1918 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1916 November 5, 1918[a] 1920 →

All 435 seats in the United States House of Representatives
218 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Frederick Gillett.jpg ChampClark.jpg
Leader Frederick Gillett Champ Clark
Party Republican Democratic
Leader since May 19, 1919 March 4, 1909
Leader's seat Massachusetts 2nd Missouri 9th
Last election 216 seats 214 seats
Seats won 240 192
Seat change Increase 24 Decrease 22

  Third party Fourth party
 
Party Farmer–Labor Prohibition
Last election 0 seats 1 seat
Seats won 1 1
Seat change Increase 1 Steady

Speaker before election

Champ Clark
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Frederick Gillett
Republican

The 1918 United States House of Representatives elections were held November 5, 1918, which occurred in the middle of President Woodrow Wilson's second term.

With the country in World War I (contrary to previous promises by Wilson), and Wilson's personal popularity ebbing, the Republicans gained 25 seats and took over control of the House from Wilson's Democrats. Internal divide among Democratic leadership over aspects related to payment of the war also decreased the unity of the party, which had been the organization's strength during the decade. The Progressive Party also disappeared, with its former members generally becoming Democrats. Minnesota's Farmer–Labor Party, a descendant of populism, also gained its very first seat.

Frederick H. Gillett (R-Massachusetts) became Speaker, and previous speaker Champ Clark (D-Missouri) became Minority Leader.

Overall results

Party Total
seats
Change Seat
percentage
Republican Party 240 Increase25 55.2%
Democratic Party 192 Decrease22 44.2%
Farmer–Labor Party 1 Increase1 0.2%
Prohibition Party 1 Steady 0.2%
Totals 4351 Steady 100.0%

1 One vacancy, Victor L. Berger, a member of the Socialist Party of America, whom the House refused to seat.

Election summaries

240 1 1 1 192
Republican PFLS Democratic
State Type Total
seats
Republican Democratic Progressive Others
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama Districts 10 0 Steady 10 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Arizona At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas Districts 7 0 Steady 7 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
California Districts 11 6 Increase 1 4 Steady 0 Decrease 1 1[b] Steady
Colorado Districts 4 3 Increase 2 1 Decrease 2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut Districts 5 4 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Florida Districts 4 0 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia Districts 12 0 Steady 12 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Idaho District[c] 2 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District
+2 at-large
27 22 Increase 1 5 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana Districts 13 13 Increase 4 0 Decrease 4 0 Steady 0 Steady
Iowa Districts 11 11 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kansas Districts 8 7 Increase 4 1 Decrease 4 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky Districts 11 3[d] Increase 1 8 Decrease 1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Louisiana Districts 8 0 Steady 8 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1 0 Steady
Maine[e] Districts 4 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland Districts 6