16 Persei


16 Persei is a single,[12] suspected variable star[6] in the northern constellation of Perseus, located approximately 121 light years away based on parallax.[1] It is visible to the naked eye as a yellow-white hued star with an apparent visual magnitude of 4.22.[2] This object is moving further from the Earth with a heliocentric radial velocity of +14 km/s.[7] It displays a relatively high proper motion, traversing the celestial sphere at the rate of 0.224 per year.[13]

16 Persei
Perseus constellation map.svg
Red circle.svg
Location of 16 Persei (circled)
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Perseus
Right ascension 02h 50m 35.05979s[1]
Declination 38° 19′ 07.1080″[1]
Apparent magnitude (V) 4.22[2]
Spectral type F2III[3]
U−B color index +0.08[4]
B−V color index +0.34[4]
Variable type δ Sct(?)[5][6]
Radial velocity (Rv)+14.00[7] km/s
Proper motion (μ) RA: +195.77[1] mas/yr
Dec.: −109.98[1] mas/yr
Parallax (π)27.01 ± 0.19 mas[1]
Distance120.8 ± 0.8 ly
(37.0 ± 0.3 pc)
Absolute magnitude (MV)1.38[2]
Mass1.80[8] M
Radius3.2[9] R
Luminosity23.36[2] L
Surface gravity (log g)3.72[10] cgs
Temperature7,004[10] K
Metallicity [Fe/H]−0.04[2] dex
Rotational velocity (v sin i)149[3] km/s
Age1.44[8] Gyr
Other designations
16 Per, NSV 956, BD+37°646, FK5 2194, GC 3401, HD 17584, HIP 13254, HR 840, SAO 55928, CCDM J02506+3818A, LTT 10924[11]
Database references

Based upon a stellar classification of F2 III,[3] this matches an aging giant star that has exhausted the hydrogen at its core and is evolving away from the main sequence. It is a possible pulsating Delta Scuti variable, although there is some uncertainty about this classification.[6] However, Kunzli and North (1998) found no variation.[14] The star is 1.44[8] billion years old with 1.8[8] times the mass of the Sun and 3.2[9] times the Sun's radius. It shows a high rotation rate with a projected rotational velocity of 149 km/s,[3] which is causing an equatorial bulge that is an estimated 24% larger than the polar radius.[15] 16 Persei is radiating 23[2] times the Sun's luminosity from its photosphere at an effective temperature of 7,004 K.[10]

It has two reported visual companions: B, with magnitude 12.8 and separation 76.7", and C, with magnitude 10.43 and separation 234".[16]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Van Leeuwen, F. (2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653–664. arXiv:0708.1752. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357. S2CID 18759600. Vizier catalog entry
  2. ^ a b c d e f Anderson, E.; Francis, Ch. (2012). "XHIP: An extended hipparcos compilation". Astronomy Letters. 38 (5): 331. arXiv:1108.4971. Bibcode:2012AstL...38..331A. doi:10.1134/S1063773712050015. S2CID 119257644. Vizier catalog entry
  3. ^ a b c d Hoffleit, D.; Warren, W. H. (1995). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Hoffleit+, 1991)". VizieR On-line Data Catalog: V/50. Originally Published in: 1964BS....C......0H. 5050. Bibcode:1995yCat.5050....0H.
  4. ^ a b Mallama, A. (2014). "Sloan Magnitudes for the Brightest Stars". The Journal of the American Association of Variable Star Observers. 42: 443. Bibcode:2014JAVSO..42..443M.Vizier catalog entry
  5. ^ "NSV 956". The International Variable Star Index. AAVSO – American Association of Variable Star Observers. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  6. ^ a b c Samus, N. N.; et al. (2017). "General Catalogue of Variable Stars". Astronomy Reports. 5.1. 61 (1): 80–88. Bibcode:2017ARep...61...80S. doi:10.1134/S1063772917010085. S2CID 125853869.
  7. ^ a b Wilson, R. E. (1953). General Catalogue of Stellar Radial Velocities. Carnegie Institution for Science. Bibcode:1953GCRV..C......0W. LCCN 54001336.
  8. ^ a b c d Luck, R. Earle (2015), "Abundances in the Local Region. I. G and K Giants", Astronomical Journal, 150 (3), 88, arXiv:1507.01466, Bibcode:2015AJ....150...88L, doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/88, S2CID 118505114.
  9. ^ a b Allende Prieto, C.; Lambert, D. L. (1999). "Fundamental parameters of nearby stars from the comparison with evolutionary calculations: Masses, radii and effective temperatures". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 352: 555–562. arXiv:astro-ph/9911002. Bibcode:1999A&A...352..555A. Vizier catalog entry
  10. ^ a b c David, Trevor J.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A. (2015). "The Ages of Early-Type Stars: Strömgren Photometric Methods Calibrated, Validated, Tested, and Applied to Hosts and Prospective Hosts of Directly Imaged Exoplanets". The Astrophysical Journal. 804 (2): 146. arXiv:1501.03154. Bibcode:2015ApJ...804..146D. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/804/2/146. S2CID 33401607. Vizier catalog entry
  11. ^ "16 Per". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2019-04-01.
  12. ^ Eggleton, P. P.; Tokovinin, A. A. (September 2008). "A catalogue of multiplicity among bright stellar systems". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 389 (2): 869–879. arXiv:0806.2878. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.389..869E. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13596.x. S2CID 14878976.
  13. ^ Lépine, Sébastien; Shara, Michael M. (March 2005), "A Catalog of Northern Stars with Annual Proper Motions Larger than 0.15" (LSPM-NORTH Catalog)", The Astronomical Journal, 129 (3): 1483–1522, arXiv:astro-ph/0412070, Bibcode:2005AJ....129.1483L, doi:10.1086/427854, S2CID 2603568.
  14. ^ Kunzli, M.; North, P. (January 1998). "Are metallic A-F giants evolved AM stars? Rotation and rate of binaries among giant F stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement. 127 (2): 277–294. arXiv:astro-ph/9710226. Bibcode:1998A&AS..127..277K. doi:10.1051/aas:1998350. S2CID 7535170.
  15. ^ van Belle, Gerard T. (March 2012), "Interferometric observations of rapidly rotating stars", The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review, 20 (1): 51, arXiv:1204.2572, Bibcode:2012A&ARv..20...51V, doi:10.1007/s00159-012-0051-2, S2CID 119273474.
  16. ^ Mason, Brian D.; Wycoff, Gary L.; Hartkopf, William I.; Douglass, Geoffrey G.; Worley, Charles E. (2001). "The 2001 US Naval Observatory Double Star CD-ROM. I. The Washington Double Star Catalog". The Astronomical Journal. 122 (6): 3466. Bibcode:2001AJ....122.3466M. doi:10.1086/323920. Vizier catalog entry