus' Khaganate beyond its existence, including the extent of its territory or any reliable list of its Khagans (rulers). Traditionally, Russian statehood is traced to Rurik, a Rus' leader of Holmgard (later Novgorod, modern Veliky Novgorod), a different Rus' state. Rurik's successor Oleg moved his capital to Kiev, founding the state of Kievan Rus'. Over the next several centuries, the most important titles were those of the Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Novgorod whose holder (often the same person) could claim hegemony. By the early 11th century the Rus' state had fragmented into a series of petty principalities which warred constantly with each other. In 1097, the Council of Liubech formalized the federal nature of the Russian lands. By the 12th century, the Grand Duchy of Vladimir became the dominant principality, adding its name to those of Novgorod and Kiev, culminating with the rule of Alexander Nevsky. After Alexander Nevsky, the region once again broke up into petty states, though the Grand Duchy of Moscow, founded by Alexander Nevsky's youngest son Daniel, began to consolidate control over the entire Russian territory in the 15th century. Following the Mongol conquests of the 13th century, all of the Russian principalities paid tribute to the Golden Horde, effectively operating as vassals of the Mongol state. The Russians began to exert independence from the Mongols, culminating with Ivan the Great of Moscow ceasing tribute to the Horde, effectively declaring his independence. Last Grand Prince of Moscow Ivan the Terrible assumed the title Tsar of All Russias in 1547.

Princes of Novgorod

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Rurik I
  • Рюрик
Unknown(around year 830) – 879862879Founder of Rurik DynastyRurikids
Oleg of Novgorod
  • Олег
855 – 912879882Relative of Rurik and regent of Rurik's son, Prince Igor of KievRurikids

Grand Princes of Kiev

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Askold and Dir
  • Haskuldr and Dýri
9th century842[3][4] or 862882Askold and Dir were Rus chieftains and members of Rurik's army
Askold was a descendent of the Kyi Dynasty
Kyi Dynasty (Askold)
Oleg of Novgorod
  • Олег
855 – 912882Autumn 912He was successor of Askold and Dir as a regent of Rurik's sonRurikids
Igor I
  • Игорь
878 – 945879 (in Novgorod as an heir of Rurik), 913 (as a successor of Rurik after Oleg's regency)Autumn 945Son of RurikRurikids
Olga of Kiev
  • Ольга
890 – 969945962Wife of Igor I and regent of Sviatoslav IRurikids
Sviatoslav I
  • Свѧтославъ
942 – 972Autumn 945March 972Son of Igor I and Olga of KievRurikids
Yaropolk I
  • Ярополк I Святославич
950 – 980March 97211 June 980Son of Sviatoslav I and PredslavaRurikids
Vladimir I
  • Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь
958 – 101511 June 98015 July 1015Son of Sviatoslav I and Malusha
Younger brother of Yaropolk I
Rurikids
Sviatopolk I
  • Свѧтоплъкъ
980 – 101915 July 1015Autumn 1016Son of Yaropolk I
During his reign, Kievan Rus' was conquered by Poland
Rurikids
Yaroslav I
  • Ꙗрославъ Володимировичъ Мѫдрꙑи
978 – 1054Autumn 1016Summer 1018Son of Vladimir I and Rogneda of PolotskRurikids
Sviatopolk I
  • Свѧтоплъкъ
980 – 101914 August 101827 July 1019RestoredRurikids
Yaroslav I
  • Ꙗрославъ Володимировичъ Мѫдрꙑи
978 – 105427 July 101920 February 1054RestoredRurikids
Iziaslav I
  • Ізяслав I Ярославич
1024 – 107820 February 105415 September 1068First son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd OlofsdotterRurikids
Vseslav of Polotsk
  • Всеслав Брячиславич
1039 – 110115 September 106829 April 1069Great-grandson of Vladimir I
Usurped the Kievan Throne
Rurikids
Iziaslav I
  • Ізяслав I Ярославич
1024 – 10782 May 106922 March 1073RestoredRurikids
Sviatoslav II
  • Святослав Ярославович
1027 – 107622 March 107327 December 1076Third son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd OlofsdotterRurikids
Vsevolod I
  • Всеволод I Ярославич
1030 – 10931 January 107715 July 1077Fourth son of Yaroslav I and Ingegerd OlofsdotterRurikids
Iziaslav I
  • Ізяслав I Ярославич
1024 – 107815 July 10773 October 1078RestoredRurikids
Vsevolod I
  • Всеволод I Ярославич
1030 – 10933 October 107813 April 1093RestoredRurikids
Sviatopolk II
  • Святополк Ізяславич
1050 – 111324 April 109316 April 1113Son of Iziaslav IRurikids
Vladimir II
  • Володимѣръ Мономахъ
1053 – 112520 April 111319 May 1125Son of Vsevolod I and Anastasia of ByzantiumRurikids
Mstislav I
  • Мстислав Володимирович Великий
1076 – 113220 May 112515 April 1132Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of WessexRurikids
Yaropolk II
  • Ярополк II Владимирович
1082 – 113917 April 113218 February 1139Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex
Younger brother of Mstislav I
Rurikids
Viacheslav I
  • Вячеслав Владимирович
1083 – 2 February 115422 February 11394 March 1139Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex
Younger brother of Mstislav I and Yaropolk II
Rurikids
Vsevolod II
  • Всеволод II Ольгович
1084 – 11465 March 113930 July 1146Grandson of Sviatoslav IIRurikids
Igor II
  • Игорь II Ольгович
1096 – 19 September 11461 August 114613 August 1146Grandson of Sviatoslav IIRurikids
Iziaslav II
  • Ізяслав Мстиславич
1097 – 115413 August 114623 August 1149Son of Mstislav I and Christina Ingesdotter of SwedenRurikids
Yuri I
  • Юрий Владимирович
1099 – 115728 August 1149Summer 1150Son of Vladimir II and Gytha of Wessex
Younger brother of Mstislav I, Yaropolk II and Viacheslav I
Rurikids
Viacheslav I
  • Вячеслав Владимирович
1083 – 2 February 1154Summer 1150Summer 1150RestoredRurikids
Iziaslav II
  • Ізяслав Мстиславич
1097 – 1154Summer 1150Summer 1150RestoredRurikids
Yuri I
  • Юрий Владимирович
1099 – 1157August 1150Winter 1151RestoredRurikids
Iziaslav II
  • Ізяслав Мстиславич
1097 – 1154Winter 115113 November 1154RestoredRurikids
Viacheslav I
  • Вячеслав Владимирович
1083 – 2 February 1154Spring 11516 February 1154RestoredRurikids
Rostislav I
  • Ростислав Мстиславич
1110 – 11671154January 1155Son of Mstislav I and Christina Ingesdotter of Sweden
Younger brother of Iziaslav II
Rurikids
Iziaslav III
  • Изяслав III Давидович
12th centuryJanuary 11551155Grandson of Sviatoslav IIRurikids
Yuri I
  • Юрий Владимирович
1099 – 115720 March 115515 May 1157RestoredRurikids
Iziaslav III
  • Изяслав III Давидович
12th century19 May 1157December 1158RestoredRurikids
Mstislav II
  • Мстислав Изяславич
1125 – 117022 December 1158Spring 1159Son of Iziaslav IIRurikids
Rostislav I
  • Ростислав Мстиславич
1110 – 116712 April 11598 February 1161RestoredRurikids
Iziaslav III
  • Изяслав III Давидович
12th century12 February 11616 March 1161RestoredRurikids
Rostislav I
  • Ростислав Мстиславич
1110 – 1167March 116114 March 1167RestoredRurikids
Vladimir III
  • Владимир III Мстиславич
1132 – 1173Spring 1167Spring 1167Son of Mstislav I
Younger brother of Iziaslav II and Rostislav I
Rurikids
Mstislav II
  • Мстислав Изяславич
1125 – 117019 May 116712 March 1169RestoredRurikids

In 1169 Vladimir-Suzdal troops took Kiev. This act underlined the declining importance of that city.[according to whom?]

Grand Princes of Vladimir

The state of Vladimir-Suzdal (formally the Grand Duchy of Vladimir) became dominant among the various petty principalities to form from the dissolution of the Kievan Rus' state. The title of Grand Prince of Vladimir became one of the three titles (along with Kiev and Novgorod) possessed by the most important rulers among the Russian nobility. While Vladimir enjoyed hegemony for a time, it too disintegrated into a series of petty states. The most important of these became Grand Duchy of Moscow, which itself eventually evolved into the Tsardom of Russia.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Andrey I
  • Андрей Боголюбский
1110 – 117415 May 115729 June 1174Son of Yuri IRurikids
Mikhail I
  • Михаил
12th century1174September 1174Son of Yuri I
Younger brother of Andrey I
Rurikids
Yaropolk III
  • Ярополк Ростиславич
12th century117415 June 1175Grandson of Yuri IRurikids
Mikhail I
  • Михаил
12th century15 June 117520 June 1176RestoredRurikids
Vsevolod III
  • Все́волод III Ю́рьевич Большо́е Гнездо́
1154 – 1212June 117615 April 1212Son of Yuri I and Helene
Younger brother of Andrey I and Mikhail I
Rurikids
Yuri II
  • Ю́рий II
1189 – 1238121227 April 1216Son of Vselovod III and Maria ShvarnovnaRurikids
Konstantin of Rostov
  • Константи́н Все́володович
1186 – 1218Spring 12162 February 1218Son of Vsevolod III and Maria Shvarnovna
Elder brother of Yuri II
Rurikids
Yuri II
  • Ю́рий II
1189 – 1238February 12184 March 1238RestoredRurikids
Yaroslav II
  • Яросла́в II Все́володович
1191 – 1246123830 September 1246Son of Vsevolod III and Maria Shvarnovna
Younger brother of Yuri II and Konstantin of Rostov
Rurikids
Sviatoslav III
  • Святослав III Всеволодович
1196 – 3 February 125212461248Son of Vsevolod III and Maria Shvarnovna
Younger brother of Yuri II, Konstantin of Rostov and Yaroslav II
Rurikids
Mikhail Khorobrit
  • Михайл Ярославич Хоробрит
1229 – 15 January 1248124815 January 1248Son of Yaroslav IIRurikids
Sviatoslav III
  • Святослав III Всеволодович
1196 – 3 February 125212481249RestoredRurikids
Andrey II
  • Андрей Ярославич
1221 – 1264December 124924 July 1252Son of Yaroslav II
Elder brother of Mikhail Khorobrit
Rurikids
Alexander Nevsky
  • Алекса́ндр Яросла́вич Не́вский
1220 – 1263125214 November 1263Son of Yaroslav II and Rostislava Mstislavna, daughter of Kievan Rus' Prince Mstislav Mstislavich the Bold
Elder brother of Mikhail Khorobrit and Andrey II
Rurikids
Yaroslav III
  • Ярослав Ярославич
1230 – 127212641271Son of Yaroslav II and Fedosia Igorevna
Younger brother of Alexander Nevsky, Andrey II and Mikhail Khorobrit
Rurikids
Vasily of Kostroma
  • Василий Ярославич
1241 – 12761272January 1277Son of Yaroslav IIRurikids
Dmitry of Pereslavl
  • Дмитрий Александрович
1250 – 129412771281Son of Alexander NevskyRurikids
Andrey III
  • Андрей Александрович
1255 – 13041281December 1283Son of Alexander Nevsky
Younger brother of Dmitry of Pereslavl
Rurikids
Dmitry of Pereslavl
  • Дмитрий Александрович
1250 – 1294December 12831293RestoredRurikids
Andrey III
  • Андрей Александрович
1255 – 130412931304RestoredRurikids
Michael of Tver
  • Михаил Ярославич
1271 – 1318Autumn 130422 November 1318Son of Yaroslav III and Xenia of TarusaRurikids
Yuri III
  • Юрий Данилович
1281 – 132513182 November 1322Grandson of Alexander NevskyRurikids
Dmitry of Tver
  • Дми́трий Миха́йлович Тверcко́й
1299 – 1326132215 September 1326Son of Michael of Tver and Anna of KashinRurikids
Alexander of Tver
  • Александр Михайлович Тверской
1281 – 133913261327Son of Michale of Tver and Anna of Kashin
Elder brother of Dmitry of Tver
Rurikids
Alexander of Suzdal
  • Александр Суздале
14th century13281331Grandson of Andrey IIRurikids
Ivan I
  • Ива́н I Дании́лович Калита́
1288 – 1340133231 March 1340Grandson of Alexander Nevsky
Son of Daniel of Moscow
Rurikids

After 1331, the title of the Grand Princes of Vladimir was assigned to the Princes of Moscow.

Grand Princes of Moscow

Alexander Nevsky, Grand Prince of Vladimir, placed his youngest son Daniel in charge of the territory around Moscow, and establishing the state of Muscovy, originally a vassal state to Vladimir-Suzdal. Daniel's son Ivan I assumed the title of Vladimir himself, establishing Muscovy as the premier principality among the various Russian states. Later rulers of Muscovy consolidated power, culminating with Ivan III who threw off the Mongol yoke and conquered most of the other Russian states. His son Vasili III completed the task of uniting all of Russia by eliminating the last few independent states in the 1520s. Vasili's son Ivan the Terrible formalized the situation by assuming the title Tsar of All Russias in 1547.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Daniel of Moscow
  • Даниил Александрович
1261 – 4 March 130312834 March 1303Son of Alexander Nevsky and MariaRurikids
Yury of Moscow
  • Юрий Данилович
1281 – 21 November 13254 March 130321 November 1325Son of Daniel
Elder brother of Ivan I
Rurikids
Ivan I
  • Ива́н I Дании́лович Калита́
1288 – 134021 November 132531 March 1340He was a successor of Alexander of Suzdal as Grand Prince of Vladimir and a successor of Yury of Moscow as Grand Prince of MoscowRurikids
Simeon of Moscow
  • Семён Иванович Гордый
7 November 1316 – 27 April 135331 March 134027 April 1353Son of Ivan I and HelenaRurikids
Ivan II
  • Иван II Иванович Красный
30 March 1326 – 13 November 135927 April 135313 November 1359Son of Ivan I and Helena
Younger brother of Simeon of Moscow
Rurikids
Dmitry of the Don
  • Дми́трий Ива́нович Донско́й
12 October 1350 – 19 May 138913 November 135919 May 1389Son of Ivan II and Alexandra Vasilyevna VelyaminovaRurikids
Vasily I
  • Василий I Дмитриевич
30 December 1371 – 27 February 142519 May 138927 February 1425Son of Dmitry I and Eudoxia DmitriyevnaRurikids
Vasily II
  • Василий II Васильевич Тёмный
10 March 1415 – 27 March 146227 February 142530 March 1434Son of Vasily I and Sophia of LithuaniaRurikids
Yury of Zvenigorod
  • Ю́рий Дми́триевич
26 November 1374 – 5 June 143431 March 14345 June 1434Son of Dmitry I and Eudoxia Dmitriyevna
Younger brother of Vasily I
Rurikids
Vasily Kosoy
  • Василий Юрьевич Косой
1421 – 14355 June 14341435Son of Yury of ZvenigorodRurikids
Vasily II
  • Василий II Васильевич Тёмный
10 March 1415 – 27 March 146214351446RestoredRurikids
Dmitry Shemyaka
  • Дмитрий Юрьевич Шемяка
15th century144626 March 1447Son of Yury of ZvenigorodRurikids
Vasily II
  • Василий II Васильевич Тёмный
10 March 1415 – 27 March 146227 February 144727 March 1462RestoredRurikids
Ivan III
  • Иван III Васильевич
22 January 1440 – 6 November 15055 April 14626 November 1505Son of Vasily II and Maria of BorovskRurikids
Vasily III
  • Василий III Иванович
25 March 1479 – 13 December 15336 November 150513 December 1533Son of Ivan III and Sophia PaleologueRurikids
Ivan IV
  • Ива́н Васи́льевич
    Ivan the Terrible
25 August 1530 – 28 March 1584Grand Prince: 13 December 1533
Tsar: 26 January 1547
Grand Prince: 26 January 1547
Tsar: 28 March 1584
Son of Vasily III and Elena GlinskayaRurikids

Tsars of Russia, 1547–1721

From the rule of Ivan III, the Grand Duchy of Moscow effectively became the dominant Russian state, overthrowing the Golden Horde, consolidating all remaining Russian principalities under itself, and conquering lands far from its roots in the city of Moscow. While Ivan III became effective ruler over the entirety of Russia, the situation was not formally recognized until his grandson Ivan IV assumed the title Tsar in 1547, when the state of Russia (apart from its constituent principalities) came into formal being.

Dates are listed in the Old Style, which continued to be used in Russia until the revolution.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Ivan IV
  • Ива́н Васи́льевич
    Ivan the Terrible
25 August 1530 – 28 March 1584Grand Prince: 13 December 1533
Tsar: 26 January 1547
Grand Prince: 26 January 1547
Tsar: 28 March 1584
Son of Vasily III and Elena GlinskayaRurikids
Simeon Bekbulatovich
  • Симеон Бекбулатович
16th / 17th centuries15751576Muslim-born Khan of Qasim Khanate
Proclaimed Grand Prince of All Rus' in 1575 and abdicated within a year
Qasim
Feodor I
  • Фёдор I Иванович
31 May 1557 – 17 January 159828 March 158417 January 1598Son of Ivan IV and Anastasia RomanovnaRurikids

Time of Troubles

Following the death of the Feodor I, the son of Ivan the Terrible and the last of the Rurik dynasty, Russia fell into a succession crisis known as the Time of Troubles. As Feodor left no male heirs, the Russian Zemsky Sobor (feudal parliament) elected his brother-in-law Boris Godunov to be Tsar. Devastated by famine, rule under Boris descended into anarchy. A series of impostors, known as the False Dmitriys, each claimed to be Feodor's long deceased younger brother; however, only the first impostor ever legitimately held the title of Tsar. A distant Rurikid cousin, Vasili Shuyskiy, also took power for a time. During this period, foreign powers deeply involved themselves in Russian politics, under the leadership of the Vasa monarchs of Sweden and Poland-Lithuania, including Sigismund III Vasa and his son Władysław IV Vasa. As a child, Władysław was even chosen as Tsar by the Seven Boyars, though he was prevented by his father from formally taking the throne. The Time of Troubles is considered to have ended with the election of Michael Romanov to the throne, who established the Romanov dynasty that would rule Russia until the Russian Revolution of 1917.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Boris Godunov
  • Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в
ca. 1551 – 13 April 160521 February 159813 April 1605Brother-in-law of Feodor I
Chosen by Zemsky Sobor
Godunov
Feodor II
  • Фёдор II Борисович
1589 – 20 June 160513 April 160510 June 1605Son of Boris Godunov and Maria Grigorievna Skuratova-Belskaya
Murdered.
Godunov
False Dmitriy I
  • Дмитрий Иванович
ca. 1581 – 17 May 160610 June 160517 May 1606Claiming to be son of Ivan IV, he was the only imposter to actually sit on the throne of a major power
Backed by Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Murdered.
Rurikids
(claimed)
Vasily IV
  • Василий IV Иванович Шуйский
22 September 1552 – 12 September 161219 May 160617 July 1610
(deposed)
Ninth generation descendant of Andrei II in the male lineShuysky
Vladislav
  • Władysław IV Waza
9 June 1595 – 20 May 16486 September 1610November 1612
(deposed)
14 June 1634
(resigned his claim)
King of Poland
Son of Sigismund III Vasa and Anne of Austria, Queen of Poland
Vasa

House of Romanov

The Time of Troubles came to a close with the election of Michael Romanov as Tsar in 1613. Michael officially reigned as Tsar, though his father, the Patriarch Philaret (died 1633) initially held the real power. However, Michael's descendents would rule Russia, first as Tsars and later as Emperors, until the Russian Revolution of 1917. Peter the Great (reigned 1682-1725), a grandson of Michael Romanov, reorganized the Russian state along more Western lines, establishing the Russian Empire in 1721.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Michael
  • Михаи́л Фёдорович Рома́нов
12 July 1596 – 12 July 164526 July 161312 July 1645Founder of Romanov Dynasty
First cousin once removed of Feodor I
Romanov
Alexis
  • Алексе́й Миха́йлович
9 May 1629 – 29 January 167612 July 164529 January 1676Son of Michael I and Eudoxia StreshnevaRomanov
Feodor III
  • Фёдор III Алексеевич
9 June 1661 – 7 May 168229 January 16767 May 1682Son of Alexis I and Maria Ilyinichna MiloslavskayaRomanov
Sophia Alekseyevna (regent)
  • Со́фья Алексе́евна
17 September 1657 – 3 July 170417 May 168227 August 1689Daughter of Alexis I and Maria Miloslavskaya
Elder sister of Feodor III
She ruled as a regent of Ivan V and Peter I
Romanov
Ivan V
  • Иван V Алексеевич
6 September 1666 – 8 February 16962 June 16828 February 1696Son of Alexis I and Maria Miloslavskaya
Younger brother of Sophia Alekseyevna and Feodor III
He "ruled" jointly with Peter I, but in fact had no power.
Romanov
Peter I
  • Пётр Вели́кий
    Peter the Great
9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725Tsar: 2 June 1682
Emperor: 2 November 1721
Tsar: 2 November 1721
Emperor: 8 February 1725
Son of Alexis I and Natalya Naryshkina
Younger brother of Sophia Alekseyevna, Feodor III and Ivan V
He ruled jointly with Ivan V
Regarded as one of the greatest Russian monarchs
Romanov

Emperors of Russia, 1721–1917

(Also Grand Princes of Finland from 1809 until 1917; and Kings of Poland from 1815 until 1917)

The Empire of Russia was declared by Peter the Great in 1721. Officially, Russia would be ruled by the Romanov dynasty until the Russian Revolution of 1917. However, direct male descendants of Michael Romanov came to an end in 1730 with the death of Peter II of Russia, grandson of Peter the Great. The throne passed to Anna, a niece of Peter the Great, and after the brief rule of her niece's infant son Ivan VI, the throne was seized by Elizabeth, a daughter of Peter the Great. Elizabeth would be the last of the direct Romanovs to rule Russia. Elizabeth declared her nephew, Peter, to be her heir. Peter (who would rule as Peter III) spoke little Russian, having been a German prince of the House of Holstein-Gottorp before arriving in Russia to assume the Imperial title. He and his German wife Sophia changed their name to Romanov upon inheriting the throne. Peter was ill-liked, and he was assassinated within six months of assuming the throne, in a coup orchestrated by his wife, who became Empress in her own right and ruled as Catherine the Great (both Peter and Catherine were descended from the House of Rurik). Following the confused successions of the descendants of Peter the Great, Catherine's son Paul I established clear succession laws which governed the rules of primogeniture over the Imperial throne until the fall of the Empire in 1917.

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Peter I
  • Пётр Вели́кий
    Peter the Great
9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725Tsar: 2 June 1682
Emperor: 2 November 1721
Tsar: 2 November 1721
Emperor: 8 February 1725
Son of Alexis I and Natalya Naryshkina
Younger brother of Sophia Alekseyevna, Feodor III and Ivan V
He ruled jointly with Ivan V
Regarded as one of the greatest Russian monarchs
Romanov
Catherine I
  • Екатери́на I Алексе́евна
15 April 1684 – 17 May 17278 February 172517 May 1727Wife of Peter ISkowroński
Peter II
  • Пётр II Алексеевич
23 October 1715 – 30 January 173018 May 172730 January 1730Grandson of Peter I via the murdered Tsesarevich Alexei. Last of the direct male Romanov line.Romanov
Anna
  • Анна Иоанновна
7 February 1693 – 28 October 174013 February 173028 October 1740Daughter of Ivan VRomanov
Anna Leopoldovna (regent)
  • А́нна Леопо́льдовна
18 December 1718 – 19 March 1746)28 October 17406 December 1741Regent for her son Ivan VI
Deposed by Empress Elizabeth and Imprisoned
Brunswick-Bevern
Ivan VI
  • Иван VI
23 August 1740 – 16 July 176428 October 17406 December 1741Great-grandson of Ivan V
Deposed as a baby, imprisoned and later murdered
Brunswick-Bevern
Elizabeth
  • Елизаве́та
29 December 1709 – 5 January 17626 December 17415 January 1762Daughter of Peter I and Catherine I.Romanov
Peter III
  • Пётр III Фëдорович
21 February 1728 – 17 July 17629 January 17629 July 1762Grandson of Peter I
Nephew of Elizabeth
Murdered
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Catherine II
  • Екатерина Алексеевна
    Catherine the Great
2 May 1729 – 17 November 17969 July 176217 November 1796Wife of Peter III.Ascania, with Rurikid descent.
Paul I
  • Па́вел I Петро́вич
1 October 1754 – 23 March 180117 November 179623 March 1801Son of Peter III and Catherine II
Assassinated
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Alexander I
  • Александр Павлович
23 December 1777 – 1 December 182523 March 18011 December 1825Son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
First Romanov King of Poland and Grand Prince of Finland
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Constantine Pavlovich
  • Константи́н Па́влович
27 April 1779 – 27 June 18311 December 182526 December 1825Son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
Younger brother of Alexander I
Uncrowned (abdicated the throne)
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Nicholas I
  • Николай I Павлович
6 July 1796 – 2 March 18551 December 18252 March 1855Son of Paul I and Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg
Younger brother of Alexander I and Constantine Pavlovich
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Alexander II
  • Алекса́ндр II Никола́евич
29 April 1818 – 13 March 18812 March 185513 March 1881Son of Nicholas I and Alexandra Feodrovna
Nephew of Alexander I
Assassinated
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Alexander III
  • Алекса́ндр III
10 March 1845 – 1 November 189413 March 18811 November 1894Son of Alexander II and Maria AlexandrovnaHolstein-Gottorp-Romanov
Nicholas II
  • Николай II
18 May 1868 (N.S.) – 17 July 19181 November 189415 March 1917 N.S.
(2 March O.S.)
Son of Alexander III and Maria Feodorovna
Abdicated the throne during the February Revolution
Executed by Bolsheviks
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

Nicholas II abdicated in favour of his brother, Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovich, but the next day, after a nominal reign of only 18 hours, "Emperor Michael II" declined power, ending dynastic rule in Russia forever.

See List of leaders of Russia for the continuation of leadership.

Nominal Emperor of Russia, 1922

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Nikolai Nikolaevich6 November 1856 – 5 January 19298 August 192225 October 1922Grandson of Nicholas I
Proclaimed Emperor of Russia by the Zemsky Sobor of the Provisional Priamurye Government. His nominal rule came to an end when the areas controlled by the Provisional Priamurye Government were overrun by the communists.
Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov

See also

References

  1. ^ "Russian history: Kievan Rus". Russiapedia. RT. Retrieved November 26, 2013. 
  2. ^ Glenn E. Curtis (1996). "Kievan Rus' and Mongol Periods". Russia: A Country Study. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  3. ^ Suszko, Henryk (2003). Latopis hustyński. Opracowanie, przekład i komentarze. Slavica Wratislaviensia CXXIV. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. ISBN 83-229-2412-7; Tolochko, Oleksiy (2010). The Hustyn' Chronicle. (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Texts) ISBN 978-1-932650-03-7
  4. ^ according to the Tale of Bygone Years, the date is not clearly identified

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