1834 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1832 July 7, 1834 – November 5, 1835[a] 1836 / 1837 →

All 242[b] seats to the United States House of Representatives
122 seats were needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  James Knox Polk by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg JohnBellSecretaryofWar.png
Leader James K. Polk John Bell
Party Jacksonian Anti-Jacksonian
Leader's seat Tennessee-9th Tennessee 7th
Last election 143 seats 63 seats
Seats won 143[b][c] 75[c]
Seat change Steady Increase 12

  Third party Fourth party
  HarmarDenny2.jpg
Leader Harmar Denny John K. Griffin
Party Anti-Masonic Nullifier
Leader's seat Pennsylvania 22nd South Carolina 9th
Last election 25 seats 9 seats
Seats won 16[c] 8[c]
Seat change Decrease 9 Decrease 1

House024ElectionsMap.png

Speaker before election

John Bell
Jacksonian

Elected Speaker

James K. Polk
Jacksonian

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 24th Congress were held in 1834 and 1835 during Andrew Jackson's second term as President of the United States.

Jacksonians benefitted from the president's continued popularity and the tight party organization of the nascent Democratic Party to win a large majority of House seats for the new Congress. Their primary opponents, the Anti-Jacksonians, were coalescing and unifying as the Whig Party, reducing the influence of single-issue parties, the Anti-Masonic Party (an anti-Masonry movement) and the Nullifier Party (a John C. Calhoun-led states' rights party that supported South Carolina during the Nullification Crisis in 1832 and 1833). The Whig Party evolved from the National Republican Party and these minor parties. It appealed to diverse opponents of Jackson, including voters who perceived him as autocratic and brash, voters supporting greater spending and development on institutions and infrastructure, anti-Masons, and former Federalists. As the balance of power in the House remained unchanged, with Jacksonians holding holding 143 seats, this was the smallest loss by a President's party in the House as a result of the so-called six-year itch.

When the House convened in December 1835, future president James K. Polk, a staunch Jacksonian, was elected speaker. He defeated the incumbent speaker, John Bell, a Jacksonian who had split with the president on the national bank and other issues. Bell subsequently aligned himself with the Anti-Jacksonians in the 24th Congress.

Election summaries

The States of Arkansas and Michigan were admitted during this Congress, adding 1 seat each.[1][2]

143 8 16 75
Jacksonian N AM Anti-Jacksonian
State Type Date Total
seats
Jacksonian Anti-Jacksonian Anti-Masonic Nullifier
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Delaware At-large November 11, 1834 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia At-large October 6, 1834 9 9 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois Districts August 4, 1834 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana Districts July 7–9, 1834 3 1 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine Districts September 8, 1834 8 6 Decrease1 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts Districts November 10, 1834 12 1 Steady 8 Decrease1 3 Increase1 0 Steady
New Jersey At-large October 14, 1834 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York Districts November 3–5, 1834 40 31 Decrease1 9 Increase9 0 Decrease8 0 Steady
Ohio Districts October 14, 1834 19 9 Decrease2 9 Increase3 1 Decrease1 0 Steady
Pennsylvania Districts October 14, 1834 28 17 Increase3 3 Decrease1 8 Decrease2 0 Steady
South Carolina Districts October 13–14, 1834 9 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 7 Decrease1
Vermont Districts September 2, 1834 5 0 Steady 3 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
1835 elections
Alabama Districts August 3, 1835 5 3 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 1 Steady
Connecticut At-large April 9, 1835 6 6 Increase6 0 Decrease6 0 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana Districts August 3, 1835 7 6 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky Districts August 5, 1835 13 4 Steady 9 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland Districts October 5, 1835 8 4 Decrease2 4 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan[d] At-large October 5, 1835 1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large November 3–5, 1835 2 1 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri At-large August 3, 1835 2 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire At-large March 10, 1835 5 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina Districts August 13, 1835 13 6 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 25, 1835 2 0 Steady 0 Decrease1 2 Increase1 0 Steady
Tennessee Districts August 5–6, 1835 13 4 Decrease8 9 Increase8 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia Districts April, 1835 21 16 Increase2 5 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady
1836 elections
Arkansas[d] At-large August 1, 1836 1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total[b] 242 Increase2 143
59.1%
Steady 75
31.0%
Increase12 16
6.6%
Decrease9 8
3.3%
Decrease1
House seats
Anti-Jacksonian
30.99%
Anti-Masonic
6.61%
Jacksonian
59.09%
Nullifier
3.31%

Pennsylvania

District Incumbent Party First elected Result Candidates[3][e]
Pennsylvania 1 Joel B. Sutherland Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent re-elected. Joel B. Sutherland (Jacksonian) 61.7%
James Gowen (?) 38.3%
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 2 seats
Horace Binney Anti-Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Joseph R. Ingersoll (Anti-Jacksonian) 60.4%[e]
James Harper (Anti-Jacksonian) 59.9%
James M. Linnard (Jacksonian) 40.1%
Henry Horn (Jacksonian) 39.6%
James Harper Anti-Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 3 John G. Watmough Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Michael W. Ash (Jacksonian) 55.6%
John G. Watmough (Anti-Jacksonian) 44.4%
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 3 seats
William Hiester Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected. William Hiester (Anti-Masonic) 55.0%[e]
David Potts Jr. (Anti-Masonic) 55.0%
Edward Darlington (Anti-Masonic) 54.9%
Archibald T. Dick (Jacksonian) 45.1%
Benjamin Champneys (Jacksonian) 45.0%
John Morgan (Jacksonian) 45.0%
Edward Darlington Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent re-elected.
David Potts Jr. Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected.
Pennsylvania 5 Joel K. Mann Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Jacob Fry Jr. (Jacksonian) 55.3%
James Royer (?) 44.7%
Pennsylvania 6 Robert Ramsey Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Mathias Morris (Anti-Jacksonian) 52.4%
Henry Chapman (Jacksonian) 47.6%
Pennsylvania 7 David D. Wagener Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected. David D. Wagener (Jacksonian) 68.1%
Alexander E. Brown (?) 31.9%
Pennsylvania 8 Henry King Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
Edward B. Hubley (Jacksonian) 59.6%
Walter C. Livingston (?) 40.4%
Pennsylvania 9 Henry A. P. Muhlenberg Jacksonian 1828 Incumbent re-elected. Henry A. P. Muhlenberg (Jacksonian) 69.3%
Stanly Kirby (?) 30.7%
Pennsylvania 10 William Clark Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent re-elected. William Clark (Anti-Masonic) 54.0%
John C. Bucher (Jacksonian) 46.0%
Pennsylvania 11 Charles A. Barnitz Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Henry Logan (Jacksonian) 54.2%
Charles A. Barnitz (Anti-Masonic) 45.8%
Pennsylvania 12 George Chambers Anti-Masonic 1832 Incumbent re-elected. George Chambers (Anti-Masonic) 59.8%
Ludwig Heck (Jacksonian) 40.2%
Pennsylvania 13 Jesse Miller Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected. Jesse Miller (Jacksonian) 51.4%
Thomas Whiteside (Anti-Masonic) 48.6%
Pennsylvania 14 Joseph Henderson Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected. Joseph Henderson (Jacksonian) 52.5%
James Milliken (Anti-Masonic) 47.5%
Pennsylvania 15 Andrew Beaumont Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected. Andrew Beaumont (Jacksonian) 56.1%
Charles D. Shoemaker (?) 43.9%
Pennsylvania 16 Joseph B. Anthony Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected. Joseph B. Anthony (Jacksonian) 62.8%
Samuel J. Packer (?) 37.2%
Pennsylvania 17 John Laporte Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected. John Laporte (Jacksonian) 56.8%
Horrace Williston 43.2%
Pennsylvania 18 George Burd Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Job Mann (Jacksonian) 54.6%
Charles Ogle (Anti-Masonic) 45.4%
Pennsylvania 19 Richard Coulter Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian hold.
John Klingensmith Jr. (Jacksonian) 59.7%
Richard Coulter (Jacksonian) 40.3%
Pennsylvania 20 Andrew Stewart Anti-Masonic 1820
1830
Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Jacksonian gain.
Andrew Buchanan (Jacksonian) 58.9%
Andrew Stewart (Anti-Masonic) 41.1%
Pennsylvania 21 Thomas M. T. McKennan Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected. Thomas M. T. McKennan (Anti-Masonic) 51.3%
Thomas Ringland (Jacksonian) 48.7%
Pennsylvania 22 Harmar Denny Anti-Masonic 1829 (Special) Incumbent re-elected. Harmar Denny (Anti-Masonic) 53.5%
John M. Snowden (Jacksonian) 46.5%
Pennsylvania 23 Samuel S. Harrison Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected. Samuel S. Harrison (Jacksonian) 69.9%
John Gilmore (?) 30.1%
Pennsylvania 24 John Banks Anti-Masonic 1830 Incumbent re-elected. John Banks (Anti-Masonic) 52.2%
Samuel Power (Jacksonian) 47.8%
Pennsylvania 25 John Galbraith Jacksonian 1832 Incumbent re-elected. John Galbraith (Jacksonian) 60.6%
Thomas H. Sill (Anti-Masonic) 39.4%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Excludes states admitted during the 24th Congress.
  2. ^ a b c Includes late elections.
  3. ^ a b c d There are significant discrepancies among the sources, e.g. Dubin (pg. 113), Martis (pg. 93), and Moore (pg. 960-963), in regards to the party figures from the 1834 U.S. House elections (particularly on the number of Anti-Mason members (and which members were elected as Anti-Masons or not), and whether Dixon H. Lewis of AL-04 was a "Nullifier" or a Democrat), so deferring to Martis, pg. 93 (and "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives.) on the party figures for 1834.
  4. ^ a b New state
  5. ^ a b c For plural districts, percent is based on assumption that each voter cast as many votes as there are seats

References

  1. ^ Stat. 49
  2. ^ Stat. 50
  3. ^ Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project

Bibliography

  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.

External links

  • Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)