1862 and 1863 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1860 / 61 June 2, 1862 – November 3, 1863[a] 1864 / 65 →

All 184 seats[b] in the U.S. House of Representatives
93 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party
  GalushaAaron.jpg SSCox.jpg
Leader Galusha Grow Samuel Cox
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Pennsylvania 14th
(lost re-election)
Ohio 7th
Last election 108 seats 45 seats
Seats won 85 72
Seat change Decrease 23 Increase 27

  Third party Fourth party
  Francis Thomas of Maryland - photo portrait seated.jpg
Leader Francis Thomas
Party Unionist Independent Republican
Leader's seat Maryland 4th
Last election 28 seats 0 seats
Seats won 25 2
Seat change Decrease 3 Increase 2

Speaker before election

Galusha Grow (defeated)
Republican

Elected Speaker

Schuyler Colfax
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held during President Abraham Lincoln's first term at various dates in different states from June 1862 to November 1863. Republicans lost 22 seats and the majority, while Democrats gained 28.

The Civil War to date had been only weakly successful for the Union, but had wrought major, disruptive change in the size and reach of the Federal Government, which had hitherto been small and little seen beyond post offices, customs houses in ports, and Army posts. The Republican Party was also relatively new, yet had led the Union down a radical path of rapidly industrializing, destructive total war. Voters turned on the Administration. Points of dissatisfaction included failure to deliver a speedy victory at times verging on military incompetence, rising inflation, new taxes, ugly rumors of corruption, suspension of habeas corpus, conscription or the draft law, and racist fear of a near future in which larger numbers of free African-Americans would compete for jobs and depress wages. For example, expressing a typical sentiment, the Cincinnati Gazette editorialized that voters "are depressed by the interminable nature of this war, as so far conducted, and by the rapid exhaustion of the national resources without progress."[1]

Short of a majority, Republicans retained control with the assistance of the Unionist Party. In September 1862, President Lincoln warned the South that he planned by executive order to liberate all slaves in rebelling states as of January 1, 1863. The popularity of emancipation varied by region. It was more popular in New England and areas near the Great Lakes, and less popular in cities with large immigrant populations and in the southern portion of the North. Democrats hailed the elections as a repudiation of emancipation, but the results did not meaningfully hamper prosecution of the war.[2]

In Lincoln's home district of Springfield, Illinois, John T. Stuart, a Democrat and one of Lincoln's former law partners defeated the Republican incumbent. Forms of racism, including fear of an influx freed slaves and preventing black suffrage, were primarily responsible.[3] The sitting speaker of the House, Galusha Grow, also lost his re-election bid.

Election summaries

The eight Representatives remaining from Tennessee and Virginia in the 37th Congress were absent from the 38th Congress. Other seceded states remained unrepresented, leaving 58 vacancies[4] Upon admission, West Virginia was allotted three Representatives [5] and during the second session one seat was added for the new state of Nevada.[6]

Reapportionment transpired according to the 1860 Census, under the 1850 Apportionment Act[7] providing a total of 233 seats. A later Act added eight seats,[8] increasing the total to 241.

72 2 85 25
Democratic IR Republican Unionist
State Type Date ↑ Total seats
(Reapportionment)
Democratic Independent
Republican
Republican Unionist[c]
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Oregon At-large June 2, 1862 1 Steady 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Maine Districts September 8, 1862 5 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 4 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Indiana Districts October 14, 1862 11 Steady 7 Increase 3 0 Steady 4 Decrease 3 0 Steady
Iowa Districts 6 Increase 4 0 Steady 0 Steady 6 Increase 4 0 Steady
Ohio Districts 19 Decrease 2 14 Increase 6 0 Steady 5 Decrease 8 0 Steady
Pennsylvania Districts 24 Decrease 1 12 Increase 6 2 Increase 2 10 Decrease 9 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 1, 1862 1 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Decrease 1
Massachusetts Districts 10 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 10 Steady 0 Decrease 1
Illinois Districts November 4, 1862
(Election Day)[d]
14 Increase 5 9 Increase 4 0 Steady 5 Increase 1 0 Steady
Kansas At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan Districts 6 Increase 2 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 5 Increase 1 0 Steady
Minnesota Districts 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri Districts 9 Increase 2 0 Decrease 5 0 Steady 1 Steady 8 Increase 7
New Jersey Districts 5 Steady 4 Increase 1 0 Steady 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady
New York Districts 31 Decrease 2 17 Increase 7 0 Steady 14 Decrease 9 0 Steady
Wisconsin Districts 6 Increase 3 3 Increase 3 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
Late elections (after the March 4, 1863 beginning of the term)
New Hampshire Districts March 10, 1863 3 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Rhode Island Districts April 1, 1863 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 2 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2
Connecticut Districts April 6, 1863 4 Steady 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
Kentucky Districts August 3, 1863 9 Decrease 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 9 Steady
Vermont Districts September 1, 1863 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
California At-large September 2, 1863 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Steady 0 Steady
West Virginia[e] Districts October 22, 1863 3 Increase3 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 3 Increase 3
Maryland Districts November 3, 1863 5 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 4 Decrease 2
Secessionist States
Alabama Districts None 6 Decrease 1
Arkansas Districts None 3 Increase 1
Florida At-large None 1 Steady
Georgia Districts None 7 Decrease 1
Louisiana Districts None 5 Increase 1 Decrease 2
Mississippi Districts None 5 Steady
North Carolina Districts None 7 Decrease 1
South Carolina Districts None 4 Decrease 2
Tennessee Districts None 8 Decrease 2 Decrease 3
Texas Districts None 4 Increase 2
Virginia Districts None 11[f] Decrease 2 Decrease 5
Total[b] 184 Increase 3 72 Increase 27 2 Increase 2 85 Decrease 25 25 Decrease 5
58 Vacancies[g] 39.1% 1.1% 46.2% 13.6%
House seats
Democratic
39.1%
Independent Republican
1.1%
Republican
46.2%
Unionist
13.6%

California

Note: From statehood to 1866, California's representatives were elected state-wide at-large, with the top two vote-getters winning election from 1849 to 1858. In 1860, when California gained a seat, the top three vote-getters were elected.

District Incumbent Party Results Candidates
California at-large
Plural district with 3 seats
Timothy Phelps Republican Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Aaron A. Sargent Republican Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Frederick F. Low Republican Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

Ohio

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[9]
Ohio 1 George H. Pendleton Democratic 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 2 John A. Gurley Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 3 Clement Vallandigham Democratic 1858 (Contested) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 4 William Allen Democratic 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Ohio 5 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 6 Chilton A. White Democratic 1860 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 7 Richard A. Harrison Unionist 1861 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic loss.
Samuel S. Cox
Redistricted from the 12th district
Democratic 1856 Incumbent re-elected.
Samuel Shellabarger
Redistricted from the 8th district
Republican 1860 Incumbent lost renomination.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 8 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 9 Warren P. Noble Democratic 1860 Incumbent re-elected.
Samuel T. Worcester
Redistricted from the 13th district
Republican 1861 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican loss.
Ohio 10 James M. Ashley
Redistricted from the 5th district
Republican 1858 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 11 Valentine B. Horton Republican 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 12 Carey A. Trimble
Redistricted from the 10th district
Republican 1858 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 13 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
  • Green tickY John O'Neill (Democratic) 56.8%
  • George B. Wright (Republican) 43.2%
Ohio 14 Harrison G. O. Blake Republican 1859 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 15 Robert H. Nugen Democratic 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
James R. Morris
Redistricted from the 17th district
Democratic 1860 Incumbent re-elected.
William P. Cutler
Redistricted from the 16th district
Republican 1860 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Republican loss.
Ohio 16 New district New district.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 17 New district New district.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Ohio 18 Sidney Edgerton Republican 1858 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
Ohio 19 Albert G. Riddle Republican 1860 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Excluding states admitted after the start of Congress.
  2. ^ a b Including late elections.
  3. ^ Including Unconditional Unionists.
  4. ^ In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform date for choosing presidential electors (see: Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721). Congressional elections were unaffected by this law, but the date was gradually adopted by the states for Congressional elections as well.
  5. ^ New state.
  6. ^ Subsequently, 3 seats were transferred to the new state of West Virginia.
  7. ^ After 3 seats were reassigned from Virginia to West Virginia.

References

  1. ^ Nevins (1960), 6:318-22, quote on p. 322.
  2. ^ Voegeli (1963).
  3. ^ Tap (1993).
  4. ^ Dubin, p. 197.
  5. ^ 12 Stat. 633
  6. ^ 13 Stat. 32
  7. ^ Stat. 432
  8. ^ 12 Stat. 353
  9. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 150, 151.

Bibliography

  • Carson, Jamie L. et al. "The Impact of National Tides and District-Level Effects on Electoral Outcomes: The U.S. Congressional Elections of 1862–63," American Journal of Political Science, October 2001, Vol. 45 Issue 4, pp 887–898 in JSTOR
  • Nevins, Allan. Ordeal of the Union: vol 6. War Becomes Revolution, 1862–1863 (1960)
  • Shankman, Arnold. "Francis W. Hughes and the 1862 Pennsylvania Election." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 1971 95(3): 383-393. ISSN 0031-4587
  • Tap, Bruce. "Race, Rhetoric, and Emancipation: the Election of 1862 in Illinois." Civil War History 1993 39(2): 101-125. ISSN 0009-8078
  • Voegeli, Jacque. "The Northwest and the Race Issue, 1861–1862," Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 50, No. 2 (September 1963), pp. 235–251 IN jstor
  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.

External links

  • Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)