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1810 (MDCCCX) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1810th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 810th year of the 2nd millennium, the 10th year of the 19th century, and the 1st year of the 1810s decade. As of the start of 1810, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
- July 9
- July 11 – Frederick Hasselborough discovers Macquarie Island, in the subantarctic.
- July 20 – Patria Boba: A junta of seven patriots, led by José Acevedo y Gómez, assemble in Bogotá in the Viceroyalty of New Granada (modern-day Colombia), to declare its independence from the Spanish Empire.
- August 2 – In Quito, Ecuador, 200 citizens are slaughtered in the Royal barracks and the surrounding streets, by royalist troops.
- August 6 – The city of Santa Cruz de Mompox, in modern-day Colombia, declares independence from the Spanish Empire.
- August 20–27 – Battle of Grand Port: The French totally defeat Royal Navy frigate squadron attempting to blockade a harbour on Isle de France (Mauritius).
- August 21 – Jean Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France, is elected Crown Prince of Sweden, by the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates.
- September 8 – The Tonquin sets sail from New York Harbor, with 33 employees of John Jacob Astor's newly created Pacific Fur Company on board. After a six-month journey around the tip of South America, the ship arrives at the mouth of the Columbia River, and Astor's men establish the fur-trading town of Astoria.
- September 16 – Grito de Dolores: Miguel Hidalgo, a Catholic priest from Guanajuato, incites the revolt that becomes the Mexican War of Independence.
- September 18 – Chile forms its First National Junta, which is the country's first step towards its independence.
- September 23 – The Republic of West Florida declares independence from Spain.
- September 26 – A new Act of Succession is adopted by the Riksdag of the Estates, and Jean Baptiste Bernadotte becomes heir to the Swedish throne.
- Amadou Lobbo initiates his jihad, in present-day Mali.
- Ching Shih and Cheung Po Tsai surrender their pirate fleet to the Chinese government.
- The first steamboat sails on the Ohio River.
- The General Union of Spinners organizes a strike action, to raise wages in the smaller UK cotton centres to the Manchester level.
- The Saint Petersburg main military engineering school becomes the first engineering higher learning institution in the Russian Empire, after the addition of officers' classes, and the application of a five-year term of teaching.
- Friedrich Krupp establishes a steel foundry in Essen.
- Rocky Point Manor is built in Harrodsburg, Kentucky.
- Moose become extinct in the Caucasus.
- 18,000 Angolans are sold at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
- Palm oil sales from West Africa to Britain reach 1,000 tons.
- 4,500 chests of opium are sold in China.
- Sake Dean Mahomed opens the Hindoostanee Coffee House, the first Indian restaurant in London.
- Dominique Vivant Denon assists the Hermitage Museum in the acquisition of Rosso Fiorentino's Madonna and Child with Cherubs in Paris
- January 3 – Antoine Thomson d'Abbadie, Irish-French geographer (d. 1897)
- January 13 – Ernestine Rose, Polish-born feminist (d. 1892)
- January 29 – Ernst Kummer, German mathematician (d. 1893)
- February 5 – Ole Bull, Norwegian violinist (d. 1880)
- February 8 – Eliphas Levi, French writer (d. 1875)
- March 1 – Frédéric Chopin, Polish composer, pianist (d. 1849)
- March 2 – Pope Leo XIII (b. Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci) (d. 1903)
- March 10 – Samuel Ferguson, Northern Irish poet, artist (d. 1886)
- March 28 – Alexandre Herculano, Portuguese writer and historian (d. 1877)
- April 8 – Hégésippe Moreau, French writer and poet (d. 1838)
- May 2 – Hans Christian Lumbye, Danish composer (d. 1874)
- May 23 – Margaret Fuller, American journalist, literary critic and feminist (drowning) (d.1850)
- May 24 – Abraham Geiger, German rabbi, founder of European Reform Judaism (d. 1874)
- May 31 – Horatio Seymour, 18th Governor of New York, 1868 Democratic Party Presidential Nominee (d. 1886)
- June 8 – Robert Schumann, German composer, pianist (d. 1856)
- June 9 – Carl Otto Nicolai, German composer, conductor (d. 1849)
- June 14 – Ward Hunt, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1886)
- July 5 – P. T. Barnum, American showman (d. 1891)
- July 20 – Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal, Prussian field marshal (d. 1900)
- July 21 – Henri Victor Regnault, French chemist, physicist (d. 1878)
- August 4 – Maurice de Guérin, French poet (d. 1839)
- August 10 – Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, 1st Prime Minister of Italy (d. 1861)
- August 24 – Theodore Parker, American preacher, Transcendentalist, and abolitionist (d. 1860)
- August 29 – Juan Bautista Alberdi, Argentinian politician, writer and Constitution main promoter (d. 1884)
- September 2 – William Seymour Tyler, American educator, historian (d. 1897)
- September 11 – James Pollock, American politician (d. 1890)
- September 29 – Elizabeth Gaskell, British novelist (d. 1865)
- October 4 – Eliza McCardle Johnson, First Lady of the United States (d. 1876)
- October 8 – James W. Marshall, American contractor, builder of Sutter's Mill (d. 1885)
- November 2 – Andrew A. Humphreys, American general, civil engineer (d. 1883)
- November 3 – Yisroel Salanter, father of the Musar movement in Orthodox Judaism (d. 1883)
- November 8 – Pierre Bosquet, French general, Marshal of France (d. 1861)
- November 26 – William Armstrong, 1st Baron Armstrong, English engineer, inventor of the Hydraulic accumulator (d. 1900)
- December 7 – Theodor Schwann, German physiologist (d. 1882)
- December 11 – Alfred de Musset, French poet (d. 1857)
- December 24 – Wilhelm Marstrand, Danish painter (d. 1873)
- January 15 – Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova, Russian princess, courtier and patron of the arts and sciences, first woman to head a scientific academy (b. 1743)
- January 20 – Benjamin Chew, Chief Justice of colonial Pennsylvania (b. 1722)
- January 23 – Johann Wilhelm Ritter, German chemist, physicist (b. 1776)
- February 20 – Andreas Hofer, Tyrolean national hero (executed) (b. 1767)
- February 24 – Henry Cavendish, British scientist (b. 1731)
- March 6 – William Washington, United States soldier (b. 1752)
- March 7 – Cuthbert Collingwood, 1st Baron Collingwood, British admiral (b. 1750)
- March 12 – Jean-François-Auguste Moulin, member of the French Directory (b. 1752)
- April 25 – Jacob Broom, American businessman, politician (b. 1752)
- April 26 – John Metcalf, English roadbuilder (b. 1717)
- May 9 – Benjamin Lincoln, major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War (b. 1733)
- May 15 – Francis Hews, Baptist preacher in Bedfordshire, England.
- May 21 – Chevalier d'Eon, French-born diplomat, spy, soldier and transvestite (b. 1728)
- May 26 – Catharina Heybeek, Dutch journalist, feminist and editor (d. 1764)
- June 7 – Luigi Schiavonetti, Italian engraver (b. 1765)
- June 26 – Joseph-Michel Montgolfier, French inventor (b. 1740)
- July 19 – Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen of Prussia (b. 1776)
- August 12 – Étienne Louis Geoffroy, French pharmacist, entomologist (b. 1725)
- August 26 – Santiago de Liniers, 1st Count of Buenos Aires, French officer in Spanish colonial military service (executed) (b. 1753)
- September 17 – Ulla von Höpken, Swedish courtier, influential socialite (b. 1749)
- October 15 – Alfred Moore, American judge (b. 1755)
- November 2 – Princess Amelia of the United Kingdom, Member of the British Royal Family (b. 1783)
- November 11
- December 2 – Philipp Otto Runge, German painter (b. 1777)
- December 5 – Kumara Swamy Desikar, Indian philosopher (b. 1711)
- September 13 – William Cushing, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (b. 1732)
- ^ Mills, William James (2003). Exploring polar frontiers: a historical encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
- ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- ^ "Chronology of Scottish History". A Timeline of Scottish History. Rampant Scotland. Retrieved March 10, 2014.
- ^ Götz Hoeppe, Why the Sky is Blue: Discovering the Color of Life (Princeton University Press, 2007) p126
- ^ George Hewitt, The Abkhazians: A Handbook (Routledge, 2013) p74
- ^ Rubin, Jeff (2005). Antarctica. Lonely Planet. p. 170. ISBN 1-74059-094-5. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
- ^ Scott, Keith (1993). The Australian Geographic book of Antarctica. Terrey Hills, NSW: Australian Geographic. p. 14. ISBN 1-86276-010-1.
- ^ "Icons, a portrait of England 1800-1820". Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved September 11, 2007.
- ^ A baptismal record gives February 22; see Frédéric Chopin for details.