1896 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1894 November 3, 1896[Note 1] 1898 →

All 357 seats in the U.S. House of Representatives
179 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Thomas Brackett Reed - Brady-Handy.jpg Joseph Weldon Bailey cph.3b09834.jpg
Leader Thomas Brackett Reed Joseph Weldon Bailey
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Maine 1st Texas 4th
Last election 254 seats 93 seats
Seats won 210[1][Note 2] 124[1]
Seat change Decrease 44 Increase 31

  Third party Fourth party
  John Calhoun Bell.jpeg Francis Newlands.jpg
Leader John Calhoun Bell Francis G. Newlands
Party Populist Silver
Leader's seat Colorado 2nd Nevada at-large
Last election 9 seats 1 seat
Seats won 22[1] 1[1]
Seat change Increase 13 Steady

Speaker before election

Thomas Reed
Republican

Elected Speaker

Thomas Reed
Republican

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1896 for members of the 55th Congress, coinciding with the election of President William McKinley.

In spite of McKinley's victory over William Jennings Bryan, both the Democratic and Populist parties gained seats from McKinley's Republican Party. This is most likely a reaction to the extraordinary Republican gains in 1894, in which many normally Democratic districts switched parties due to the severity of and fallout from the Panic of 1893. Many Mid-Atlantic and Midwestern regions that were dominated by Catholic and working-class voters, switched to Republican in 1894, but returned to the Democratic Party during this election cycle. The Populist Party also made huge gains as Republicans were ousted in Western states. Despite this, the Republicans did maintain a strong majority in the House. Also, several Western Republicans split with the party in 1896, forming the tiny Silver Republican Party faction, which advocated a silver standard.

This election marked the zenith of the Populist Party, which would go on to lose most of its seats in the 1898 elections and thereafter slowly fade from prominence.

Election summaries

206 1 3 1 22 124
Republican IR SR S P Democratic
State Type Total
seats
Republican Democratic Populist Silver/
Silver Republican
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District 9 1 Decrease 1 7 Increase 2 1 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Arkansas District 6 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
California District 7 3 Decrease 3 2 Increase 1 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Colorado District 2 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 1[Note 3] Increase 1
Connecticut District 4 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 0 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia District 11 0 Steady 11 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Idaho At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 1 Increase 1 0 Steady
Illinois District 22 17 Decrease 3 5 Increase 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana District 13 9 Decrease 4 4 Increase 4 0 Steady 0 Steady
Iowa District 11 11 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kansas District
+at-large
8 2 Decrease 5 0 Steady 6 Increase 5 0 Steady
Kentucky District 11 4 Decrease 1 7 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana District 6 0 Steady 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine[Note 4] District 4 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District 6 6 Increase 3 0 Decrease 3 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 13 12 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan District 12 10 Decrease 2 2 Increase 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Minnesota District 7 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi District 7 0 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri District 15 3 Decrease 7 12 Increase 7 0 Steady 0 Steady
Montana At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 1[Note 3] Increase 1
Nebraska District 6 2 Decrease 3 0 Steady 4 Increase 3 0 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 1 Steady
New Hampshire District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey District 8 8 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York District 34 29 Increase 1 5 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
North Carolina District 9 3 Steady 1 Decrease 1 5 Increase 1 0 Steady
North Dakota At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Ohio District 21 15 Decrease 4 6 Increase 4 0 Steady 0 Steady
Oregon[Note 4] District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District
+2 at-large
30 27[Note 5] Decrease 1 3 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District 7 0 Decrease 1 7 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Dakota At-large 2 0 Decrease 2 0 Steady 2 Increase 2 0 Steady
Tennessee District 10 2 Decrease 2 8 Increase 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Texas District 13 1 Steady 12 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Utah At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont[Note 4] District 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District 10 4 Increase 2 6 Decrease 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Washington[Note 6] At-large 2 0 Decrease 2 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 1[Note 3] Increase 1
West Virginia District 4 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 10 10 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Wyoming At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total 357 207[Note 5]
58.0%
Decrease 47 124
34.7%
Increase 31 22
6.2%
Increase 13 4[Note 7]
0.8%
Increase 3
House seats
Republican
57.98%
Democratic
34.73%
Populist
6.16%
Silver Republican
0.84%
Silver
0.28%

The previous election of 1894 saw the election of 7 Populists and a Silver Party member.

House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80+ to 100% Democratic
  80+ to 100% Populist
  80+ to 100% Republican
  60+ to 80% Democratic
  60+ to 80% Populist
  60+ to 80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Populist
  Up to 60% Republican
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
 
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Populist gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Populist gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Early election dates

Three states, with 8 seats between them, held elections early in 1896:

Alabama

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Alabama 1 Richard Henry Clarke Democratic 1888 Incumbent retired to un for Governor of Alabama.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
Alabama 2 Jesse F. Stallings Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Jesse F. Stallings (Democratic) 55.94%
  • Thomas H. Clarke (National Democratic[a]) 25.63%
  • John C. Fonville (Populist) 18.43%
Alabama 3 George Paul Harrison Jr. Democratic 1894 Retired
Democratic hold.
Alabama 4 William F. Aldrich Republican 1894 Incumbent re-elected after initial results indicated loss to Plowman.
Alabama 5 Albert Taylor Goodwyn Populist 1894 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Alabama 6 John H. Bankhead Democratic 1886 Incumbent re-elected.
  • John H. Bankhead (Democratic) 55.07%
  • A. S. Van de Graff (National Democratic[a]) 27.05%
  • George S. Youngblood (Populist) 17.88%
Alabama 7 Milford W. Howard Populist 1894 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Milford W. Howard (Populist) 35.79%
  • William I. Bullock (Democratic) 32.66%
  • James J. Curtis (Republican) 28.91%
  • George H. Parker (National Democratic[a]) 2.64%
Alabama 8 Joseph Wheeler Democratic 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Joseph Wheeler (Democratic) 56.66%
  • Oscar W. Hundley (Republican) 42.13%
  • W. W. Callahan (National Democratic[a]) 1.21%
Alabama 9 Truman H. Aldrich Republican 1894 Retired
Democratic gain.
  • Oscar Underwood (Democratic) 62.98%
  • Grattan B. Crowe (Republican) 26.21%
  • Archibald Lawson (National Democratic[a]) 10.81%

California

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
California 1 John All Barham Republican 1894 Incumbent re-elected.
  • John All Barham (Republican) 49.66%
  • Fletcher A. Cutler (Democratic) 45.48%
  • George W. Montieth (Populist) 4.17%
  • B. F. Taylor (Prohibition) 0.69%
California 2 Grove L. Johnson Republican 1894 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
California 3 Samuel G. Hilborn Republican 1894 Incumbent re-elected.
California 4 James G. Maguire Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
  • James G. Maguire (Democratic) 60.98%
  • Thomas B. O'Brien (Republican) 34.97%
  • E. T. Kingsley (Socialist Labor) 3.10%
  • Joseph Rowell (Prohibition) 0.96%
California 5 Eugene F. Loud Republican 1890 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Eugene F. Loud (Republican) 48.58%
  • Joseph P. Kelly (Democratic) 26.35%
  • A. B. Kinne (Populist) 22.16%
  • Henry Daniels (Socialist Labor) 1.90%
  • T. H. Lawson (Prohibition) 1.01%
California 6 James McLachlan Republican 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Populist gain.
  • Charles A. Barlow (Populist) 48.91%
  • James McLachlan (Republican) 47.57%
  • Henry Clay Needham (Prohibition) 2.42%
  • Job Harriman (Socialist Labor) 1.10%
California 7 William W. Bowers Republican 1890 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Populist gain.

Florida

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Florida 1 Stephen M. Sparkman Democratic 1894 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Stephen M. Sparkman (Democratic) 77.5%
  • E. K. Nichols (Republican) 14.6%
  • J. Asakiah Williams (Populist) 6.8%
  • J. C. Green (Pr.) 1.1%
Florida 2 Charles Merian Cooper Democratic 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Democratic hold.
  • Robert Wyche Davis (Democratic) 61.9%
  • Joseph N. Stripling (Republican) 28.6%
  • Daniel G. Ambler (National Democratic[a]) 5.0%
  • William R. Peterson (Populist) 3.7%
  • M. E. Spencer (Prohibition) 0.8%

Maine

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Maine 1 Thomas Brackett Reed Republican 1876 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Thomas Brackett Reed (Republican) 66.90%
  • Edward W. Staples (Democratic) 30.42%
  • Aaron Clark (Prohibition) 2.09%
  • James E. Campion (Populist) 0.59%
Maine 2 Nelson Dingley Jr. Republican 1880 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Nelson Dingley Jr. (Republican) 69.21%
  • Arwood Levensaler (Democratic) 26.01%
  • Charles E. Allen (Populist) 3.38%
  • Edward W. Ogier (Prohibition) 1.41%
Maine 3 Seth L. Milliken Republican 1882 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Seth L. Milliken (Republican) 68.20%
  • Melvin S. Holway (Democratic) 26.18%
  • Bradford F. Lancaster (Populist) 3.82%
  • William S. Thompson (Prohibition) 1.80%
Maine 4 Charles A. Boutelle Republican 1882 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Charles A. Boutelle (Republican) 65.96%
  • Andrew J. Chase (Democratic) 28.39%
  • George M. Park (Prohibition) 2.89%
  • Oliver D. Chapman (Populist) 2.76%

Ohio

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates[2] [3]
Ohio 1 Charles Phelps Taft Republican 1894 retired
Republican Hold
Ohio 2 Jacob H. Bromwell Republican 1894 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 3 Paul J. Sorg Democratic 1894 retired
Democratic Hold
Ohio 4 Fernando C. Layton Democratic 1890 retired
Democratic Hold
  • George A. Marshall (Democratic) 59.5%
  • John P. Maclean (Republican) 38.6%
  • L.M. Kramer (Populist) 1.1%
  • George W. Mace (Nat. P.) 0.7%
Ohio 5 Francis B. De Witt Republican 1894 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 6 George W. Hulick Republican 1892 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold.
  • Seth W. Brown (Republican) 53.8%
  • Harry W. Paxton (Democratic) 45.4%
  • Frank S. Delo (Populist) 0.7%
Ohio 7 George W. Wilson Republican 1892 retired
Republican Hold
  • Walter L. Weaver (Republican) 52.5%
  • Francis M. Hunt (Democratic) 46.8%
  • R.S. Thomson (Nat. P.) 0.8%
Ohio 8 Luther M. Strong Republican 1892 Lost re-nomination
Republican hold.
Ohio 9 James H. Southard Republican 1894 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 10 Lucien J. Fenton Republican 1894 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 11 Charles H. Grosvenor Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Charles H. Grosvenor (Republican) 54.8%
  • William E. Finck Jr. (Democratic) 44.7%
  • Lawrence C. Crippen (Populist) 0.4%
Ohio 12 David K. Watson Republican 1894 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 13 Stephen Ross Harris Republican 1894 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 14 Winfield S. Kerr Republican 1894 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Winfield S. Kerr (Republican) 52.0%
  • John B. Coffinberry (Democratic) 47.6%
  • Robert F. Mosher (Nat'l Party) 0.4%
Ohio 15 H. Clay Van Voorhis Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
  • H. Clay Van Voorhis (Republican) 52.5%
  • James B. Tannehill (Democratic) 46.2%
  • T.H. Padan (Populist) 0.8%
  • Illion E. Moore (Populist) 0.5%
Ohio 16 Lorenzo Danford Republican 1894 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Lorenzo Danford (Republican) 53.8%
  • Henry H. McFadden (Democratic) 46.2%
Ohio 17 Addison S. McClure Republican 1894 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
Ohio 18 Robert W. Tayler Republican 1894 Incumbent re-elected.
Ohio 19 Stephen A. Northway Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Stephen A. Northway (Republican) 60.3%
  • William T. Sawyer (Democratic) 39.1%
  • Solon C. Thayer (Populist) 0.6%
  • Scattering <0.1%
Ohio 20 Clifton B. Beach Republican 1894 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Clifton B. Beach (Republican) 52.78%
  • A. T. Van Tassel (Democratic) 46.01%
  • J.J. Harrison (Populist) 0.54%
  • Paul Dinger (Socialist Labor) 0.51%
  • William H. Watkins (Nat. Party) 0.16%
Ohio 21 Theodore E. Burton Republican 1894 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Theodore E. Burton (Republican) 55.24%
  • L. A. Russell (Democratic) 43.34%
  • Louis B. Tuckerman (Populist) 0.49%
  • Walter Gillet (Socialist Labor) 0.44%
  • E. Jay Pinney (Populist) 0.38%
  • Thomas P. McDonough (Nat. Party) 0.11%

Oregon

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Oregon 1 Binger Hermann Republican 1892 Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Republican hold.
  • Thomas H. Tongue (Republican) 40.39%
  • W. S. Vandenberg (Populist) 40.26%
  • Jefferson Myers (Democratic) 16.52%
  • N. C. Christensen (Prohibition) 2.83%
Oregon 2 William R. Ellis Republican 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
  • William R. Ellis (Republican) 30.38%
  • Martin Quinn (Populist) 29.47%
  • H. H. Northrup (Independent) 21.20%
  • A. S. Bennett (Democratic) 17.09%
  • F. McKercher (Prohibition) 1.87%

South Carolina

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Carolina 1 George W. Murray Republican 1892 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Democratic gain.
South Carolina 2 W. Jasper Talbert Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
  • W. Jasper Talbert (Democratic) 92.4%
  • B. P. Chatfield (Republican) 7.3%
  • Others 0.3%
South Carolina 3 Asbury Latimer Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Asbury Latimer (Democratic) 92.0%
  • A. C. Merreck (Republican) 6.2%
  • Clarence Gray (Reorganized Republican) 1.8%
South Carolina 4 Stanyarne Wilson Democratic 1894 Incumbent re-elected.
  • Stanyarne Wilson (Democratic) 92.2%
  • P. S. Suber (Republican) 4.2%
  • D. T. Bounds (Reorganized Republican) 3.6%
South Carolina 5 Thomas J. Strait Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
South Carolina 6 John L. McLaurin Democratic 1892 Incumbent re-elected.
  • John L. McLaurin (Democratic) 87.7%
  • J. E. Wilson (Republican) 7.9%
  • George Henry McKie 4.3%
  • Others 0.1%
South Carolina 7 Previous incumbent J. William Stokes (Democratic)'s election declared void due to electoral fraud. New member elected.
Winner also elected to finish the term.
Democratic gain.
  • J. William Stokes (Democratic) 85.6%
  • T. B. Johnson (Republican) 14.2%
  • D. A. Perrin (Independent Republican) 0.2%

South Dakota

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
South Dakota at-large
2 seats on a general ticket
John Pickler Republican 1889 (New state) Incumbent retired.
New member elected.
Populist gain.
Robert J. Gamble Republican 1894 Incumbent lost re-election.
New member elected.
Populist gain.

Vermont

District Incumbent This race
Member Party First elected Results Candidates
Vermont 1 H. Henry Powers Republican 1890 Incumbent re-elected.
  • H. Henry Powers (Republican) 76.45%
  • Peter F. McManus (Democratic) 22.49%
  • Andrew S. Bowen (Populist) 1.06%
Vermont 2 William W. Grout Republican 1884 Incumbent re-elected.
  • William W. Grout (Republican) 80.41%
  • Henry E. Fitzgerald (Democratic) 18.95%
  • Thomas J. Aldrich (Populist) 0.64%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Three states held early elections between June 1 and September 14.
  2. ^ Includes 1 Independent Republican and 3 Silver Republicans.
  3. ^ a b c Member of the Silver Republican Party faction elected.
  4. ^ a b c Elections held early.
  5. ^ a b Includes 1 Independent Republican, Thomas S. Butler, of PA-06.
  6. ^ While Dubin (p. 320) indicates the two representatives elected to serve Washington state, J. Hamilton Lewis and William C. Jones, were Populists, most other sources (e.g. Martis, pp. 150–151, etc.) indicate that they were elected as a Democrat and a Silver Republican, respectively.
  7. ^ Includes 3 members of the Silver Republican Party faction.
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "National Democratic" indicated "Gold Democratic"

References

  1. ^ a b c d Martis, pp. 150–151.
  2. ^ Smith, Joseph P, ed. (1898). History of the Republican Party in Ohio. I. Chicago: the Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 694, 695.
  3. ^ Ohio Election Results 1896. Norwalk, Ohio: The Laning Printing Company. 1897. pp. 33–39.

Bibliography

  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.

External links

  • Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)