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List of Ukrainian rulers

List of Ukrainian rulers

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This list encompasses all rulers and leaders of what is today Ukraine, from ancient to modern times.

The term "Ukrainians" is used according to the modern definition of "the inhabitants of the land Ukraine"[1] not just those who identify with the ethnic group. This list includes only local rulers whose seat of power was located in modern Ukraine and only the rulers whose power was derived directly from the people of the territory at the time, and does not include the governors who received their authority from some foreign powers (as during Lithuanian, Polish, Hungarian, Austrian, Russian, Czechoslovakian and Romanian overlordship).

Antiquity (c. 500 BC – 16 BC)

Scythian kings[2]

Scythian king Skilurus, relief from Scythian Neapolis, Crimea, 2nd century BC

Scythia was a loose state that originated as early as the 8th century BC. Little is known of them and their rulers. Most detailed description came down to us from Herodotus.

Kings of Cimmerian Bosporus

A silver coin depicting Mithradates VI of Pontus

The shores of Crimea were settled by Greeks since the 7th century BC. The kingdom was established around 480 BC. It was ruled by three consecutive dynasties: Archaenactidae (480 BC – 438 BC), Spartocids (438 BC – 108 BC), and Pontids (108 BC – 16 BC). After Pontids the territory became a Roman client kingdom.

Pontids

Migration period (c. 200 – c. 800)

In Eastern Europe the Great Migration Period kicked off with the descent of the Goths from the Baltic region into the territory of modern Ukraine, about AD 200. They either took over or assimilated with the local Slavic tribes. The Goths were in turn pushed out by aggressively encroaching Huns, about 375. The Goths went on to conquer Southern Europe and the Huns moved to the Balkans and created a Hunnic Empire which lasted for a hundred years. After splitting of the Empire, some of the Huns moved back north in the territories of modern Ukraine and formed Patria Onoguria, now known as Old Great Bulgaria. In the 7th century Onoguria largely defected to Khazaria – an expanding Turkic state centered in the North Caucuses which controlled the Eurasian steppe until the 9th century.

Gothic rulers

In 238, the Goths for the first time passed the Danube, and took to the Black Sea. The division of the Goths (Thervingi-Vesi and Greuthungi-Ostrogothi) is first attested in 291.

Tervingi

The Balti dynasty, Balth(e)s, Baltungs, or Balthings, existed among the Tervingi ("forest people"), called later the Visigothi. The names of the Drevlyans and the Gothic Tervingi in Ukraine have often been adduced as parallels to agac-ari ("forest men" in Turkic).

  • Nidad, reik ("ruler") (c. 218 – 249)
  • Ovida, son of Nidad, co-ruler (c. 249 – 273)
  • Cniva a.k.a. Kniwa ("knife"), brother of Ovida, co-ruler
  • Ilderic a.k.a. Hilderith, son of Ovida, co-ruler (c. 273 – 317)
  • Ariaric a.k.a. Ascaric, brother of Hilderith, co-ruler
  • Geberic a.k.a. Geberich, son of Hilderith, kindin ("king") (c. 317 – 350)
  • Athanaric a.k.a. Aþanareiks ("year-king"), pagan, Gunþi-reik ("battle prince") (365–381)
  • Fritigern a.k.a. Frithugairns ("desiring peace"), converted to Arianism, Gunþi-reik (369–382)

Greuthungi

The Amali dynasty, Amals, Amaler, or Amalings of the Greuthungi ("steppe dwellers" or "people of the pebbly coasts"), called later the Ostrogothi.

  • Amal (Amala), the Fortunate, born fl. 110 or c. 123
  • Hisarna, (Isarna), the Iron One, born fl. 140 or c. 153
  • Ostrogotha, the Patient, born fl. 170 or c. 183, died c. 250 in Ukraine
  • Hunuil ("Immune to Magic") a.k.a. Ginvila, born fl. 210 or c. 213
  • Athal (Athala), the Noble One, born fl. 240 or c. 243 in Ukraine
  • Achiulf (Agiulf), born fl. 270 or c. 273 in Ukraine
  • Wultwulf (Vultuulf, Vulthulf, Vuldulf), born fl. 300 in Ukraine, died fl. 370, prince of the Goths
  • Ermanaric (Hermanaric, Ermanarich, Hermanarik), born c. 303 in Ukraine, king of the Getae/Greutungi/Ostrogoths (335 or 350 – 375 or 376)
  • Winithar (Vinitharius), Conqueror of the Venedi-Slavs (Antes), born fl. 345 or c. 353 in Ukraine, the last independent king of the Ostrogoths (376–380)
  • Hunimund ("Protege of the Huns"), the Beautiful, born c. 326 in Ukraine, the first Hunnic vassal prince of the Ostrogoths (376-fl.405)

Hunnic rulers

  • Balambér a.k.a. Bülümer (Bulümar, Balamir), conqueror of the Ostrogoths (376–378)
  • Baltazár a.k.a. Alyp-bi, king of the Western Huns (378–390), buried on Kuyantau (current Kiev)
  • Uldin a.k.a. Ulduz, king of the Western Huns (390–c. 411)
  • Donatus, King of the Eastern Huns (c. 382–412)
  • Charaton a.k.a. Aksungur (Aksuvar), (c. 411–c. 422)
  • Octar a.k.a. Oktar (Uptar ?), (c. 425–c. 430)
  • Rugila a.k.a. Ruga (Rua, Roila), Yabgu (prince), then king (432–434)
  • Mundzuk a.k.a. Aybat, Yabgu (390–434), King(434)
  • Bleda, King and ruler of Eastern Huns (Ak Bulgar) (434–445)
  • Attila the Hun, Yabgu of Western Huns (Kara Bulgar) (434–445)
  • Ellac a.k.a. Ellak, Khagan and ruler of the Sabirs (453–454)
  • Dengizich a.k.a. Tengiz (Diggiz), ruler of the Akatziroi, (454–468)
  • Ernakh a.k.a. Bel-Kermek (Hernach), ruler of the Bulgars (455–465), and the Akatziroi (469–503)

Rulers of Patria Onoguria

According to Zakarius Rhetor and Priscus Rhetor, Patria Onoguria was a vulgar statelet in alliance with Byzantium established in 463 around Azov having been forced west upon the Akatziroi by the Sabirs who in turn were being attacked. Its 7th century period is commonly referred to as Old Great Bulgaria (~600–~690).

Khazar rulers

Khazar Khaganate controlled much of what is today southern and eastern Ukraine until the 10th century.

Rulers of Kiev and Kievan Rus' (c. 375/800 – 1240/1362)

Legendary and historical rulers of Kiev

Portrait Name Born-Died Ruled From Ruled Until
Bozh (Bož, Boz, Booz, Box), a king of Antes, the east Slavic people 4th century ? 376
Alyp-bi (Baltazár), the son of Balambér a.k.a. Bülümer, a khan of the Western Huns who was buried on Kuyantau mountain (current Kiev) 4th century 378 390
Kyi, a legendary founder of Kiev, a Slavic prince of Kuyavia, most likely eastern Polans 5th–6th centuries 482 ?
Oleg (Helge or Helgi), probably of Danish or Swedish origin, an apocryphal Kiev voivode, under the overlordship of the Khazar Khaganate 8th century ? ?
Bravlin, probably of Swedish origin,[3] a Varangian voivode in the Rus' Khaganate 8th–9th centuries c. 790 c. 810
Askold and Dir (Høskuldr and Dýri),[4] probably of Swedish origin, Varangian konungs, not Rurikids, were rulers (khagans) of Kiev, not Kievan Rus' ? - 882 c. 842[5] 882

Rurik Dynasty

The Rurikids were descendants of Rurik (Hrørekr), a Varangian pagan konung or chieftain, who supposedly was of haplogroup N1c1, which is common among Finno-Ugric peoples and not so rare in Baltic region.[6]

All the rulers of Kievan Rus' before the conversion of Vladimir I and all the country to Christianity are Pagan rulers, except Olga of Kiev.

Table of rulers[edit]

(Note: Here the numbering of the princes is the same for all principalities, as all were titled Princes of Rus', despite of the different parts of land and its particular numbering of the rulers. The princes are numbered by the year of their (first) succession.)

Name Portrait Born Reign Part Marriage (s) Death Notes
Rurik I
(Рюрик)
Old Norse: Rørik
Unknown 862-879 Kievan Rus'
(in Novgorod)
Unknown
at least one son
879 Ruled as Prince of Novgorod. Founder of the family.
Oleg the Seer
(Олег Віщий)
Old Norse: Helgi[7]
Unknown 879-912 Kievan Rus' Unknown 912 Varangian kniaz of Holmgård (Novgorod) and Kønugård (Kiev). His relationship with the family is unknown. He was probably a regent, in name of Igor, son of Rurik.
Igor I the Old
Igor Rurikovich
(Ігор Старий[8])
Old Norse: Ingvar Röreksson
c.878
Son of Rurik
912-945 Kievan Rus' 901 or 902
at least one son
945
Iskorosten
aged 66–67
Saint Olga of Kiev
(Saint Olga)
(Свята Ольга)
Old Norse: Helga
c.890
Pskov
945-962 Kievan Rus' 11 July 969
Kiev
aged 78–79
Regent on behalf of her minor son, she was baptized by Emperor Constantine VII but failed to bring Christianity to Kiev.
Sviatoslav I the Brave
Sviatoslav Igorevich
(Святосла́в Хоро́брий)
Old Norse: Sveinald Ingvarsson[9]
c.942
possibly Kiev
Son of Igor I the Old and Saint Olga of Kiev
962-972 Kievan Rus' Predslava
c.954
two sons

Malusha/Malfrida[10][11]
c.958
at least one son
March 972
Khortytsia
aged 29–30
The first true ruler of Rus' who destroyed the Khazar Khaganate and united all of the Rus' principalities under the Kiev throne.
Yaropolk I
Yaropolk Sviatoslavich
(Яропо́лк Святосла́вич)
Old Norse: Iaropolk Sveinaldsson
c.950
Son of Sviatoslav I the Brave and Predslava
972-980 Kievan Rus' A Greek nun
at least one son
980
Fort of Roden, near Kaniv
aged 29–30
Supposedly was baptised into Catholicism, and then was murdered by two Varangians.
Vladimir I the Great
Vladimir Basil Sviatoslavich
(Володимир Великий/Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь)
Old Norse: Valdamarr Sveinaldsson
c.958
Budyatychi
Son of Sviatoslav I the Brave and Malusha/Malfrida
980-1015 Kievan Rus' Olava/Allogia
c.977
at least one son

A Greek nun
(widow of his brother)
c.980
at least one son

Rogneda of Polotsk
c.978
(possibly in bigamy)
eight children

Adela (of Bulgaria?)
at least two children (maximum four)

Malfrida (of Bohemia?)
Before 1000
two children

Anna Porphyrogenita of Byzantium
988
Cherson
three children

Regelindis (?) of Saxony (granddaughter of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor)
After 1011
one or two daughters

Unknown
two children
15 July 1015
Berestove, Kiev
aged 57–58
His early rule is characterized by a staunch pagan reaction but in 988 he was baptized into Orthodoxy and successfully converted Kievan Rus' to Christianity.
Sviatopolk I the Accursed
Sviatopolk Yaropolkovich
(Святополк Окаянний)
Old Norse: Sveinpolk Iaropolksson
c.980
Son of Sviatoslav I the Brave and Predslava
1015-1019 Kievan Rus' Unknown name
(daughter of Bolesław I of Poland)
no children
1019
aged 38–39
Yaroslav I the Wise
Yaroslav George Vladimirovich
(Яросла́в Му́дрий)
Old Norse: Jarizleifr Valdamarrsson[12]
c.978
Son of Vladimir I the Great and Rogneda of Polotsk
1019-1054 Kievan Rus' Ingigerda of Sweden
1019
Novgorod
eight or nine children
20 February 1054
Vyshhorod
aged 75–76
Prince of Rostov, Prince of Novgorod, and Grand Prince of Kiev; during his reign Kievan Rus' reached the pinnacle of its power.
Iziaslav I
Iziaslav Demetrius Yaroslavich
(Ізяслав Ярославич)
Old Norse: Izjasleifr(?) Jarizleifsson
c.1024
Son of Yaroslav I the Wise and Ingigerda of Sweden
1054-1068

1069-1073

1076-1078
Kievan Rus' Gertrude of Poland
1043
three children
3 October 1078
Nizhyn
aged 53–54
Reigned three times, threatened by the power of his relatives Vseslav of Polotsk (1068–69) and Sviatoslav II of Kiev (1073-76). First King of Rus', Pope Gregory VII sent him a crown from Rome in 1075.
Vseslav I the Seer
Vseslav Basil Bryacheslavich
(Всеслав Брячиславич)
c.1039
Polotsk
Son of Bryachislav of Polotsk
1068-1069 Kievan Rus' Unknown
six sons
24 April 1101
Polotsk
aged 61–62
A brief ruler during Iziaslav's official reign. Also Prince of Polotsk.
Sviatoslav II
Sviatoslav Nicholas Yaroslavich
(Святослав Ярославич)
Old Norse: Sveinald Jarizleifsson
c.1027
Kiev
Son of Yaroslav I the Wise and Ingigerda of Sweden
1073-1076 Kievan Rus' Cecilia of Dithmarschen[13]
Between 1043 and 1047
five children

Oda of Staden (Nordmark)
c.1065
one son
27 December 1076
Kiev
aged 48–49
A brief ruler during his brother Iziaslav's official reign.
Vsevolod I
Vsevolod Andrew Yaroslavich
(Всеволод Ярославич)
Old Norse: Vissivald Jarizleifsson
c.1030
Son of Yaroslav I the Wise and Ingigerda of Sweden
1078-1093 Kievan Rus' Anastasia of Byzantium
c.1053
two children

Anna of Cumania
c.1070
four children
13 April 1093
Vyshhorod
aged 62–63
Usurped the throne from his nephew, Yaropolk Iziaslavich.
Saint Yaropolk (III) Izyaslavich
Yaropolk Peter Iziaslavich
(Ярополк Ізяславич)
Old Norse: Iaropolk Izjasleifsson (?)
c.1043
Son of Iziaslav I and Gertrude of Poland
1078-1087 Kievan Rus' Kunigunde of Meissen
c.1071
four children
22 November 1087
Zvenyhorod
aged 62–63
As hereditary King of Rus (title assumed until his death), was a legitimate contestant for the throne, usurped by his uncle.
Sviatopolk II
Sviatopolk Michael Iziaslavich
(Всеволод Ярославич)
Old Norse: Sveinpolk Izjasleifsson (?)
8 November 1050
Son of Iziaslav I and Gertrude of Poland
1093-1113 Kievan Rus' Unknown name
(daughter of Spytihněv II of Bohemia)[14]
c.1085
three children

Olenna of the Kipchaks
c.1094
four children
26 April 1113
Vyshhorod
aged 62
Recovered the throne of his father from his uncle. However, his descendants lost their rights to the Kievan throne. After the division of the territory made in the Council of Liubech of 1097, Kievan Rus' gradually lost its importance, and from 1132 changed name to Kiev.
After the Council of Liubech in 1097 Kievan Rus' entered a feudal period and was divided into principalities ruled by the Rurikid family princes who were in a constant power struggle with each other. Major principalities were: Galicia-Volhynia, Kiev, Chernigiv, and Pereyaslavl. In the period of 1240–1362, the three latter ones were forced to accept the Golden Horde overlordship. See List of early East Slavic states
David I Sviatoslavich 1050 1097-1123 Chernigov Teodosia
five children
1123 Son of Sviatoslav II.
David I Igorevich 1055 1097-1099 Volhynia Unknown
three children
25 May 1112 Grandson of Yaroslav I.
Vladimir II Monomakh
Vladimir Basil Vsevolodovich
(Володимир Мономах)
Old Norse: Valdamarr Vissivaldsson
1053
Son of Vsevolod I and Anastasia of Byzantium
1097-1113 Pereyaslavl Gytha of Wessex
c.1074
five or six children

Euphemia of Byzantium
c.1100
six or seven children

Unknown name
(daughter of Aepa Ocenevich, Khan in Cumania)
After 1107
no known children
19 May 1125
Kiev
aged 71–72
Ruled against his relative Sviatopolk II until his own accession to the throne in 1113. He is considered to be the last ruler of the united Kievan Rus'.
1113-1125 Kievan Rus'
Mstislav Sviatopolkovich ? 1099 Volhynia Unknown 1099 Son of Sviatopolk II.
Yaroslav Sviatopolkovich c.1070 1099-1118 Volhynia Unknown
(daughter of Ladislaus I of Hungary)
c.1091

Judith-Maria of Poland
c.1106

Unknown
(daughter of Mstislav I of Kiev)</small
c.1112

three/four children in total
May 1124 Son of Sviatopolk II.
Sviatoslav III Vladimirovich ? 1113-1114 Pereyaslavl Unmarried 6 March 1114 Son of Vladimir II Monomakh.
Roman Vladimirovich ? 1118-1119 Volhynia Unknown 6 January 1119 Son of Vladimir II Monomakh.
Constantine 1070 1123-1127 Chernigov Unknown
three children
1129 Son of Sviatoslav II.
Mstislav I the Great
Mstislav Theodore Vladimirovich
(Мстислав Великий)
Old Norse: Haraldr Valdamarrsson
1 June 1076
Turov
Son of Vladimir II Monomakh and Gytha of Wessex
1125-1132 Kievan Rus' Christina of Sweden
1095
ten children

Liubava Dmitrievna of Novgorod
1122
two children
14 April 1132
Kiev
aged 55
After his reign Kievan Rus' fell into recession starting a rapid decline.
Yaropolk II 1082 1114-1132 Pereyaslavl Helena of Ossetia
1116
one child
18 February 1139 Brother of Mstislav I.
1132–1139 Kiev
Vsevolod II 1103 1132 Pereyaslavl Anna
before 1125
four children
11 February 1138 Son of Mstislav the Great.
Yuri I the Long-Armed 1099 1132

1134-1135
Pereyaslavl Two wives
fifteen children
15 May 1157 Son of Vladimir II Monomakh.
Iziaslav II 1096[15] 1132-1133 Pereyaslavl Agnes of Germany
before 1151
five children

Rusudan of Georgia[15]
1154
no children
13 November 1154[15] Son of Mstislav the Great. 1st time.
Viacheslav I 1083 1133-1134 Pereyaslavl Unknown
before 1139
one child
2 February 1154 1st time in both principalities. Deposed.
1139 Kiev
Andrew I the Good 11 August 1102 1119-1135 Volhynia Unknown
(daughter of Tugor-khan of Polotsk)
c.1117
two children
22 January 1141 Son of Vladimir II Monomakh.
1135-1141 Pereyaslavl
Iziaslav II 1096[15] 1135-1141 Volhynia Agnes of Germany
before 1151
five children

Rusudan of Georgia[15]
1154
no children
13 November 1154[15] Son of Mstislav the Great. 1st time.
Sviatoslav IV 1123 1141-1146 Volhynia Maria of Polotsk
1143
eight children
25 July 1194 Son of Vsevolod II.
Vsevolod II 1104 1127-1139 Chernigov Maria of Rus'
1116
one child
1 August 1146 Grandson of Sviatoslav II, married Maria, sister of Mstislav the Great, Yaropolk II and Viacheslav I.
1139-1146 Kiev
Vladimir II Davidovich ? 1139-1151 Chernigov Unknown
1144
one child
12 May 1151 Son of his predecessor.
Vladimir Volodarovich 1104 1141-1153 Halych Sophia of Hungary
c.1117
four children
1153 Reunited the principalities of Zvenigorod, Peremyshl, and Terebovlia under his rule, to form the Principality of Halych.
Saint Igor II 1096 1146 Kiev Unmarried 19 September 1147 Brother of Vsevolod II. Deposed.
Iziaslav II 1096[15] 1141-1146 Pereyaslavl Agnes of Germany
before 1151
five children

Rusudan of Georgia[15]
1154
no children
13 November 1154[15] Son of Mstislav the Great
1146-1149 Kiev and Volhynia
1149-1151 Volhynia
1151-1154 Kiev
Mstislav II the Brave 1125 1146-1149

1151-1154
Pereyaslavl Agnes of Poland
1151
three children
19 August 1170 Son of Iziaslav II.
Yuri I the Long-Armed 1099 1149-1151

1155-1157
Kiev Two wives
fifteen children
15 May 1157 Son of Vladimir II Monomakh.
Rostislav ? 1149-1151 Pereyaslavl Unknown
before 1151
three children
1151 Son of Yuri I.
Sviatopolk II After 1096 1151-1154 Volhynia Euphemia of Olomouc[16]
1143 or 1144
no children
20 February 1154 Son of Mstislav the Great.
Rostislav I 1110 1154

1158-1162
Kiev Unknown
eight children
14 March 1167 Brother of Iziaslav II.
Iziaslav III 1115 1151-1154 Chernigov Unknown
one child
6 March 1161 Grandson of Sviatoslav II. In 1161 jointly with Rostislav I.
1154-1155 Kiev
1155-1157 Chernigov
1157-1158

1161
Kiev
Yaroslav Vladimirovich the Eight-Minded 1130 1153-1187 Halych Olga Yurievna of Vladimir-Suzdal
four children

Nastasia
one child
1 October 1187
Vladimir III Mstislavich 1132 1154-1157 Volhynia Unknown name
(daughter of Grand Prince Beloš Vukanović of Serbia)
1150
four children
1173 Son of Mstislav the Great.
Sviatoslav III Olgovich 1106/1107 1154-1155

1157-1164
Chernigov Unknown
six children
1164 Grandson of Sviatoslav II.
Mstislav II the Brave 1125 1157-1170 Volhynia Agnes of Poland
1151
three children
19 August 1170 Son of Iziaslav II.
1167-1169

1170
Kiev
Gleb 1125 1154-1169 Pereyaslavl Unknown
1154
three children
20 January 1171 Son of Yuri I.
1169

1170-1171
Kiev
Vladimir III 1157 1169-1187 18 April 1187 Pereyaslavl Unknown
1180
no children
Son of his predecessor.
Sviatoslav Mstislavich ? 1170-1173 Volhynia Unknown 1173/93 Son of Mstislav the Brave.
Roman II the Great 1152 1173-1188 Volhynia Predslava of Kiev
1170 or 1180
two children

Anna Angelina of Byzantium
c.1197
two children
19 June 1205 Son-in-law of Rurik II.
Vsevolod Mstislavich ? 1188 Volhynia Unknown 1196 Son of Mstislav the Brave.
Vladimir III Mstislavich 1132 1171 Kiev Unknown name
(daughter of Grand Prince Beloš Vukanović of Serbia)
1150
four children
1173 Son of Mstislav the Great.
Michael I 1151 1171 Kiev Theodosia
before 1176
two children
20 June 1176 Son of Yuri I.
Roman I before 1149 1171-1173

1175-1177
Kiev Maria of Novgorod
9 January 1149
three children
14 June 1180 Son of Rostislav I.
Vsevolod III the Big Nest 1151 1173 Kiev Maria Shvarnovna
fourteen children

Liubava Vasilkovna of Vitebsk
1209
no children
15 April 1212 Son of Yuri I.
Rurik II before 1157 1173

1180-1182

1194-1202

1203-1204

1206

1207-1210
Kiev Unknown
1163

Anna of Turov[17]
before 1176
six children
1215 Son of Rostislav I.
Sviatoslav IV 1123 1164-1173 Chernigov Maria of Polotsk
1143
eight children
25 July 1194 Son of Vsevolod II.
1173-1174 Kiev and Chernigov
1174-1177 Chernigov
1177-1180 Kiev and Chernigov
1182-1194 Kiev
Yaroslav II 1132 1174-1175

1180
Kiev Richeza of Bohemia
1149
four children
1180 Son of Iziaslav II.
Yaroslav II Vsevolodovich 1139 1180-1198 Chernigov Irene[18][19][20]
before 1171
three children
1198 Son of Vsevolod II.
Yaroslav II the Red ? 1187-1199 Pereyaslavl Unmarried 1199 Grandson of Yuri I.
Oleg Yaroslavich Nastasich ? 1187 Halych Unknown 1187/8
Vladimir Yaroslavich ? 1187-1188
1189-1199
Halych Boleslava
c.1166
one child
1187/8
Igor II the Brave 3 April 1151 1198-1201 Chernigov Euphrosyne Yaroslavna of Halych[21]
before 1170
five children
1201 Son of Sviastoslav (IV) Olgovich.
Yaroslav III 8 February 1191 1199-1206 Pereyaslavl Unknown
1205
no children

Rostislava of Novgorod
1214
(annulled 1216)
no children

Theodosia of Ryazan
1218
twelve children
30 September 1246 Son of Vsevolod III of Kiev.
Vsevolod IV the Red ? 1201-1206 Chernigov Maria of Poland
14 October or 24 December 1178[22] or 14 November 1179
one child
August 1212 Sons of Sviatoslav V, co-ruled in Chernigov.
1206-1207 Kiev and Chernigov
1207-1210 Chernigov
1210-1212 Kiev and Chernigov
Oleg II Sviatoslavich ? 1202-1204 Chernigov Unknown
1176
two children
1204
Igor III 1152 1202-1203
1212-1214
Kiev Unknown
five children
1220 Son of Yaroslav II.
Roman II the Great
(Роман Мстиславич)
1152
Son of Mstislav II of Kiev and Agnes of Poland
1188-1189 Volhynia and Halych Predslava of Kiev
1170 or 1180
two children

Anna-Euphrosyne Angelina
c.1197
two children
19 June 1205
Zawichost
aged 52–53
Son-in-law of Rurik II. His reign marked the rise of Galicia-Volhynia as a Kievan Rus' successor state.
1189-1198 Volhynia
1198-1204 Volhynia and Halych, then Galicia-Volhynia
1204-1205 Kiev and Galicia-Volhynia
Rostislav II 13 April 1172 Kiev Verchoslava of Kiev
15 June 1187
one child
3 March 1218 Son of Rurik II and son-in-law of Vsevolod III. Ruled with Roman, his brother-in-law.
Saint Michael II 1185 1206 Pereyaslavl Helena of Galicia-Volhynia
1210 or 1211[23]
seven children
20 September 1246 Son of Vsevolod the Red.
Vladimir IV September-
December 1187
1206-1213 Pereyaslavl unknown
before 1239
four children
3 March 1239 Son of Rurik II.
Rurik II before 1157 1212-1215[24] Chernigov Unknown
1163

Anna of Turov[17]
before 1176
six children
1215 Son of Rostislav I.
Vladimir V Vsevolodovich 26 October 1192 1213-1215[25] 6 January 1227 Pereyaslavl unknown
before 1239
four children
Son of Vsevolod the Big Nest. After his death the Principality was integrated on the Principality of Yaroslavl and then on the Principality of Vladimir.
Pereyaslavl was annexed by Yaroslavl, and then by Vladimir-Suzdal. See List of Russian rulers for later princes.
Mstislav III the Old 1156 1214-1223 Kiev Unknown
1116
seven children
2 June 1223 Son of Roman II.
Gleb I c.1168 1215-1217 Chernigov Anastasia of Kiev
1183
three children
1215 or 1220[19] Son-in-law of Rurik II.
Mstislav I c.1168 1217-1223 Chernigov Yasynya-Marfa Shvarnovna
1183
four children
31 May 1223 Brother-in-law of Vsevolod the Big Nest.
Vladimir IV September-
December 1187
1223-1233 Kiev unknown
before 1239
four children
3 March 1239 Son of Rurik II.
Saint Michael II 1185 1223-1234 Chernigov Helena of Galicia-Volhynia
1210 or 1211[23]
seven children
20 September 1246 Son of Vsevolod the Red. 1st time.
Iziaslav IV 1186 1233-1236 Kiev Agafia
no children
1255 Son of Mstislav III.
Mstislav II before 1215/1220 1234-1239 Chernigov Unknown
before 1239
two children
after 18 October 1239
Yaroslav III 8 February 1191 1236-1238

1246
Kiev Unknown
1205
no children

Rostislava of Novgorod
1214
(annulled 1216)
no children

Theodosia of Ryazan
1218
twelve children
30 September 1246 Son of Vsevolod III of Kiev.
Saint Michael II 1185 1238-1239
1239-1243
Kiev Helena of Galicia-Volhynia
1210 or 1211[23]
seven children
20 September 1246 Son of Vsevolod the Red. While in negotiations with the Golden Horde, his son Rostislav Mikhailovich took briefly Kiev throne in 1239, before being expelled by Daniel of Galicia, who put Voivode Dmytro to protect Kiev's throne until Michael's return in 1240. However the city was destroyed in that year. Regained Chernigov throne in 1243, co-ruling with Andrew Mstislavich.
1243-1246 Kiev and Chernigov
Andrew I Mstislavich[26] ? 1245-1246 Chernigov Unknown 1246 Son of Mstislav II. Co-ruling with Michael II.
Rostislav Mikhailovich after 1210 1239-1243 Chernigov Anna of Hungary
1243
five children
1262 Son of Michael the Saint.
1239 Kiev
Andrew II Vsevolodovich ? 1246-1263 Chernigov Unknown 1263 Brother of Michael II.
Saint Alexander Nevsky 13 May 1221 1246-1263 Kiev Praskovia-Alexandra of Polotsk
1239
five children

Vassilissa
before 1263
no children
14 November 1263 Son of his predecessor.
Yaroslav IV 1230 1263-1272 Kiev Natalia
before 1252
two children

Saint Xenia of Tarusa
1265
four children
16 September 1272 Brother of his predecessor.
Leo I 1228 1272-1301 Kiev Constance of Hungary
1116
one child
1301 Son of Daniel I. Also King of Galicia-Volhynia. After his death in 1301, Kiev fell in the hands of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Util at least 1362, were installed Lithuanian governors in Kiev.[27]

Kings and Princes of Galicia-Volhynia (1199–1349)

Galicia-Volhynia was a Ruthenian (Ukrainian, Belarussian, and Russian) state in Galicia and Volhynia. Depending on the title of the ruler it was called either principality or kingdom.

Portrait Name Born-Died Ruled From Ruled Until
Roman II the Great, Prince of Novgorod (1168–1170), Prince of Volhynia (1170–1188, 1189–1205), Prince of Halych (1188, 1199–1205), and Grand Prince of Kiev (1204–1205) fl.1160–1205 1199 1205
Coloman of Galicia-Lodomeria, Hungarian prince Kálmán, Prince of Halych (1214–15), became the first anointed and crowned and King of Galicia-Volhynia (rex Galiciae et Lodomeriae) in 1215 1208–1241 1214 1219
Daniel I of Galicia, held many titles since early childhood culminating with the crowning by a papal legate, archbishop Opizo, in Dorohychyn in 1253, King of Rus', Grand Prince of Kiev 1201–1264 1205 1264
Lev I, King of Rus', Prince of Belz (1245–1264), Prince of Peremyshl and Halych (1264–1269) who moved the capital of Galicia from Kholm to Lviv in 1272, Grand Prince of Kiev (1271–1301) 1228–1301 1293 1301
Yuri I, King of Rus', Prince of Belz (1264–1301) fl.1252–1308 1301 1308
Andrew II and Lev II, Kings of Rus', princes, joint rule, the last members of the Rurikid dynasty to rule Ukraine ?–1323 1308 1323
Yuri II-Boleslaw, natus dux et dominus Russiae, a member of the Piast dynasty (the first historical ruling dynasty of Poland) 1308–1340 1325 1340
Liubartas, prince, a member of the Gediminid dynasty, the last Ruthenian-Lithuanian ruler of Galicia-Volhynia, Prince of Volhynia (1323–1384) c. 1300–1384 1340 1349

In 1349, Liubartas lost all territories, except for eastern Volhynia, to Casimir III of Poland. In 1366, a Polish-Lithuanian treaty was signed: eastern Volhynia with Lutsk retained under Liubartas' rule (the Grand Duchy of Lithuania), while Galicia, western Volhynia, and western Podolia were annexed by the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland.

In the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1362–1569) and Kingdom of Poland (1569–1667/1793)

Princes of Kiev

In the early 1320s, a Lithuanian army led by Gediminas defeated a Slavic army led by Stanislav of Kiev at the Battle on the Irpen' River, and conquered the city. The Tatars, who also claimed Kiev, retaliated in 1324–1325, so while Kiev was ruled by a Lithuanian prince, it had to pay a tribute to the Golden Horde. Finally, as a result of the Battle of Blue Waters in 1362, Kiev and surrounding areas were incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania.

Kostiantyn Vasyl Ostrozky

Voivodes of Kiev

When the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was formed by the Union of Lublin in 1569, Kiev and surrounding areas, Podolia, Volhynia, and Podlaskie, as the Kiev Voivodeship, Bratslav Voivodeship, Volhynian Voivodeship, and Podlaskie Voivodeship, were transferred from Lithuania to Poland.

Crimean khans (1441–1783)

Crimean Tatars were not of the Ukrainian ethnos. Their Crimean Khanate ruled a large part of modern Ukraine, with a capital at Bakhchisaray.

Meñli I Giray (centre) with the eldest son, future khan Mehmed I Giray (left) and Turkish sultan Bayezid II (right)
İslâm III. Giray
Date of Reign Name Notes
1441–1466 Hacı I Giray
1466–1467 Nur Devlet first reign
1467 Meñli I Giray first reign
1467–1469 Nur Devlet second reign
1469–1475 Meñli I Giray second reign
1475 Hayder
1475–1476 Nur Devlet third reign
1476–1478 dynasty dismissed from power
1478–1515 Meñli I Giray third reign
1515–1523 Mehmed I Giray
1523–1524 Ğazı I Giray
1524–1532 Saadet I Giray
1532 İslâm I Giray
1532–1551 Sahib I Giray
1551–1577 Devlet I Giray
1577–1584 Mehmed II Giray
1584 Saadet II Giray
1584–1588 İslâm II Giray
1588–1596 Ğazı II Giray first reign
1596 Fetih I Giray
1596–1607 Ğazı II Giray second reign
1607–1608 Toqtamış Giray
1608–1610 Selâmet I Giray
1610–1623 Canibek Giray first reign
1623–1628 Mehmed III Giray
1628–1635 Canibek Giray second reign
1635–1637 İnayet Giray
1637–1641 Bahadır I Giray
1641–1644 Mehmed IV Giray first reign
1644–1654 İslâm III Giray
1654–1666 Mehmed IV Giray second reign
1666–1671 Adil Giray
1671–1678 Selim I Giray first reign
1678–1683 Murad Giray
1683–1684 Hacı II Giray
1684–1691 Selim I Giray second reign
1691 Saadet III Giray
1691–1692 Safa Giray
1692–1699 Selim I Giray third reign
1699–1702 Devlet II Giray first reign
1702–1704 Selim I Giray fourth reign
1704–1707 Ğazı III Giray
1707–1708 Qaplan I Giray first reign
1709–1713 Devlet II Giray second reign
1713–1715 Qaplan I Giray second reign
1716–1717 Devlet III Giray
1717–1724 Saadet IV Giray
1724–1730 Meñli II Giray first reign
1730–1736 Qaplan I Giray third reign
1736–1737 Fetih II Giray
1737–1740 Meñli II Giray second reign
1740–1743 Selamet II Giray
1743–1748 Selim II Giray
1748–1756 Arslan Giray first reign
1756–1758 Halim Giray
1758–1764 Qırım Giray first reign
1765–1767 Selim III Giray first reign
1767 Arslan Giray second reign
1767–1768 Maqsud Giray
1768–1769 Qırım Giray second reign
1769–1770 Devlet IV Giray first reign
1770 Qaplan II Giray
1770–1771 Selim III Giray second reign
1771–1775 Sahib II Giray
1775–1777 Devlet IV Giray second reign
1777–1782 Şahin Giray first reign
1782 Bahadır II Giray
1782–1783 Şahin Giray second reign
† The reigns of Canibek Giray in 1624 and of Maqsud Giray in 1771–1772 are not listed. Though these khans were formally appointed by Ottoman sultans they did not reach the throne and did not rule Crimea. In the years mentioned, the authority in the Crimean Khanate was exercised by Mehmed III Giray and Sahib II Giray correspondingly.
Note: The nominal khans Şahbaz Giray (1787–1789) and Baht Giray (1789–1792) mentioned in some works are not listed in this table as they did not rule the Crimean Khanate annexed by Russian Empire in 1783.

Hetmans of Ukrainian Cossacks (1506–1775)

A Hetman was a military and civil leader, democratically elected by the Cossacks.

Hetmans and commanders of Ukrainian Cossacks

Several Cossack regiments were operating in Ukraine at this time that were largely independent of each other, so some of the Hetmans' tenures overlap.

1486 - 1492  Yuri Pats   governor of Kyiv; organizer Cossack units.
1488 - 1495  Bogdan Glinski   Cossack leader, destroyer Ochakov.
1492 - 1505  Dmitry Putyatych  Cossack leader.
1510 - 1524  Senka Polozovych   governor of Kyiv; Cossack leader.
1514 - 1535  Ostap Dashkevych  Cossack leader.
1516 - 1528  Przecław Lanckoroński   Cossack leader.
1550 - 1557  Dmytro Vyshnevetsky   founder of the fortress at Minor Khortytsia.
1568  Birulya governmental   Cossack leader.
1568  Carp Oil   Cossack leader.
1568  Andrush   Moldavian boyar Cossack leader.
1568  Lisun   Cossack leader.
1568  Yatsko Belous   Cossack leader.
1568  Andrew Lyakh   Cossack leader.
1577 - 1578  Ioan Potcoavă   Cossack leader.
1578  Lukyan Chornynskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1581  Samuel Zborowski   Cossack leader, hetman.
1584  Bogdan Mykoshynskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1585  Michael Ruzhinskogo   Cossack leader, hetman.
1585  Kirik Ruzhinskogo   Cossack leader, hetman.
1585  Zachary Kulaga   Cossack leader, hetman.
1586  Lukyan Chornynskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1586  Bogdan Makoshynskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1588  Potrebatskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1589  Zachary Kulaga   Cossack leader, hetman.
1594  Bogdan Mykoshynskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1594 - 1596  Hryhoriy Loboda   Cossack leader.
1594 - 1596  Severyn Nalyvaiko   Cossack leader.
1596  Matthew Shaul   Cossack leader, hetman.
1596  Krzysztof Krempskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1596  Krzysztof Nechkovskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1596 - 1597  Gnat Vasiljevic   Cossack leader, hetman.
1597  Tykhin Baybuza   Cossack leader, hetman.
1598  Florian Giedroyc   Cossack leader.
1598  Mitlovskyy   Cossack leader.
1602 - 1603  John Kutskovych   Cossack leader, hetman.
1603  John Oblique   Cossack leader, hetman.
1606  Gregory Izapovych   Cossack leader, hetman.
1606  Samuel Zborowski   Cossack leader, hetman.
1606  Olevchenko Bogdan   Cossack leader, hetman.
1617  Dmitry Barabash   Cossack leader, hetman.
1618  Michael Skiba   Cossack leader.
1619 - 1621   Yatsko Nerodych   Cossack leader, hetman.
1620  Peter Odynets   Cossack leader.
1624  Hryhoriy Chorny   Cossack leader, hetman.
1625  Theodore Pyrskyy   Cossack leader, hetman.
1628  Hryhoriy Chorny   Cossack leader, hetman.
1629 - 1630  Hryhoriy Chorny   Cossack leader, hetman.
1630  Taras Fedorovych   Cossack leader, hetman.
1632  Simon Tying   Cossack leader, hetman.
1632  Andrey Didenko   Cossack leader, hetman.
1633  Dorofiy Doroshenko   Cossack leader, acting hetman.
1633  kettlebell Kanevets   Cossack leader.
1633 - 1635  Ivan Sulyma   Cossack leader, hetman.
1636 - 1637  Basil Tomylenko   Cossack leader, hetman.
1637  Pavel Mikhnovych   Cossack leader, hetman.
1638  James Ostrainyn   Cossack leader, hetman.
1638  Dmytro Hunia   Cossack leader, hetman.
1639 - 1642  Carp half-housings   Cossack leader, hetman.
1642 - 1646  Maxim Gulak   Cossack leader, hetman.

Hetmans of the Cossack state

Following the Khmelnytsky uprising a new Cossack republic, the Hetmanate, was formed.

# Hetman Elected (event) Took office Left office
1 Bohdan Khmelnytsky
(1596–1657)
Зиновій-Богдан Хмельницький
1648 (Sich) 26 January 1648 6 August 1657 died
2 Yurii Khmelnytsky
(1641–1685)
Юрій Хмельницький
death of his father 6 August 1657 27 August 1657 reconsidered by the Council of Officers
3 Ivan Vyhovsky
(????–1664)
Іван Виговський
1657 (Korsun) 27 August 1657
(confirmed: 21 October 1657)
11 September 1659 surrendered title
4 Yurii Khmelnytsky
(1641–1685)
Юрій Хмельницький
1659 (Hermanivka) 11 September 1659
(confirmed: 11 September 1659)
October 1662 surrendered title

Hetmans during the Ruin

The Ruin (1660–1687) was a time in Ukrainian history when the country fell into disarray and chaos. Afterwards, the Cossack state emerged as a vassal of the Russian Empire. During this period a number of hetmans stayed in power for short periods of time and often controlled only parts of the country. Moreover, the Treaty of Andrusovo (1667) split the Cossack Hetmanate along the Dnieper River into Left-bank Ukraine, which enjoyed a degree of autonomy within the Tsardom of Russia; and Right-bank Ukraine which remained part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and at times (1672–1699) part of the Ottoman Empire.

Right-bank Ukraine Left-bank Ukraine
Polish protectorate
Russianй protectorate
1660—1663 Yurii Khmelnytsky 1660—1663 Yakym Somko
1663—1665 Pavlo Teteria 1663—1668 Ivan Briukhovetsky
1665—1668 Petro Doroshenko
Unification
1668—1669 Petro Doroshenko
Partition
Right-bank Ukraine Left-bank Ukraine
Osman protectorate
Polish protectorate
Russian protectorate
Swedish protectorate
1669—1676 Petro Doroshenko 1669—1674 Mykhailo Khanenko 1669—1672 Demian Mnohohrishny
1678—1681 Yurii Khmelnytsky 1675—1679 Ostap Gogol 1672—1687 Ivan Samoilovych
1681—1684 Gheorghe Duca 1683—1684 Stefan Kunicki
1685 Yurii Khmelnytsky 1684—1689 Andrii Mohyła
1687—1708 Ivan Mazepa
Unification
1708—1722 Ivan Skoropadsky 1708—1709 Ivan Mazepa
1708—1718 Pylyp Orlyk
1718—1742 Pylyp Orlyk 1722—1724 Pavlo Polubotok
1727—1734 Danylo Apostol
1750—1764 Kirill Razumovsky

In the Russian Empire (1667/1793–1917) and Austria-Hungary (1526/1772–1918)

After the dissolution of the Cossack Hetmanate, a new Malorossiyan collegium was established in 1764, and the Zaporozhian Host was disbanded in 1775. As a result of the second and third Partitions of Poland in 1793 and 1795, eastern and central parts of Ukraine were incorporated directly into the Russian Empire. Western Ukraine was annexed into the Habsburg Monarchy earlier, in the following order: Carpathian Ruthenia (1526), Galicia (1772), and Bukovina (1775).

The Russian Empire existed until 1917, and the Dual Monarchy, Austria–Hungary, existed until 1918.

Ukrainian People's Republic (1917–1921)

The Ukrainian People's Republic (UNR, 1917–1921) was formed after the Russian Revolution of 1917, and lasted until the Peace of Riga between Poland and Soviet Russia in March 1921. The leadership title varied and, despite a rather widespread misconception, none of them had the official title of president.

Chairmen of the Central Council

The Central Council (Tsentral’na rada) was the representative body governing the UNR.

  Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionary Party

Portrait Name In Office From In Office Until Party
1 Mykhailo Hrushevskyi
1866–1934
27 March 1917 29 April 1918 Ukrainian Socialist-Revolutionary Party

Hetman of the Ukrainian State

A very short lived Hetmanate was established by Pavlo Skoropadskyi in 1918.

# Hetman Elected (event) Took office Left office
1 Pavlo Skoropadskyi
1873–1945
Russian Revolution of 1917 29 April 1918 14 December 1918 Removed from power in an uprising led by the social democrat Symon Petliura

Chairmen of the Directory

The Directorate of Ukraine was a provisional council of the UNR formed after Skoropadskyi's Hetmanate fell apart. On 22 January 1919, the Act of Unification of the Ukrainian People's Republic and the West Ukrainian People's Republic was passed. The text of the universal was made by the members of the Directory.

  Ukrainian Social Democratic Labour Party

Portrait Name In Office From In Office Until Party
1 Volodymyr Vynnychenko
1880–1951
14 December 1918 11 February 1919 Ukrainian Social Democratic Labour Party
2 Symon Petliura
1879–1926
11 February 1919 10 November 1920 Ukrainian Social Democratic Labour Party

West Ukrainian People's Republic (1918–1919)

The government of the West Ukrainian People's Republic (WUNR) was proclaimed on 19 October 1918. WUNR was united with the Ukrainian People's Republic on 22 January 1919, although it was mostly a symbolic act while the western Ukrainians retained their own Ukrainian Galician Army and government structure. After the Polish-Ukrainian War (1918–1919), Poland took over most of territory of the West Ukrainian People's Republic by July 1919. Since November 1919, the government of the WUNR was in exile.

President of the Ukrainian National Republic

  Ukrainian People's Labor Party

Portrait Name In Office From In Office Until Party
1 Yevhen Petrushevych
1863–1940
19 October 1918 15 March 1923 Ukrainian People's Labor Party

President of the Carpatho-Ukraine

  Christian People's Party

Portrait Name In Office From In Office Until Party
1 Avgustyn Voloshyn
1874–1945
15 March 1939 16 March 1939 Christian People's Party

Ukrainian State (1941)

Prime Minister of the Ukrainian State

  Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists

Portrait Name In Office From In Office Until Party
1 Yaroslav Stetsko
1912–1986
30 June 1941 9 July 1941 Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists

Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (1918/1919–1991)

Ukraine was incorporated into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on 30 December 1922.

Secretaries of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine

Mykola Skrypnyk

First Secretary of the Central Committee

Executive Secretary of the Central Committee

First Secretaries of the Communist Party

General Secretaries of the Central Committee

First Secretaries of the Central Committee

Nikita Khrushchev

Ukraine (1991 – present)

On 5 July 1991, the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian SSR passed a law establishing the post of the President of the Ukrainian SSR. The title was changed to the President of Ukraine upon the proclamation of independence (24 August 1991). The first election of the President of Ukraine was held on 1 December 1991.

Presidents

  Independent / Non-partisan   Our Ukraine   Party of Regions   Batkivshchyna   Petro Poroshenko Bloc / UDAR

Portrait Presidents Term of office Presidential mandate Affiliation
1 Leonid Kravchuk
(b. 1934)
Леонід Кравчук
5 December 1991
Inauguration: 22 August 1992[a]
19 July 1994 1991 — 61.59%
19,643,481
Independent / Non-partisan
2 Leonid Kuchma
(b. 1938)
Леонід Кучма
19 July 1994 14 November 1999 1994 — 52.3%
14,016,850
Independent / Non-partisan
14 November 1999 23 January 2005 1999 — 57.7%
15,870,722
3 Viktor Yushchenko
(b. 1954)
Віктор Ющенко
23 January 2005 25 February 2010 2004 — 51.99%
15,115,712
Non-partisan (2004–2005)
Our Ukraine (2005–nowadays)
4 Viktor Yanukovych
(b. 1950)
Віктор Янукович
25 February 2010 22 February 2014[b] 2010 — 48.95%
12,481,266
Non-partisan[28]
(Supported by Party of Regions)
Oleksandr Turchynov
(b. 1964)
Олександр Турчинов
(acting)
22 February 2014 7 June 2014 ex officio
(as Chairman of Parliament, Article 112)
Batkivshchyna
5 Petro Poroshenko
(b. 1965)
Петро Порошенко
7 June 2014 Incumbent 2014 — 54.70%
9,857,308
Non-partisan
(Supported by Petro Poroshenko Bloc & UDAR)

See also

References

  1. ^ "Definition of UKRAINIANS". www.merriam-webster.com.
  2. ^ uk:Скіфські царі
  3. ^ "shvoong.com - Resources and Information". www.shvoong.com.
  4. ^ "Nordiska furstar lade grunden till Ryssland". historiskamedia.se.
  5. ^ Suszko, Henryk (2003). Latopis hustyński. Opracowanie, przekład i komentarze. Slavica Wratislaviensia CXXIV. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego. ISBN 83-229-2412-7; Tolochko, Oleksiy (2010). The Hustyn' Chronicle. (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Texts). ISBN 978-1-932650-03-7
  6. ^ DNA Testing of the Rurikid and Gediminid Princes
  7. ^ "Sveerne". www.fortidensjelling.dk.
  8. ^ Палій, Олександр (4 June 2015). "Історія України: Посібник". Yuri Marchenko – via Google Books.
  9. ^ Leszek Moczulski, Narodziny Międzymorza, p.475, Bellona SA, Warszawa 2007 ISBN 978-83-11-10826-4
  10. ^ Vladimir Plougin: Russian Intelligence Services: The Early Years, 9th-11th Centuries, Algora Publ., 2000
  11. ^ History of Ukraine-Rus': From prehistory to the eleventh century, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 1997
  12. ^ Also known as Jarisleif I. See Google books
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ According to A. Nazarenko. It was thought not long ago that the first wife of Sviatopolk was Barbara Komnene, a supposed daughter of Alexios I Komnenos. However, the lack of tradition of such a name in the Byzantine Empire led to doubt. Today she may be considered fictional.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i Monomakh branch (Mstyslavychi) at Izbornik
  16. ^ Л.Войтович КНЯЗІВСЬКІ ДИНАСТІЇ СХІДНОЇ ЄВРОПИ
  17. ^ a b Template:ВТ-МЭСБЕ
  18. ^ Charles Cawley (2009-03-14). "Russia, Rurikids - Grand Princes of Kiev, Princes of Chernigov, descendants of Sviatoslav II, Grand Prince of Kiev (fourth son of Iaroslav I)". Medieval Lands. Foundation of Medieval Genealogy. Retrieved 2009-04-10.
  19. ^ a b Dimnik, Martin. The Dynasty of Chernigov - 1146-1246.
  20. ^ The chroniclers neglect to reveal the identity of Yaroslav’s wife, but the Lyubetskiy sinodik calls her Irene; Dimnik, Martin op. cit. 121.
  21. ^ Basing their observations on the evidence of the Lay of Igor’s Campaign, a number of historians have suggested that her name was Evfrosinia and that she may have been Igor’s second wife; on the other hand, the chronicles neither give Yaroslavna’s name nor suggest that she was Igor’s second wife; Dimnik, Martin op. cit. 121.
  22. ^ Cawley, Charles (14 March 2009), Russia, Rurikids - Rostislav Mikhailovich died 1263, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, retrieved August 20122 Check date values in: |accessdate= (help),[self-published source][better source needed]
  23. ^ a b c Thurston, Herbert (Editor). Butler’s Lives of the Saints - September.
  24. ^ Some authors give Rurik II a two-year-reign (1210-1212), and attribute to Vsevolod the Red a second reign (1212-1215), which, in this case, would mean that Vsevolod died in 1215, and not in 1212.
  25. ^ До половецкого плена; Соловьёв С. М. История России с дневнейших времён
  26. ^ "История монголов Карпини. Электронная библиотека исторического факультета МГУ". www.hist.msu.ru.
  27. ^ "Розділ 4.1. Леонтій Войтович. Князівські династії Східної Європи". izbornyk.org.ua.
  28. ^ "Янукович припинив членство у Партії регіонів". unian.net.



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