1868 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1866 June 1, 1868 – August 2, 1869[Note 1][Note 2] 1870 →

All 243[Note 3] seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
122 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  JamesGBlaine.png Michael C. Kerr - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader James Blaine Michael Kerr
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Maine-3rd Indiana-3rd
Last election 175 seats 47 seats
Seats won 171 67
Seat change Decrease 4 Increase 20

  Third party
  LMcKenzie.jpg
Leader Lewis McKenzie
Party Conservative Party of Virginia (1867)
Leader's seat Virginia-7th
Last election 2 seats
Seats won 5
Seat change Increase 3

House041ElectionMap.png
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1868 elections for 41st Congress

Speaker before election

Theodore M. Pomeroy
Republican

Elected Speaker

James Blaine
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1868 to elect Representatives to the 41st United States Congress. The election coincided with the presidential election of 1868, which was won by Ulysses S. Grant.

The Democrats gained 20 seats, but Grant's Republican Party retained a commanding majority in the Reconstruction era following the American Civil War, holding onto a firm legitimacy through an association with victory. As more Southern states exited Reconstruction, more Democratic seats appeared in the South. However, Democratic gains in the South were limited, as the Republican power-brokers of Reconstruction held a great deal of influence. The small Conservative Party of Virginia also picked up several seats in Virginia, as it had support among wealthy Southern leaders who wanted to increase the region's power.

Election summaries

Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia were readmitted during this Congress, leaving Congress without vacant State delegations for the first time since 1860. Georgia had been partially readmitted in the previous Congress, but was not initially admitted to the 41st Congress. With Georgia's final readmission in 1870, all former Confederate states were once more represented in Congress.

171 5 67
Republican C Democratic
State Type Total
seats
Republican Democratic Conservative
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama[Note 4] District 6 4 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Arkansas District 3 2 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
California District 3 1 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut[Note 4] District 4 3 Increase 2 1 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Florida[Note 5] At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia[Note 6] District 7[Note 7] 3 Decrease 1 4 Increase 2 0 Steady
Illinois District
+ 1 at-large
14 10 Decrease 1 4 Increase 1 0 Steady
Indiana[Note 5] District 11 7 Decrease 1 4 Increase 1 0 Steady
Iowa[Note 5] District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kansas At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District 9[Note 7] 0 Decrease 1 9 Increase 2 0 Steady
Louisiana District 5 5 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Maine[Note 5] District 5 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District 5 0 Decrease 1 5 Increase 2 0 Decrease 1
Massachusetts District 10 10 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Minnesota District 2 1 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Mississippi[Note 6] District 5 5 Increase 5 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 9 7 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Nebraska[Note 5] At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire[Note 4] District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 5 2 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
New York District 31 19 Decrease 2 12 Increase 2 0 Steady
North Carolina District 7 6 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Ohio[Note 5] District 19 13 Decrease 3 6 Increase 3 0 Steady
Oregon[Note 5] At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Pennsylvania[Note 5] District 24 18 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 4 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District 8 8 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Texas[Note 6] District 4 3 Increase 3 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Vermont[Note 5] District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia[Note 6] District 8 3 Increase 3 0 Steady 5 Increase 5
West Virginia[Note 5] District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 6 5 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Total[Note 3] 243 171
70.4%
Decrease 6 67
27.6%
Increase 22 5
2.1%
Increase 3
House seats
Republican
70.37%
Democratic
27.57%
Conservative
2.06%

Election dates

Mississippi had held rejected elections on July 1, 1868.

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors. This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to that date. 1868 was the first year in which the majority of States (20 of 37) held their elections on that date. There were still 9 states which held elections before that date and 4 that held regular elections after that date, in addition to 4 readmitted states that held elections after that date

Special elections

There were special elections in 1868 and 1869 to the 40th United States Congress and 41st United States Congress.

Special elections are sorted by date then district.

40th Congress

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida at-large None State readmitted.
New member elected May 5, 1868.
Republican gain.
Winner was seated July 1, 1868[1]
Winner was later re-elected to the next term.
  • Green tickY Charles M. Hamilton (Republican) 58.1%
  • John Friend (Democratic) 32.6%
  • Liberty Billings (Independent) 9.4%

California

District Incumbent Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 Samuel Beach Axtell Democratic 1866 Re-elected Samuel Beach Axtell (D) 54.1%
Frank M. Pixley (R) 45.9%
California 2 William Higby Republican 1863 Lost renomination
Republican hold
Aaron A. Sargent (R) 54.7%
James W. Coffroth (D) 45.3%
California 3 James A. Johnson Democratic 1866 Re-elected James A. Johnson (D) 50.4%
Chancellor Hartson (R) 49.6%

Florida

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida at-large Charles M. Hamilton Republican 1868[Note 8] Re-elected Charles M. Hamilton (R) 56.4%
W. D. Barnes (D) 38.5%
William U. Saunders (I) 5.1%

Massachusetts

Massachusetts 1
Massachusetts 2
Massachusetts 3
Massachusetts 4
Massachusetts 5
Massachusetts 6
Massachusetts 7
Massachusetts 8
Massachusetts 9
Massachusetts 10 Henry L. Dawes Republican 1856 Incumbent re-elected.[2] Henry L. Dawes (Republican) 12,260 votes
Chapin (Democratic) 7,490 votes[2]

Ohio

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[3]
Ohio 1 Benjamin Eggleston Republican 1864 Lost Re-election
Democratic gain
Ohio 2 Samuel F. Cary Ind-Republican 1867 (s) Lost Re-election
Republican hold
Ohio 3 Robert C. Schenck Republican 1862 Re-elected
Ohio 4 William Lawrence Republican 1864 Re-elected
Ohio 5 William Mungen Democratic 1866 Re-elected
Ohio 6 Reader W. Clarke Republican 1864 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 7 Samuel Shellabarger Republican 1864 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 8 John Beatty Republican 1868 (s) Re-elected
Ohio 9 Ralph P. Buckland Republican 1864 Retired
Democratic gain
Ohio 10 James M. Ashley Republican 1862 Lost Re-election
Democratic gain
Ohio 11 John Thomas Wilson Republican 1866 Re-elected
Ohio 12 Philadelph Van Trump Democratic 1866 Re-elected
Ohio 13 Columbus Delano Republican 1866[Note 9] Retired
Democratic gain
Ohio 14 Martin Welker Republican 1864 Re-elected
Ohio 15 Tobias A. Plants Republican 1864 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 16 John Bingham Republican 1864 Re-elected
Ohio 17 Ephraim R. Eckley Republican 1862 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 18 Rufus P. Spalding Republican 1862 Retired
Republican hold
Ohio 19 James A. Garfield Republican 1862 Re-elected

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Excludes states readmitted after the start of Congress.
  2. ^ The majority of States held elections on November 3, 1868 (i.e. "Election Day") for the first time.
  3. ^ a b Including late elections.
  4. ^ a b c Elections held late.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Elections held early.
  6. ^ a b c d Readmitted state.
  7. ^ a b Previous election had one vacancy.
  8. ^ Late election to 40th Congress.
  9. ^ Columbus Delano lost election in 1866 to George W. Morgan, contested the election, and was seated June 1868.

References

  1. ^ 40th Congress membership roster
  2. ^ a b Ben. Perley Poore (1869). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory for the First Session of the Forty-First Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
  3. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 258, 259.

Bibliography

  • Ben. Perley Poore (1869). "Massachusetts". Congressional Directory for the First Session of the Forty-First Congress (2nd ed.). Washington DC: Government Printing Office.
  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.

External links

  • Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)