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Styles and titles in the Joseon Dynasty

Styles and titles in the Joseon Dynasty

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During the Joseon Dynasty royal titles and styles (forms of address) had been extensive and complex. The general title of the king was wang (왕, 王), while Gojong of Korea crowned himself hwangje (황제), or emperor, a title that was only allowed for Chinese emperors.[1] Official titles came with official forms of address, depending on who the addressee was and by whom he or she was addressed.

Royal family

Naming

Rulers in Korea (following Chinese customs) had several names, changing with their titles. Sons were given children's names, and when they were appointed crown prince, they were given an adult name and the crown prince name. When they became king, they were addressed as such, personal names were not used. After the death of a king, he was given several names. One is the temple name (묘호, myoho), which he was given when his spirit tablet was placed at Jongmyo Shrine. This is the name by which historians usually refer to Joseon kings. The myoho could end in either jo (조, 祖, "founder") or jong (종, 宗). The preceding syllable was an adjective suitable for the king. The other name was the posthumous name (시호, siho). This is a longer name, made up of adjectives characteristic of the king's rule.[2][3][4] For example, Gyeongjong of Joseon's posthumous name was Gyeongjong Gakgong Deokmun Ingmu Sunin Seonhyo Daewang (경종각공덕문익무순인선효대왕), while his temple name was Gyeongjong.

Titles and styles

Forms of address were combined with names, titles or both, for example:

  • Taejo daewang mama ("His Royal Highness [the departed] great king Taejo")
  • Donggung mama (used by older relatives); seja joha (His Royal Highness the Crown Prince)
  • Gongju agissi (in childhood); gongju mama (in adulthood) (Her Royal Highness, the Princess)
Title Forms of address Explanation
Revised Romanization Hangul Hanja RR Hangul Hanja
Monarch
Wang[5]

Jusang[6]
Imgeum[5]
Narannim[7]
Gukwang[8]
Geumsang[9]
Sanggam[10]
Daejeon[11]
Gwain[12]


주상
임금
나랏님
국왕
금상
상감
대전
과인

主上


國王
今上
上監
大殿
寡人
Jeonha 전하 殿下 The King, the current monarch. He was addressed in different ways depending on the speaker and the situation.
Sangwang 상왕[13] 上王 Jeonha 전하 殿下 Former King, a yet living king who has voluntarily abdicated to the current king.
Taesangwang 태상왕[14] 太上王 Jeonha 전하 殿下 Grand King Former, an abdicated king whose relinquishment of power precedes that of another former king.
Seondawang 선대왕[15] 先大王 Mama 마마 媽媽 Great Predecessor King, a deceased king's title and form of address. See also: Daewang
Daewang 대왕[16] 大王 Mama 마마 媽媽 Great King, deceased formed king, see also: Seondaewang
Main consort of monarch
Wangbi
Jungjeon
왕비[17]

중전[18]

王妃
中殿
Mama 마마 媽媽 Queen consort, the main consort of the current king.
Taesangwangbi 태상왕비[14] 太上王妃 Mama 마마 媽媽 Queen consort of a Taesangwang
Daebi 대비[19] 大妃 Mama 마마 媽媽 Queen dowager, the main consort of the deceased king (perhaps the mother of the current king).
Wangdaebi 왕대비[20] 王大妃 Mama 마마 媽媽 Royal Queen dowager, a former king's main consort preceding a daebi or current king's aunt or grandmother.
Daewangdaebi 대왕대비[21] 大王大妃 Mama 마마 媽媽 Grand Royal Queen dowager, a former king's main consort senior to daebi and wangdaebi or current king's great-grandmother.
Wanghu 왕후[22] 王后 Mama 마마 媽媽 A queen's posthumous title.
Parents of monarch
Daewongun 대원군[23] 大院君 Mama 마마 媽媽 When a king's father was not himself king before, he was given this title. It approximately means "grand prince".
Budaebuin 부대부인[24] 府大夫人 Mama 마마 媽媽 Wife of a Daewongun
Buwongun 부원군[25] 府院君 Daegam 대감 大監 The queen consort's father, translates roughly to "Prince" and his form of address as "His lordship".
Bubuin 부부인 府夫人 The queen consort's mother.
Monarch's descendant and their main consorts
Wonja 원자[26] 元子 Mama 마마 媽媽 Prince Royal. Title and form of address of the king's eldest son, before he is appointed crown prince.
Wangseja
Seja
Donggung[27]
왕세자[28]

세자[28]
동궁[29]

王世子
世子
東宮
Jeoha
Jeoha
Mama
저하
저하
마마
邸下
邸下
媽媽
Crown prince, the son of the king who appointed as heir to the throne.
Wangsejabin
Sejabin
Bingung
왕세자빈[30]
세자빈[30]
빈궁[31]
王世子嬪
世子嬪
嬪宮
Mama 마마 媽媽 Crown princess consort, main consort of the heir to the throne.
Wangseje 왕세제[32] 王世弟 Jeoha 저하 邸下 The king's brother when appointed as heir
Wangseson 왕세손[33] 王世孫 Hapa 합하 閤下 The crown prince's son.
Daegun 대군[34] 大君 Daegam 대감 大監 Grand prince, the son of the king and queen consort, not entitled to be crown prince.
Bubuin 부부인[35] 府夫人 Mama 마마 媽媽 Wife of a prince bearing the title of "Daegun".
Gun
Wangja
[36]
왕자

王子
Daegam 대감 大監 Prince, the son of the king and concubine, or the king's grandson born from a son not appointed crown prince. They were addressed as wangja before adulthood.
Gunbuin 군부인[37] 郡夫人 Mama 마마 媽媽 Wife of a prince addressed as "Gun".
Gongju 공주[38] 公主 Agissi
Mama
아기씨
마마

媽媽
Princess, the daughter of the king and queen consort. Agissi was used in childhood, Mama was used in adulthood.
Ongju 옹주[39] 翁主 Agissi
Mama
아기씨
마마

媽媽
Princess, the daughter of the king and concubine.
Gunwi 군위 君尉 Buma 부마[40] 駙馬 The king's son in law, a princess' husband.
Sources: Royalark[41][42]

Consorts and concubines

Consorts and concubines of the king in the harem (hugung, 후궁/ 後宮) had a certain rank, according to which their titles and forms of address were formulated.[41] Titles came with the form of address of mama (마마 / 媽媽).

Ranks in order after the queen consort:

Hangul Hanja Revised romanization Rank
Consorts (bi, 비)
귀비 貴妃 Gwibi senior 1 (정1품)[43]
숙비 淑妃 Sukbi
원비 元妃 Wonbi
덕비 德妃 Deokbi
현비 賢妃 Hyeonbi
Concubines (Gwibin, 귀빈)
Bin[44] senior 1 (정1품)
귀인 貴人 Gwiin junior 1 (종1품)
소의 昭儀 Soui senior 2 (정2품)
숙의 淑儀 Sugui junior 2 (종2품)
소용 昭容 Soyong senior 3 (정3품)
숙용 淑容 Sugyeong junior 3 (종3품)
소원 昭媛 Sowon senior 4 (정4품)
숙원 淑媛 Sugwon junior 4 (종4품)
Crown prince's concubines[45]
양제 良娣 Yangje junior 2 (종2품)
양원 良媛 Yangwon junior 3 (종3품)
승휘 承徽 Seunghwi junior 4 (종4품)
소훈 昭訓 Sohun junior 5 (종5품)
Sources: Royalark[41][42][46]

Royal court

Hangul Hanja Revised Romanization Rank
Court ladies (Gungnyeo, 궁녀)[47]
상궁 尙宮 Sanggung senior 5 (정5품)
상의 尙儀 Sangui
상복 尙服 Sangbok junior 5 (종5품)
상식 尙食 Sangsik
상침 尙寢 Sangchim senior 6 (정6품)
상공 尙功 Sanggong
상정 尙正 Sangjeong junior 6 (종6품)
상기 尙記 Sanggi
전빈 典賓 Jeonbin senior 7 (정7품)
전의 典衣 Jeoni
전선 典膳 Jeonseon
전설 典設 Jeonseol junior 7 (종7품)
전제 典製 Jeongje
전언 典言 Jeoneon
전찬 典贊 Jeonchan senior 8 (정8품)
전식 典飾 Jeonshik
전약 典藥 Jeonyak
전등 典燈 Jeondeung junior 8 (종8품)
전채 典彩 Jeonchae
전정 典正 Jeonjeong
주궁 奏宮 Jugung senior 9 (정9품)
주상 奏商 Jusang
주각 奏角 Jugak
주변징 奏變徵 Jubyeonjing junior 9 (종9품)
주징 主徵 Jujing
주우 奏羽 Juu
주변궁 奏變宮 Jubyeongung
Eunuchs (naesi, 내시)[48]
상선 尙膳 Sangseon junior 2 (종2품)
상온 尙醞 Sangon senior 3 (정3품)
상다 尙茶 Sangda
상약 尙藥 Sangyak junior 3 (종3품)
상전 尙傳 Sangjeon senior 4 (정4품)
상책 尙冊) Sangchaek junior 4 (종4품)
상호 尙弧 Sangho senior 5 (정5품)
상탕 尙帑 Sangtang junior 5 (종5품)
상세 尙洗 Sangse senior 6 (정6품)
상촉 尙燭 Sangchok junior 6 (종6품)
상훼 尙煊 Sanghwe senior 7 (정7품)
상설 尙設 Sangseol junior 7 (종7품)
상제 尙除 Sangje senior 8 (정8품)
상문 尙門 Sangmun junior 8 (종8품)
상경 尙更 Sanggyeong senior 9 (정9품)
상원 尙苑 Sangwon junior 9 (종9품)

References

  1. ^ Ian Mladjov. "KOREA (HANGUK/JOSEON)" (pdf). University of Michigan. Retrieved 2014-04-01.
  2. ^ "Rediscovering aesthetics of Jongmyo Shrine". Korea Times. Retrieved 2015-12-09.
  3. ^ "Korea: Notes". archontology.org. Retrieved 2015-12-09.
  4. ^ "조선시대 국왕호칭의 종류와 의미 The Kinds and Meaning of King's Name in the Chosun Dynasty". 역사와경계 (in English and Korean). NRF (52): 46–67. 2004. Retrieved 2015-12-09.
  5. ^ a b "왕" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  6. ^ "주상" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  7. ^ "나랏님" (in Korean). Daum Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-01.
  8. ^ "국왕" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  9. ^ "금상" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  10. ^ "상감" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  11. ^ "대전" (in Korean). Britannica Korea. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  12. ^ The king used to address himself this way. "과인" (in Korean). Daum Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  13. ^ "상왕" (in Korean). Daum Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  14. ^ a b "태상왕" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  15. ^ "선대왕" (in Korean). Daum Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  16. ^ "대왕" (in Korean and English). Daum Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-01.
  17. ^ "왕비" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  18. ^ "중전" (in Korean). Daum Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  19. ^ "대비" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  20. ^ "왕대비". National Institute of Korean History. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  21. ^ "대왕대비" (in Korean). National Institute of Korean History. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  22. ^ "왕후" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  23. ^ "대원군" (in Korean and English). Daum Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-01.
  24. ^ "부대부인" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  25. ^ "부원군" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  26. ^ "원자" (in Korean and English). Daum Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-01.
  27. ^ Could only be used by older relatives
  28. ^ a b "왕세자" (in Korean). Daum Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  29. ^ "동궁" (in Korean). Daum Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-02.
  30. ^ a b "왕세자빈" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  31. ^ "빈궁" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  32. ^ "왕세제" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2015-12-10.
  33. ^ "왕세손" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  34. ^ "대군" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  35. ^ "부부인" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  36. ^ "군" (in Korean). Britannica Korea. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  37. ^ "군부인" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  38. ^ "공주" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  39. ^ "옹주" (in Korean). Britannica Korea. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  40. ^ "부마" (in Korean). Naver Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  41. ^ a b c "Styles and Titles". Royalark. Retrieved 2014-04-01.
  42. ^ a b "Glossary". Royalark. Retrieved 2015-12-13.
  43. ^ "정일품" (in Korean). Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2014-04-15.
  44. ^ Had several different versions, like 희빈 (Huibin) / 숙빈 (Sukbin) / 경빈 (Gyeongbin) / 창빈 (Changbin) / 선빈 (Seonbin) etc.
  45. ^ "궁인직" (in Korean). Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2014-04-15.
  46. ^ "궁궐(宮闕)" (in Korean). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2015-12-13.
  47. ^ "궁녀" (in Korean). Britannica Korea via Daum. Retrieved 2014-04-15.
  48. ^ "내시부" (in Korean). Britannica Korea via Daum. Retrieved 2014-04-15.


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