All 293 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
147 seats needed for a majority
Elections results from the 1880 elections
Garfield's Republican Party managed to gain an outright majority of seats from the opposition Democratic Party. The Democratic loss of control in the House is historically seen as somewhat surprising, since no major issue played a role in their defeat. The end of Reconstruction and the pro-business nature of the Republicans were both minor factors. The ability of the Republican Party to paint several key Democratic leaders as corrupt also helped to alter the composition of the part just enough so that the Republicans gained a majority. The Greenback Party, which promoted the use of the paper currency and was seen as a pro-farmer party[by whom?], also lost several seats due to national economic recovery, which aided the Republicans.
Early election dates
In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors. This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to this date as well.
In 1880, no states held their elections after Election Day for the first time (California was the last state to hold late elections, in 1878). But 5 states, with 35 seats among them, held their elections before the rest of the states:
|California 1||Horace Davis||Republican||1876||Lost re-election
|William Rosecrans (D) 51%|
Horace Davis (R) 47.3%
Stephen Maybell (GB) 1.7%
|California 2||Horace F. Page||Republican||1872||Re-elected||Horace F. Page (R) 53.6%|
John R. Glascock (D) 45.7%
Benjamin Todd (GB) 0.7%
|California 3||Campbell P. Berry||Democratic||1879||Re-elected||Campbell P. Berry (D) 51.1%|
George A. Knight (R) 48.2%
A. Musselman (GB) 0.6%
|California 4||Romualdo Pacheco||Republican||1876||Re-elected||Romualdo Pacheco (R) 45.8%|
Wallace Leach (D) 45.3%
J. F. Godfrey (GB) 8.9%
|Florida 1||Robert H. M. Davidson||Democratic||1876||Re-elected||Robert H. M. Davidson (D) 57.2%|
George W. Witherspoon (R) 42.3%
Livingston W. Bethel (I) 0.5%
|Florida 2||Noble A. Hull||Democratic||1878||Retired
|Jesse J. Finley (D) 52.3%|
Horatio Bisbee, Jr. (R) 47.7%
|South Carolina 1||John S. Richardson||Democratic||1878||Re-elected||John S. Richardson (D) 63.3%|
Samuel J. Lee (R) 36.7%
|South Carolina 2||Michael P. O'Connor||Democratic||1878||Re-elected||Michael P. O'Connor (D) 58.8%|
Edmund W. M. Mackey (R) 41.2%
|South Carolina 3||D. Wyatt Aiken||Democratic||1876||Re-elected||D. Wyatt Aiken (D) 74.1%|
C. J. Stollbrand (R) 25.9%
|South Carolina 4||John H. Evins||Democratic||1876||Re-elected||John H. Evins (D) 69.7%|
A. Blythe (R) 29.3%
J. Hendrix McLane (GB) 1.0%
|South Carolina 5||George D. Tillman||Democratic||1878||Re-elected||George D. Tillman (D) 60.4%|
Robert Smalls (R) 39.6%
- United States elections, 1880
- 46th United States Congress
- 47th United States Congress
- Five states held early elections between June 1 and October 12.
- Included 7 Independent Democrats.
- Dubin (p. 255) counts 147 Republicans, 135 Democrats, 2 Readjusters, 1 Independent Democrat, and 8 Greenbacks at the start of the 47th United States Congress.
- Includes 2 Readjuster Democrats elected in Virginia and 1 Independent Democrat elected in Georgia.
- Includes 1 Independent Democrat elected in the 9th district.
- Elections held early.
- 1 Independent, J. Hyatt Smith elected to the 3rd district.
- Includes 2 Readjuster Democrats, elected to the 7th district and 9th district.
- Martis, pp. 134-135.
- Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721.
- Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
- Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
- "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
- Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)