1882 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1880 November 7, 1882[a] 1884 →

All 325 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
163 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  John Griffin Carlisle, Brady-Handy photo portrait, ca1870-1880.jpg J. Warren Keifer - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leader John G. Carlisle J. Warren Keifer
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Kentucky-6th Ohio-8th
Last election 131 seats[b] 151 seats
Seats won 199[1][c][d] 118[1][c][e]
Seat change Increase 59 Decrease 29

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Readjuster Greenback
Last election 0 seats[f] 10 seats
Seats won 4[1][g] 2[1]
Seat change Increase 4 Decrease 8

House048ElectionMap.png
Elections results from the 1882 elections

Speaker before election

Joseph Keifer
Republican

Elected Speaker

John Carlisle
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1882 for the 48th Congress, during President Chester A. Arthur's term.

Arthur's Republican Party was badly defeated, losing its majority to the opposition Democratic Party after a campaign that focused on the resistance of Republican leaders to reforming the Spoils system under which government jobs were handed to supporters of winning candidates. After the election, Arthur agreed with the Democrats to pass the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, establishing a professional civil service. However, his actions were too late, as the image of the Republican Party as corrupt was already engrained in the minds of voters. This election also saw the decline of the pro-paper money Greenback Party, and the pick up of several Virginian seats by the Readjuster Party which promoted fiscal responsibility and shunned elitism, though the Virginia-based Readjuster Party all but disappeared following this election.

Special elections

There were some special elections in 1882 during the 47th United States Congress.

Elections are listed by date and district.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri 2 Thomas Allen Democratic 1880 Incumbent died April 8, 1882.
New member elected November 7, 1882 and seated December 15, 1882.
Republican gain.
Winner lost election the same day to the next term in the redistricted 9th district, see below.[2]

Election summaries

Following the 1880 Census, 32 new seats were apportioned.[4] Three States lost 1 seat each, 13 States had no change in apportionment, 14 States gained 1 seat each, 6 States gained 2 seats, 1 State gained 4 seats, and 1 State gained 5 seats. Several States that gained one or more seats did not redistrict immediately, electing the new members at-large, while one state (Maine) which lost a member also delayed redistricting, electing all of its members at-large for this Congress only.

196 12 117
Democratic [h] Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 8 Steady 7 Increase 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas District
+ at-large[i]
5 Increase 1 5 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District
+ 2 at-large[i]
6 Increase 2 6 Increase 4 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Colorado At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District 4 Steady 3 Increase 2 1 Decrease 2 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 Steady 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District
+ at-large[i]
10 Increase 1 10 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District 20 Increase 1 9[j] Increase 3 11 Decrease 2 0
Indiana District 13 Steady 10 Increase 5 3 Decrease 5 0 Steady
Iowa[k] District 11 Increase 2 3 Increase 2 7 Decrease 1 1[l] Increase 1
Kansas District
+ 4 at-large[i]
7 Increase 4 0 Steady 7 Increase 4 0 Steady
Kentucky District 11 Increase 1 9[j] Steady 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Louisiana District 6 Steady 5 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Maine[k] At-large[m] 4 Decrease 1 0 Steady 4 Increase 1 0 Decrease 2[l]
Maryland District 6 Steady 4 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 12 Increase 1 3 Increase 2 9[e] Decrease 1 0 Steady
Michigan District 11 Increase 2 6 Increase 6 5 Decrease 4 0 Steady
Minnesota District 5 Increase 2 0 Steady 5 Increase 2 0 Steady
Mississippi District 7 Increase 1 5 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 1[n] Increase 1
Missouri District 14 Increase 1 14 Increase 6 0 Decrease 1 0 Decrease 4[l]
Nebraska District[o] 3 Increase 2 0 Steady 3 Increase 2 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire District 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
New Jersey District 7 Steady 3 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady
New York District
+ at-large[i]
34 Increase 1 21 Increase 1 13 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1[n]
North Carolina District
+ at-large[i]
9 Increase 1 7[j] Steady 2 Increase 1 0 Steady
Ohio[k] District 21 Increase 1 15 Increase 10 6 Decrease 9 0 Steady
Oregon[k] At-large 1 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District
+ at-large[i]
28 Increase 1 12 Increase 5 15 Decrease 3 1[l] Decrease 1
Rhode Island District 2 Steady 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 Increase 2 6 Increase 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 Steady 8 Increase 1 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Texas District 11 Increase 5 10 Increase 5 0 Steady 1[n] Steady[p]
Vermont[k] District 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady 2 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Virginia District
+ at-large[i]
10 Increase 1 6 Decrease 1 0 Decrease 2 4[g] Increase 4[q]
West Virginia District 4 Increase 1 3 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 9 Increase 1 6 Steady 3 Increase 1 0 Steady
Total 325 Increase 32 199[1][d]
61.2%
Increase 59 118[1][e]
36.3%
Decrease 26 8[1]
2.8%
Decrease 2
House seats
Democratic
61.23%
Greenback
0.62%
Readjuster
1.23%
Republican
36.31%
Others
0.62%

There were 8 members elected from third parties, 4 from the Virginia-based Readjuster Party, 2 from the declining Greenback Party, and 2 Independents. The previous election of 1880 had had 10 Greenbacks and 1 Independent.

House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+% Democratic
 
  80+% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
 
  60+ to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Readjuster
  Up to 60% Republican
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Readjuster gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Independent gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election dates

In 1882, five states, with 39 seats among them, held Congressional elections before the rest of the Union:

California

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 William Rosecrans Democratic 1880 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY William Rosecrans (Democratic) 59.5%
Paul Neuman (Republican) 38.8%
James McMillan Shafter (Prohibition) 1.5%
H. S. Fitch (Greenback) 0.2%
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican 1872 Lost re-election
Democratic gain.
Green tickY James Budd (Democratic) 50.5%
Horace F. Page (Republican) 48.1%
J. L. Coles (Prohibition) 1.2%
F. J. Woodward (Greenback) 0.2%
California 3 Campbell P. Berry Democratic 1879 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Green tickY Barclay Henley (Democratic) 51.3%
John J. De Haven (Republican) 45.8%
H. S. Graves (Prohibition) 2%
W. O. Howe (Greenback) 0.9%
California 4 Romualdo Pacheco Republican 1876 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Green tickY Pleasant B. Tully (Democratic) 54.4%
George L. Woods (Republican) 43.3%
M. V. Wright (Prohibition) 1.5%
Isaac Kinley (Greenback) 0.8%
California at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
None (New seat) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Green tickY John R. Glascock (Democratic) 26.5%
Charles A. Sumner
(Democratic) 26.5%
William W. Morrow (Republican) 22.4%
Henry Edgerton (Republican) 22.3%
A. B. Hotchkiss (Prohibition) 0.8%
Jesse Yarnell (Prohibition) 0.8%
Warren Chase (Greenback) 0.3%
Stephen Maybell (Greenback) 0.3%
None (New seat) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.

Florida

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida 1 Robert H. M. Davidson Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Robert H. M. Davidson (Democratic) 51.5%
Emory F. Skinner (Republican) 32.2%
D. L. McKinnon (Independent Republican) 16.3%
Florida 2 Horatio Bisbee, Jr. Republican 1880[r] Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY Horatio Bisbee, Jr. (Republican) 50.5%
Jesse J. Finley (Democratic) 49.5%

Missouri

Missouri gained one seat in reapportionment. After redistricting and the new elections, the delegation went from 7 Democrats, 4 Greenbacks, and 2 Republicans, to a solid slate of 14 Democrats.

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
Missouri 1 William H. Hatch
Redistricted from the 12th district
Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri 2 New district New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 3 Joseph H. Burrows
Redistricted from the 10th district
Greenback 1880 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 4 Nicholas Ford
Redistricted from the 9th district
Greenback 1878 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 5 Theron Moses Rice
Redistricted from the 7th district
Greenback 1880 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Robert T. Van Horn
Redistricted from the 8th district
Republican 1864
1870 (Retired)
1880
Incumbent retired.
Republican loss.
Missouri 6 New district New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 7 Aylett Hawes Buckner
Redistricted from the 13th district
Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri 8 Gustavus Sessinghaus Redistricted from the 3rd district Republican 1882 (Contested) Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 9 Thomas Allen
Redistricted from the 2nd district
Democratic 1880 Incumbent died April 8, 1882.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Winner was not elected to finish the current term in the old district.
Missouri 10 Martin L. Clardy
Redistricted from the 1st district
Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.
Missouri 11 Richard P. Bland
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic 1872 Incumbent re-elected.
John Bullock Clark Jr. Democratic 1872 Incumbent lost renomination.
Democratic loss.
Missouri 12 New district New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 13 Ira Sherwin Hazeltine
Redistricted from the 6th district
Greenback 1880 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Missouri 14 Lowndes Henry Davis
Redistricted from the 4th district
Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected.

South Carolina

District Incumbent This race
Representative Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 John S. Richardson Democratic 1878 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Green tickY Samuel Dibble (Democratic) 56.9%
J. B. Campbell (Greenback/L) 43.1%
South Carolina 2 George D. Tillman
Redistricted from the 5th district
Democratic 1878 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY George D. Tillman (Democratic) 67.8%
E. M. Brayon (Greenback/L) 31.9%
Others 0.3%
South Carolina 3 D. Wyatt Aiken Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY D. Wyatt Aiken (Democratic) 84.6%
T. H. Russell (Greenback/L) 15.4%
South Carolina 4 John H. Evins Democratic 1876 Incumbent re-elected. Green tickY John H. Evins (Democratic) 71.8%
D. R. Elkins (Greenback/L) 27.2%
South Carolina 5 None (open seat) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Green tickY John J. Hemphill (Democratic) 56.0%
E. B. C. Cash (Greenback/L) 44.0%
South Carolina 6 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Green tickY George W. Dargan (Democratic) 64.7%
Edmund H. Deas (Republican) 21.7%
A. H. Bowen (Greenback/L) 13.6%
South Carolina 7 None (District created) New seat.
New member elected.
Republican gain.
Green tickY Edmund W. M. Mackey (Republican) 64.8%
Samuel Lee (Independent Republican) 35.2%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Five states held early elections between June 5 and October 10.
  2. ^ Included 1 Independent Democrat (and 2 "Readjuster Democrats" – see Readjusters elsewhere).
  3. ^ a b Dubin (p. 263) counts 192 Democrats, 5 Readjusters, 2 Independent Democrats, 119 Republicans, 1 Liberal, 2 Greenbacks and 2 Independents (along with 2 vacancies) at the start of the 48th United States Congress.
  4. ^ a b Includes 3 Independent Democrats elected to Illinois's 2nd district, Kentucky's 1st district, and North Carolina's 7th district.
  5. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Republican, Theodore Lyman, elected to Massachusetts's 9th district.
  6. ^ There were two "Readjuster Democrats" elected to the previous congress in 1880.
  7. ^ a b Includes 4 Readjusters elected to Virginia's 2nd district, Virginia's 4th district, Virginia's 9th district, and Virginia's at-large seat.
  8. ^ Readjusters had 4 seats, Independent Democrats had 3, Greenbacks had 2, Independents had 2, and Independent Republicans had 1.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h New seat or seats added without immediate redistricting.
  10. ^ a b c Includes 1 Independent Democrat.
  11. ^ a b c d e Elections held early.
  12. ^ a b c d Greenback Party
  13. ^ Changed from districts.
  14. ^ a b c Independent
  15. ^ Changed from at-large.
  16. ^ Previous election had 1 Greenback.
  17. ^ Previous election saw 2 "Readjuster Democrats" elected to Virginia's 7th district and Virginia's 9th district.
  18. ^ Seated after successful electoral challenge.
  19. ^ a b Full name unknown

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Martis, pp. 136–137.
  2. ^ a b "Our Campaigns - MO District 2 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  3. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 2 - Special Election Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  4. ^ 22 Stat. 5
  5. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 1 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  6. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 3 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  7. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 4 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  8. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 5 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  9. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 7 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  10. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 8 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  11. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 9 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  12. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 10 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  13. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 12 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.
  14. ^ "Our Campaigns - MO District 13 Race - Nov 07, 1882". www.ourcampaigns.com.

Bibliography

  • Republican Congressional Committee, The Republican Campaign Text Book for 1882 (1882).
  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.

External links

  • Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)