Jumptonavigation Jumptosearch TurksinAlgeriaTotalpopulation5%ofAlgeria'spopulationbeingofTurkishdescent(2008OxfordBusinessGroupestimate)..">
|5% of Algeria's population being of Turkish descent (2008 Oxford Business Group estimate)|
600,000 - 2,000,000 (2008 Turkish Embassy Report)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Sunni Islam (Hanafi school)|
The Turks in Algeria, also commonly referred to as Algerian Turks, Algerian-Turkish Algero-Turkish and Turkish-Algerians (Arabic: أتراك الجزائر; French: Turcs d'Algérie; Turkish: Cezayir Türkleri) are ethnic Turkish descendants who, alongside the Arabs and Berbers, constitute an admixture to Algeria's population. During Ottoman rule, Turkish settlers began to migrate to the region predominately from Anatolia and many intermarried with the native population; the male offspring of these marriages were referred to as Kouloughlis (Turkish: kuloğlu) due to their mixed Turkish and central Maghrebi heritage. Consequently, the terms "Turks" and "Kouloughlis" have traditionally been used to distinguish between those of full and partial Turkish ancestry.
In the late nineteenth century the French colonisers in North Africa classified the populations under their rule as "Arab" and "Berber", despite the fact that these countries had diverse populations, which were also composed of ethnic Turks and Kouloughlis. According to the U.S. Department of State "Algeria's population, [is] a mixture of Arab, Berber, and Turkish in origin"; whilst Australia's Department of Foreign Affairs has reported that the demographics of Algeria includes a "strong Turkish admixture".
Thus, today, numerous estimates suggest that Algerians of Turkish descent still represent 5% to 25% (including partial Turkish origin) of the country's population. Since the Ottoman era, the Turks settled mostly in the coastal regions of Algeria and Turkish descendants continue to live in the big cities today. Moreover, Turkish descended families also continue to practice the Hanafi school of Islam (in contrast to the ethnic Arabs and Berbers who practice the Maliki school) and many retain their Turkish-origin surnames—which mostly express a provenance or ethnic Turkish origin from Anatolia. The Turkish minority have formed the Association des Turcs algériens (Association of Algerian Turks) to promote their culture.
The foundation of Ottoman Algeria was directly linked to the establishment of the Ottoman province (beylerbeylik) of the Maghreb at the beginning of the 16th century. At the time, fearing that their city would fall into Spanish hands, the inhabitants of Algiers called upon Ottoman corsairs for help. Headed by Oruç Reis and his brother Hayreddin Barbarossa, they took over the rule of the city and started to expand their territory into the surrounding areas. Sultan Selim I (r. 1512-20) agreed to assume control of the Maghreb regions ruled by Hayreddin as a province, granting the rank of governor-general (beylerbey) to Hayreddin. In addition, the Sultan sent 2,000 janissaries, accompanied by about 4,000 volunteers to the newly established Ottoman province of the Maghreb, whose capital was to be the city of Algiers. These Turks, mainly from Anatolia, called each other "yoldaş" (a Turkish word meaning "comrade") and called their sons born of unions with local women "Kuloğlu’s", implying that they considered their children's status as that of the Sultan's servants. Likewise, to indicate in the registers that a certain person is an offspring of a Turk and a local woman, the note "ibn al-turki" (or "kuloglu") was added to his name.
The exceptionally high number of Turks greatly affected the character of the city of Algiers, and that of the province at large. In 1587, the province was divided into three different provinces, which were established where the modern states of Algeria, Libya and Tunisia, were to emerge. Each of these provinces was headed by a Pasha sent from Constantinople for a three-year term. The division of the Maghreb launched the process that led eventually to the janissary corps' rule over the province. From the end of the 16th century, Algiers's Ottoman elite chose to emphasize its Turkish identity and nurture its Turkish character to a point at which it became an ideology. By so doing, the Algerian province took a different path from that of its neighboring provinces, where local-Ottoman elites were to emerge. The aim of nurturing the elite's Turkishness was twofold: it limited the number of the privileged group (the ocak) while demonstrating the group's loyalty to the Sultan. By the 18th century there was 50,000 janissaries concentrated in the city of Algiers alone.
The lifestyle, language, religion, and area of origin of the Ottoman elite's members created remarkable differences between the Algerian Ottoman elite and the indigenous population. For example, members of the elite adhered to Hanafi law while the rest of the population subscribed to the Maliki school. Most of the elites originated from non-Arab regions of the Empire. Furthermore, most members of the elite spoke Ottoman Turkish while the local population spoke Algerian Arabic and even differed from the rest of the population in their dress.
From its establishment, the military-administrative elite worked to reinvigorate itself by enlisting volunteers from non-Arab regions of the Ottoman Empire, mainly from Anatolia. Hence, local recruiting of Arabs was almost unheard of and during the 18th century a more or less permanent network of recruiting officers was kept in some coastal Anatolian cities and on some of the islands of the Aegean Sea. The recruitment policy was therefore one of the means employed to perpetuate the Turkishness of the Ottoman elite and was practiced until the fall of the province in 1830.
During the 18th century, the militia practiced a restrictive policy on marriages between its members and local women. A married soldier would lose his right of residence in one of the city's eight barracks and the daily ration of bread to which he was entitled. He would also lose his right to purchase a variety of products at a preferential price. Nonetheless, the militia's marriage policy made clear distinctions among holders of different ranks: the higher the rank, the more acceptable the marriage of its holder. This policy can be understood as part of the Ottoman elite's effort to perpetuate its Turkishness and to maintain its segregation from the rest of the population. Furthermore, the militia's marriage policy, in part, emerged from fear of an increase in the number of the kuloğlus.
The kuloğlu’s refers to the male offspring of members of the Ottoman elite and the local Algerian women. Due to their link to the local Algerian population via his maternal family, the kuloğlus' loyalty to the Ottoman elite was suspected because of the fear that they might develop another loyalty; they were therefore considered a potential danger to the elite. However, the son of a non-local woman, herself an "outsider" in the local population, represented no such danger to the Ottoman elite. Therefore, the Algerian Ottoman elite had a clear policy dictating the perpetuation of its character as a special social group separated from the local population.
Nonetheless, John Douglas Ruedy points out that the kuloğlu’s also sought to protect their Turkishness:
"Proud and distinctive appearing, Kouloughlis often pretended to speak only Turkish and insisted on worshipping in Hanafi [i.e. Ottoman-built] mosques with men of their own ethnic background. In times of emergency they were called upon to supplement the forces of the ojaq."
In the neighbouring province of Tunisia, the maintenance of the Turkishness of the ruling group was not insisted upon, and the kuloğlus could reach the highest ranks of government. However, the janissary corps had lost its supremacy first to the Muradid dynasty (Murad Bey's son was appointed bey), and then to the Husainid Dynasty. The Tunisian situation partly explains the continuation of the Algerian janissary corps' recruitment policy and the manifest will to distance the kuloğlus from the real centres of power. Nonetheless, high-ranking kuloğlus were in the service of the ocak, in military and in administrative capacities, occupying posts explicitly considered out of bounds for them; although there were no kuloğlus who was dey during the 18th century, this seems to be the only exception.
Once Algeria came under French colonial rule in 1830, approximately 10,000 Turks were expelled and shipped off to Smyrna; moreover, many Turks (alongside other natives) fled to other regions of the Ottoman realms, particularly to Palestine, Syria, Arabia, and Egypt. Nonetheless, by 1832, many Algerian-Turkish descended families, who had not left Algeria, joined a coalition with Emir Abdelkader in order to forge the beginning of a powerful resistance movement against French colonial rule.
In 1926 Messali Hadj - an Algerian of Turkish origin - founded the first modern nationalist movement for Algerian independence. Another prominent Algerian nationalist leader of Turkish origin was Ahmed Tewfik El Madani who, as the leader of the Association of Algerian Muslim Ulema, continued to influence Algerian nationalism. Ahmed Tewfik was also a historian who argued that the Turkish era in Algeria was defamed by European historians and provided the French with convincing arguments to justify their colonial actions. He maintained that the Ottoman Turks had unified Algeria's territory and saved the country from the grip of Christianity as well as from the fate of Muslim Spain. Furthermore, he stated that the Turks who settled in Algeria were "perfection and nobility itself" and emphasised their contributions to Algerian society, such as the establishment of religious endowments, mosques and waterworks. By 1956 the Reformist Ulema, under the leadership of Ahmed Tewfik, joined the Algerian National Liberation Front to fight for Algerian independence.
In 2011 Algerian journalist Mustafa Dala reported in the "Echorouk El Yawmi" that Algerians of Turkish origin - particularly the youth - are seeking to revive the Turkish language in Algeria. In his investigation, Dala found that the Turkish minority are already distinguishable by their different customs, especially in regards to clothes and foods, as well as by their Turkish surnames. However, he states that the revival of the Turkish language is a sign of the minority restoring their identity and highlights the "new Ottomans" in Algeria.
The following list are examples of Turkish origin surnames which express an ethnic and provenance origin from Eastern Thrace and Anatolia - regions which today form the modern borders of the Republic of Turkey:
|Surname used in Algeria||Turkish||English translation|
|Baghlali||Bağlılı||from Bağlı (in Çanakkale)|
|Ben Kazdağılı||I am from Kazdağı|
|Benmarchali||Ben Maraşlı||I am from Maraş|
|Benterki||Ben Türk||I am Turk/Turkish|
|Ben Türk||I am Turk/Turkish|
|Ben Türkiye||I am [from] Turkey|
|Chatli||Çatlı||from Çat (in Erzurum)|
|Chilali||Şileli||from Şileli (in Aydın)|
|Cholli||Çullu||from Çullu (in Aydın)|
|Coulourli||Kuloğlu||Kouloughli (mixed Turkish and Algerian origin)|
|Djabali||Cebali||from Cebali (a suburb in Istanbul)|
|Djeghdali||Çağataylı||Chagatai (Turkic language)|
|Djitli||Çitli||from Çit (in Adana or Bursa)|
|Douali||Develi||from Develi (in Kayseri)|
|Guellati||Galatalı||from Galata (in Istanbul)|
|Kamen||Kaman||Kaman (in Nevşehir)|
|Karabaghli||Karabağlı||from Karabağ (in Konya)|
|Karadaniz||Karadeniz||from the Black Sea region|
|Kayalı||from Kaya (applies to the villages in Muğla and Artvin)|
|Kebzili||Gebzeli||from Gebze (in Kocaeli)|
|Kermeli||Kermeli||from the Gulf of Kerme (Gökova)|
|Kuloğlu||Kouloughli (mixed Turkish and Algerian origin)|
|Koulali||Kulalı||from Kulalı (in Manisa)|
|Kuloğlu||A Kouloughli (mixed Turkish and Algerian origin)|
|Kozlou||Kozlu||from Kozlu (in Zonguldak)|
|Menemenli||from Menemen (in Izmir)|
|Sancak||from [a] sanjak (an administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire)|
|Satli||Çatlı||from Çat (in Erzurum)|
|Sekelli||İskeleli||from Iskele (in Muğla, Seyhan, or the island of Cyprus)|
|Sekli||Sekeli||from Seke (in Aydın)|
|Skoudarli||Üsküdarlı||from Üsküdar (in Istanbul)|
|Tchambaz||Cambaz||Cambaz (in Çanakkale)|
|Takarli||Taraklı||from Taraklı (in Adapazarı)|
|Tekali||Tekeeli||from Tekeeli (a coastal area between Alanya and Antalya)|
|Türkmenli||Turkmen (from Anatolia/Mesopotamia)|
|Yarmali||Yarmalı||from Yarma (in Konya)|
The following list are examples of Turkish origin surnames which express a provenance settlement of Turkish families in regions of Algeria:
|Surname used in Algeria||Turkish||Meaning in English|
The following list are examples of Turkish origin surnames traditionally used by Turkish families in Constantine:
Acheuk-Youcef, Ali Khodja, Bachtarzi, Benabdallah Khodja, Benelmadjat, Bestandji, Bendali Braham, Bentchakar, Bensakelbordj, Bentchikou, Khaznadar, Salah Bey, Tchanderli Braham.
The following list are examples of some Turkish origin surnames which express the traditional occupation of Turkish families which settled in Algeria:
|Surname used in Algeria||Turkish||English translation|
|Ahtchi||ahçı, aşçı||cook, keeper of restaurant|
|Bachtarzi||baş terzi||chief tailor|
|Bachtoubdji||baştopçu||chief cannoneer, artilleryman|
|Baldji||balcı||maker or seller of honey|
|pazarbaşı||head of bazaar|
|Benabadji||ben abacı||[I am a] maker or seller of garments|
|Benchauch||ben çavuş||[I am a] sergeant|
|Benchoubane||ben çoban||[I am a] shepherd|
|Bendamardji||ben demirci||[I am a] metalworker|
|Bendali||ben deli||[I am a] deli (Ottoman troops)|
|Benlagha||ben ağa||[I am a] agha|
|Benstaali||ben usta||[I am a] master, workman, craftsman|
|Bentobdji||ben topçu||[I am a] cannoneer|
|çelebi||educated person, gentlemen|
|Debladji||tavlacı||stable boy or backgammon player|
|Dey||dayı||officer or maternal uncle|
|Djadouadji||kahveci||coffee maker or seller|
|Hazerchi||hazırcı||seller of ready-made clothing|
|Kahouadji||kahveci||café owner or coffee maker/grower|
|Kaouadji||kahveci||café owner or coffee maker/grower|
|Kaznadji||hazinedar||keeper of a treasury|
|Kehouadji||kahveci||café owner or coffee maker/grower|
|Khaznadar||hazinedar||keeper of a treasury|
|Khaznadji||hazinedar||keeper of a treasury|
|Louldji||lüleci||maker or seller of pipes|
|Ouldchakmadji||çakmakçı||maker or seller of flints/ |
maker or repairer of flintlock guns
|sabuncu||maker or seller of soap|
|Selmadji||silmeci||cleaner or to measure|
|Serkadji||sirkeci||maker or seller of vinegar|
|Staali||usta||master, workman, craftsman|
|Surname used in Algeria||Turkish||English translation|
|Bektach||bektaş||member of the Bektashi Order|
|Benchicha||ben şişe||[I am] a bottle|
|Benhadji||ben hacı||[I am] a Hadji|
|Benkara||ben kara||[I am] dark|
|Bensari||ben sarı||[I am] blonde|
|ben topal||[I am] crippled|
|bu kara||[this is] dark|
|çelebi||educated person, gentlemen|
|Chelbi||çelebi||educated person, gentlemen|
|Djabali||çelebi||educated person, gentlemen|
|Karabadji||kara bacı||dark sister|
|Kerroudji||kurucu||founder, builder, veteran|
|Ouksel||yüksel||to succeed, achieve|
|Sari||sarı||yellow or blond|
|Tarakli||taraklı||having a comb, crested|
|Tchalabi||çelebi||educated person, gentlemen|
The Algerian Turks generally take pride in their Ottoman-Turkish heritage but also have integrated successfully into Algerian society. Their identity is based on their ethnic Turkish roots and links to mainland Turkey but also to the customs, language, and local culture of Algeria. Due to the three centuries of Turkish rule in Algeria, today many cultural (particularly in regards to food, religion, and dress - and to a lesser extent language), architectural, as well as musical elements of Algeria are of Turkish origin or influence.
During the Ottoman era, the Ottoman Turkish language was the official governing language in the region, and the Turkish language was spoken mostly by the Algerian Turkish community. However, today most Algerian Turks speak the Arabic language as their mother tongue. Nonetheless, the legacy of the Turkish language is still apparent and has influenced many words and vocabulary in Algeria. An estimated 634 Turkish words are still used in Algeria today. Therefore, in Algerian Arabic it is possible for a single sentence to include an Arabic subject, a French verb, and for the predicate to be in Berber or Turkish.
Moreover, families of Turkish origin have retained their Turkish family surnames; common names include Barbaros, Hayreddin, Osmanî, Stambouli, Torki, Turki, and Uluçali; job titles or functions have also become family names within the Algerian-Turkish community (such as Hazneci, Demirci, Başterzi, Silahtar).
The Ottoman Turks brought the teaching of the Hanafi law of Sunni Islam to Algeria; consequently, their lifestyle created remarkable differences between the Ottoman Turks and the indigenous population because the ethnic Arabs and Berbers practiced the Maliki school.
Today, the Hanafi school is still practiced among the Turkish descended families. Moreover, the Ottoman mosques in Algeria - which are still used by the Turkish minority - are distinguishable by their octagonal minarets which were built in accordance with the traditions of the Hanafi rite.
In 1993 the Turkish scholar Prof. Dr. Metin Akar estimated that there was 1 million Turks living in Algeria. By 2008 a country report of Algeria by the Oxford Business Group stated that 5% of Algeria's 34.8 million inhabitants were of Turkish descent (accounting to 1.74 million). In the same year, a report by the Turkish Embassy in Algeria stated that there was between 600,000-700,000 people of Turkish origin living in Algeria; however, the Turkish Embassy report also stated that according to the French Embassy's records there was around 2 million Turks in Algeria.
In recent years, several Turkish academics, as well as Turkish official reports, have reiterated that estimates of the Turkish population range between 600,000 and 2 million. However, a 2010 report published by the Directorate General for Strategy Development points out that these estimates are likely to be low because 1 million Turks migrated and settled in Algeria throughout the 315 years of Ottoman rule. Moreover, the report suggests that due to intermarriages with the local population, 30% of Algeria's population was of Turkish origin in the eighteenth century. In 1953 the Turkish scholar Dr. Sabri Hizmetli claimed that people of Turkish origin still made up 25% of Algeria's population.
By 2013 the American historian Dr. Niki Gamm argued that the total population of Turkish origin remains unclear and that estimates range between 5-10% of Algeria's population of 37 million (accounting to between 1.85 million and 3.7 million) However, by 2015 the Russian government-controlled news agency Sputnik, citing the 2014 Algerian population statistics, reported that there are 760,000 people of full Turkish origin (i.e. 2% of Algeria's population), whilst those of full and partial Turkish origin account to 9.5 million of Algeria's 38 million inhabitants (i.e. 25% of Algeria's population).
Since the Ottoman era, urban society in the coastal cities of Algeria evolved into an ethnic mix of Turks and Kouloughlis as well as other ethnic groups (Arabs, Berbers, Moors, and Jews). Thus, the Turks settled mainly in the big cities of Algeria and formed their own Turkish quarters; remnants of these old Turkish quarters are still visible today, such as in Algiers (particularly in the Casbah) Annaba, Biskra, Bouïra, Médéa, Mostaganem, and Oran (such as in La Moune and the areas near the Hassan Basha Mosque). Indeed, today, the descendants of Ottoman-Turkish settlers continue to live in the big cities. In particular, the Turks have traditionally had a strong presence in the Tlemcen Province; alongside the Moors, they continue to make up a significant portion of Tlemcen's population and live within their own sectors of the city.
The Turkish minority have traditionally also had notable populations in various other cities and towns; there is an established Turkish community in Arzew, Bougie, Berrouaghia, Cherchell, Constantine, Djidjelli, Mascara, Mazagran Oued Zitoun, and Tebessa. There is also an established community in Kabylie (such as Tizi Ouzou and Zammora).
Moreover, several suburbs, towns and cities, which have been inhabited by the Turks for centuries, have been named after Ottoman rulers, Turkish families or the Turks in general, including: the Aïn El Turk district (literally "Fountain of the Turks") in Oran, the town of Aïn Torki in the Aïn Defla Province, the Aïn Turk commune in Bouïra, the town of Bir Kasdali and the Bir Kasd Ali District in the Bordj Bou Arréridj Province, the town of Bougara and the Bougara District located in Blida Province, the suburb of Hussein Dey and the Hussein Dey District in the Algiers Province, as well as the town of Salah Bey and the Salah Bey District in the Sétif Province.
There are many Algerian Turks who have emigrated to other countries and hence make up part of Algeria's diaspora. Initially, the first wave of migration occurred in 1830 when many Turks were forced to leave the region once the French took control over Algeria; approximately 10,000 were shipped off to Turkey whilst many others migrated to other regions of the Ottoman Empire, including Palestine, Syria, Arabia, and Egypt. Furthermore, some Turkish/Kouloughli families also settled in Morocco (such as in Tangier and Tétouan).
In regards to modern migration, there is a noticeable Algerian community of Turkish descent living in England. Many Algerians attend the Suleymaniye Mosque which is owned by the British-Turkish community. There is also thousands of Algerian Turks living in France. Furthermore, some Algerian Turks have also migrated to other European countries; in particular, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, as well as Canada in North America, are top receiving countries of Algerian citizens.
...the Algerian population reached 34.8 million in January 2006...Algerians of Turkish descent still represent 5% of the population and live mainly in the big cities [accounting to 1.74 million]
Bunun dışında, büyük bir bölümü Tlemcen şehri civarında bulunan ve Osmanlı döneminde buraya gelip yerleşen 600-700 bin Türk kökenli kişinin yaşadığı bilinmektedir. Fransız Büyükelçiliği, kendi kayıtlarına göre bu rakamın 2 milyon civarında olduğunu açıklamaktadır.
2014 nüfus sayımlarında çıkan 38 milyon kişilik sonuç baz alındığında, 760 bin ile 9,5 milyon arasında bir Türk azınlıktan söz etmek mümkün. 760 bin rakamı, saf Türkleri işaret ediyorken, diğer kaynakların rakamı ise farklı halklarla ‘karışmış' Cezayir Türkleri'ne ait olabilir. Bunların yanında, özellikle İngiltere ve Fransa'da olmak üzere, Avrupa ülkelerinde de binlerce Cezayir Türkü bulunduğunu belirtmek gerekiyor.
In Algeria and Tunisia, however, the Arab and Berber elements have become thoroughly mixed, with an added strong Turkish admixture.
Algeria's population, a mixture of Arab, Berber, and Turkish in origin, numbers nearly 21 million and is almost totally Moslem.
Algeria's population, a mixture of Arab, Berber, and Turkish in origin, numbered approximately 29 million in 1995, and is almost totally Muslim.
Renewed through the generations by continuous recruitment of Anatolian Turks...
Most sources stress the Anatolian origins of the core of the janissaries in Algeria....it was Kheireddine who proposed and got the Ottoman Sultan to agree that any Turk who was not a janissary or a son of a Christian but who wished to emigrate from Anatolia to Algiers would be entitled to belong to the corps of the janissaries and enjoy all the rights and privileges of this status.
Throughout North Africa, from Oran to Tunis, one encounters everywhere, in the town as in the country, the distinct traits which mark the seven races which make up the native population: the Moors, the Berbers, the Arabs, the Negreos, the Jews, the Turks and the Kouloughlis… descendants of Turks and Arab women.
From early on, the French viewed North Africa through a Manichean lens. Arab and Berber became the primary ethnic categories through which the French classified the population (Lorcin 1995: 2). This occurred despite the fact that a diverse and fragmented populace comprised not only various Arab and Berber tribal groups but also Turks, Andalusians (descended from Moors exiled from Spain during the Crusades), Kouloughlis (offspring of Turkish men and North African women), blacks (mostly slaves or gormer slaves), and Jews.
How many there are in today’s population is unclear. Estimates range from five percent to ten percent out of a total population of around 37 million
Bunun açık belgelerinden birisi, aradan birbuçuk yüzyıllık sömürgecilik döneminin geçmiş olmasına rağmen, Cezayirli ve Tunusluların 25 %'nin Türk asıllı olduğunu övünerek söylemesi, sosyal ve kültürel hayatta Türk kültürünün varlığını hissettirmeye devam etmesi, halk dilinde binlerce Türkçe kelimenin yaşamasıdir.
The majority of Algerians observe the Sunni Malekite rite. There are also "Amerites" (Sunnis of Turkish origin), Ibadists (neither Sunni nor Shia) in M'Zab, and brotherhoods mostly in the South.
Les Turcs ou leurs descendants en Algérie sont bien considérés, ont même une association (Association des Turcs algériens), sont souvent des lettrés se fondant naturellement dans la société...Les Kouloughlis (kulughlis en Turc) sont des descendants de Turcs ayant épousé des autochtones pendant la colonisation (la régence) au XVIème et XVIIème siècle...Ce qu'il reste des Turcs en Algérie? De nombreux éléments culturels, culinaires ou architecturaux, de la musique,... Des mots et du vocabulaire, des noms patronymiques comme Othmani ou Osmane (de l'empire Ottoman), Stambouli (d'Istambul), Torki (Turc) ou des noms de métiers ou de fonctions, qui sont devenus des noms de famille avec le temps.
Parmi les noms de famille d'origine turque, les plus nombreux sont ceux qui expriment une provenance ou une origine ethnique, c.-à-d., les noms qui sont dérivés de toponymes ou d'ethnonymes turcs.
Messali, an Algerian of Turkish origin who resided in Paris, founded in 1926 the first modern movement for Algerian independence
Messali Hadj est né le 16 mai 1898 à Tlemcen. Sa famille d'origine koulouglie (père turc et mère algérienne) et affiliée à la confrérie des derquaouas vivait des revenus modestes d'une petite ferme située à Saf-Saf
...Mahieddine Bachtarzi, après une longue carrière de ténor, de comédien, d'auteur dramatique et de directeur de troupe, vient de publier la première partie de ses Mémoires1, qui s'étend de 1919 à la veille de la seconde guerre mondiale. A quinze ans, ce fils de bourgeois, d'origine turque....
mon père et lui sont cousins germains par leurs mères, des sœurs Déramchi, vieilles familles citadines du Vieux Ténès d’origine turque
An Ottoman military class that separated itself from the general Algerian population through language, dress and religious affiliation... Unlike the Maliki Algerian masses, the Ottoman-Algerians remained affiliated with the Hanafi school of Islamic jurisprudence, and went to great lengths to replenish their ranks with Ottoman Turks from Anatolia...
Octagonal minarets are generally an anomaly in the Maliki world associated with the square tower. Algeria, on other hand had Ottoman influence...
It was not until the 16th century, when the protectorate of the Grand Master appointed Turkish governors to the regencies of Algiers and Tunis, that some of them constructed mosques according to the Hanefit example. The resulting structures had octagonal minarets...
Günümüzde, Arap dünyasında hâlâ Türk asıllı aileler mevcuttur. Bunların nüfusu Irak'ta 2 milyon, Suriye'de 3.5 milyon, Mısır'da 1.5, Cezayir'de 1 milyon, Tunus'ta 500 bin, Suudî Arabistan'da 150 bin, Libya'da 50 bin, Ürdün'de 60 bin olmak üzere 8.760.000 civarındadır. Bu ailelerin varlığı da Arap lehçelerindeki Türkçe ödünçleşmeleri belki artırmış olabilir.
Cezayir'de Türk rakamlarına göre 600 bin, Fransız rakamlarına göre 2 milyon Türk asıllı Cezayirlinin yaşadığını....
Bu sistem ile Osmanlı İmparatorluğunun bu topraklarda hüküm sürdüğü yaklaşık üç yüzyıllık sürede, bir milyon Türk genci Cezayir’e gönderilmiştir. Birçoğu çatışmalar ve savaşlar esnasında ölen bu gençlerden bir bölümünün sağ kalarak soylarını sürdürmekte olduğu düşünülmektedir. Cezayir resmi kaynaklarınca 600-700 bin, Fransız Büyükelçiliği’nce 2 milyon olarak açıklanan Cezayir’deki Türk asıllı vatandaş sayısı, kanaatime göre çok daha fazladır. Zira, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu döneminde gönderilen bir milyon Yeniçeri içerisinden ticaretle uğraşan ve oralardaki bayanlarla evlenerek soyunu devam ettiren çok sayıda gencin mevcut olduğu, bunların da yaklaşık 500 yıl içerisinde çoğaldıkları tahmin edilmektedir. 18. yüzyılda toplam nüfusun içerisinde % 30’luk paya sahip olan Türklerin, günümüzde % 0,2’lik (binde iki) bir paya sahip olması pek açıklayıcı görünmemektedir.
HACIANE, Mustapha Né en 1935 à Rouiba dans une famille d'origine turque. A 17 ans, il écrit au lycée des poèmes engagés...Réside à Paris..
ADJANI, ISABELLE (1955-). Actress and producer. Isabelle Yasemin Adjani was born in Gennevilliers, Frence, the daughter of a German mother and an Algerian-Turkish father.
Adjani, Isabelle. Actress. b. June 27, 1955, Paris, to an Algerian father of Turkish ancestry and a German mother.
Adjani(Isabelle) Née à Paris le 27 juin 1955, d'un père algérien d'origine turque et d'une mère allemande, Isabelle Adjani grandit dans la banlieue nordouest de Paris, à Gennevilliers.
Isabelle Adjani (1955). Isabelle Yasmine Adjani est née le 27 juin 1955 à Paris d'une mère allemande et d'un père algérien d'origine turque.
Isabelle ADJANI BIOGRAPHIE Née Isabelle Yasmine Adjani, le 27 juin 1955, Gennevilliers, France Père algérien d'origine turque, mère allemande
Son père est d'origine turque et sa mère (Chalbia) une judéo-berbère d'Algèrie.
Salim Hilali, est né un 30 juillet 1920 à Bône (Annaba), à la frontière algéro-tunisienne. Il est issu d’une famille de Souk Ahras, berceau des plus grandes tribus Chaouia, les Hilali, descendants de la Kahéna la magnifique, la prêtresse aurésienne qui régna sur l’Ifriquia (actuel Maghreb) avant la conquête arabe. Son père est d’origine turque et sa mère (Chalbia) une judéo-berbère d’Algérie.
Mohammed Racim...was born into an Algerine family of artisans of Turkish origin... Like his older brother, Omar, he was schooled to enter the family workshop....
Ecouter la parole libre de Wassyla Tamzali, c'est approcher de près toute ... Née dans une famille d'origine turque et espagnole
Les Jeux méditerranéens vont s'ouvrir à Alger, quand on apprend que le perchiste français Patrick Abada a émis le souhait de ... La vérité est pourtant toute simple : Abada est d'une vieille famille algéroise (d'origine turque) dont de ....
Ghemati Abdelkrim Né à Cherchell en 1961, d'une famille sans doute d'origine turque,....
Benaouda Hadj Hacène Bachterzi, né et décédé à Oran (1894-1958). Homme politique et publiciste, il appartenait à l'une des plus anciennes familles algéro-turques..
BENABOURA HACÈNE Alger 1898 - Alger 1961 Descendant d'une famille de notables d'origine turque demeurant à Alger depuis les frères Barbe- rousse, Benaboura est peintre en carrosserie avant de se livrer à sa passion pour la peinture..
BENCHENEB Mohamed (1869-1929)... Mohamed ben Larbi ben Mohamed Bencheneb est né le 26 octobre 1869 à Ain Dheheb (Takbov, Médéa) au sein d'une famille dont les ancêtres, originaires de Brousse (Turquie)....
Bencheneb est père de 4 filles et 5 garçons, Saâdedine (1907), Larbi (1912), Rachid (1915), Abdelatif (1917) et le dernier Djaffar..
Ali Bencheneb est né le 13 juin 1947 à Alger dans une famille d'universitaires (son grand-père, Mohamed Bencheneb, a été un enseignant et un humaniste reconnu au début du XXe siècle)..
BEN CHERIF Lakhdar (1899-1967). - Poète populaire. Lakhdar B. Cherif Al Imam B. Ibrahim B. Ahmed naquit à El-Oued. Sa mère, d'origine turque, s'appelait Mériem bent Salah Khiari..
le parti politique du Docteur Bendjelloul (d'origine turque mais natif de Constantine).
Selon nos sources, cette maison d'époque ottomane appartenait à El Haj Omar Bengui, suite à son mariage avec la fille de Mostefa Ben Karim. Cette dernière était une notable de la famille Bey Kara Ali une famile d'origine Turque, proche du Bey Brahim El Greitli (l'avant dernier Bey de Constantine de l'Empire Ottoman). Leur fils, Slimane Bengui, était manufacturier de tabac, au coeur de la médina. En 1893, Slimane Bengui devient directeur du premier journal algérien de langue française, « El Hack » (« La Vérité », en arabe),.
Né le 23 octobre 1903 à Tlemcen, Djelloul Benkalfat est issu d'une vieille famille dite turque qui a donné beaucoup d'artisans d'art à la ville..
Turkish by origin, journalist by circumstances, Ben Khedda was the "most wanted man" when General Jacques Massu was confronted to deal with the terrorist activities of the F.L.N, in Algiers..
BENSMANIA Abdelhalim (1866-1933) Né à Alger dans une famille d'origine turque, son père Ali Ben Abderrahmane Khodja, dernier muphti malékite d'Alger, attacha une grande importance à son éducation morale et religieuse..
Abdelhalim Ben Smaya, Algérois d'origine turque, un des prestigieux notables et érudits d' Alger....
Dans d'autres régions d'Algérie, cela a existé : par exemple, le Kouloughli Ben Tobbal dans le Nord-Constanti- nois, ....
BEN-TRIKI Ahmad (A) Né en 1650 à Tlemcen, Turc d'origine par son père, il meurt, centenaire....
né à Relizane en juin 1929 d’une mère « d’origine arabo-turque ».
Ahmed Chaouch... est Kouloughli, descendant des Turcs ; on sait que son père et sa famille ont servi sous les Turcs..
Türklerin üst düzey görevlerde bulunması, yaşanan gelişmelerin sebeplerinden biri. Bu isimler arasında, farklı gruplarda olmalarına rağmen, Cezayir ordusunun gizli servisi DRS'nin başında Muhammed Meden, halef Atman Tartag ve Devlet Başkanı Abdülaziz Buteflika yer alıyor.
Mon père, né Algérien d'origine turque, a quitté l'Algérie pour le Maroc où il a fait sa vie après être devenu, par choix, français. Mais à chaque démarche on le croit d'abord marocain puis on sait qu'il est d'origine algérienne et turque, cela se complique..
Mourad Kaoua (par la suite député d'Alger de 1958 à 1962) d'origine turque....
C'est dans cette coquette ville côtière de Jijel qu'est né en 1951 Mohamed-Réda Benabdallah Khodja, deux ans après l'installation de sa famille constantinoise d'origine turque, dans ce plaisant littoral méditerranéen..
le Dr Ben Lerbey, issu d’une vieille famille turque d’Alger, peut-être le premier médecin algérien.
Ahmed Magdy semble très fier, même s'il se sent beaucoup plus Egyptien. «Je trouve que c'est un privilège d'être doté d'une double nationalité. Il faut savoir que ce n'est pas un fait nouveau chez nous. Ma grand-mère paternelle est d'origine turque et mon grand-père est Egyptien, alors que mes grands- parents du côté maternel ont des origines arabe et berbère..
La second objectif de Lang s'appelle Abdelmalek Ben Mohieddine. Bien que sujet algérien, cet officier se réclame de la Turquie. Fils de l'émir Abdelkader, il appartient en effet au clan de celui qui fut l'âme de la résistance algérienne à la colonisation française..
Cheikh Nador was born in Algiers in 1874 and was of Turkish origins.
sachant que d'autres avant lui avaient mis l'ancrage à l'image de Benmahmoud Omar Ali Raïs, d'origine turque, considéré comme le père du sport algérien à travers l'Avant-Garde d' Alger en 1895..
Maître Kaddour Sator est, comme lui, très proche de Ferhat Abbas au sein de l'UDMA : il écrit dans La République algérienne mais appartient plutôt à la génération d'Ahmed, et est issu d'une des grandes familles algéroise d'origine turque..
Au lendemain de la prise d'Alger, le recensement des familles d'Alger compta les Sfindja, d'origine turque, parmi les plus riches de la ville.
La secrétaire d'Etat musulmane Nafissa Sidkara, d'une vieille famille d'origine turque établie en Algérie, et caution involontaire, comme son frère le Docteur Sid Cara lui aussi membre du gouvernement français....
Mustapha Skandrani a vu le jour le 17 novembre 1920, à la Casbah d’Alger. Selon lui, ses origines seraient d’Iskander, ville turque.
cheikh Mustapha Stambouli appartenait à une famille de lettrés d'origine turque et de rite hanafite