1922 Manitoba general election

Summary

The 1922 Manitoba general election was held on July 18, 1922 to elect Members of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Manitoba, Canada. The United Farmers of Manitoba won a narrow majority in the legislature.

1922 Manitoba general election
Flag of Manitoba.svg
← 1920 July 18, 1922 1927 →

55 seats of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba
27 seats needed for a majority
  First party Second party
  Tobias Crawford Norris.jpg
Leader none Tobias Norris
Party Progressive Liberal
Leader since 1910
Leader's seat Lansdowne
Last election 10 21
Seats won 28 8
Seat change Increase18 Decrease13
Popular vote 49,767 35,225
Percentage 32.8% 23.2%
Swing Increase18.7pp Decrease11.9pp

  Third party Fourth party
 
Leader Fawcett Taylor Fred Dixon
Party Conservative Dominion Labour
Leader since April 5, 1922 March 1918
Leader's seat Portage la Prairie Winnipeg
Last election 8 8
Seats won 7 5
Seat change Decrease1 Decrease3
Popular vote 23,539 16,781
Percentage 15.5% 11.1%
Swing Decrease2.0pp Decrease5.2pp

Premier before election

Tobias Norris
Liberal

Premier after election

John Bracken
Progressive

As in the previous election of 1920, the city of Winnipeg elected ten members by the single transferable ballot. All other constituencies elected one member by first-past-the-post balloting. Before the next election, the 1927 Manitoba general election, the districts outside Winnipeg switched to Instant-runoff voting.

SummaryEdit

This election was a watershed moment in Manitoba's political history. Since the formal introduction of partisan government in 1888, Manitoba had been governed alternately by the Liberal Party and the Conservative Party. Although the previous election of 1920 sustained the Liberals in power, it also saw the two-party dichotomy weakened by the rise of farmer and labour parliamentary blocs.

In 1922, the old parties were mostly swept away by the United Farmers of Manitoba (UFM). The UFM and Progressives candidates won 25 seats out of 52. Elections in three northern seats were deferred until later dates for logistical reasons.

The UFM had existed for several years as a farmer's organization, but some of its members ran as "Independent-Farmers" in the 1920 election. In 1921, however, the UFM announced it would field candidates during the 1922 campaign. The UFM was opposed to partisanship, and its most prominent members insisted that it was not a "party" in the traditional sense. UFM candidates often highlighted their lack of experience in partisan politics, and promised to govern the province in a restrained and responsible manner if elected to office.

The UFM membership was also heterogeneous. Although many supporters were free-trade agrarian Liberals before 1920, a number were also Conservatives. Some prominent UFM figures were also notable members of Manitoba's francophone community, which generally supported the Conservative Party before 1920.

The United Farmers fielded candidates in rural constituencies, and also endorsed candidates of the Progressive Association in Winnipeg. Even with these endorsements, the UFM operated on a shoestring budget, and fielded candidates in only two-thirds of the ridings. However, in a major upset, the UFM and Progressives won 25 seats out of 52.

Not even the UFM had expected to win government. Indeed, its expectations were so low that it had not had a formal leader during the campaign. Thus, when the UFM caucus met after the election, its first task was to choose a leader who would become premier. Thomas Crerar and Robert Hoey declined invitations to govern, and the caucus turned to John Bracken, president of the Manitoba Agricultural College. Although he had no political experience, Bracken accepted the appointment. He ran in one of the deferred elections, in The Pas, and was elected.

The UFM also won the deferred elections in Ethelbert and Rupertsland. This gave the government a bare majority of two seats. The UFM's political arm branded itself as the Progressive Party of Manitoba.

The other parties fared poorly in the 1922 campaign. The Liberals, led by outgoing premier Tobias Norris, fell from twenty-one seats to eight. The Conservatives, under their newly chosen leader Fawcett Taylor, fell from eight seats to seven.

The Independent Labour Party also experienced difficulties. In the 1920 election, Manitoba's various left-wing and working-class groups submerged their differences to run a united campaign. This cooperation was successful, and eleven labour candidates were elected to form the second-largest parliamentary bloc. By the 1922 election, however, the Labour Party was beset by long-standing divisions among socialists, communists and conservative trade unionists.

A total of thirteen labour candidates ran for ten seats in Winnipeg. Six were members of the ILP, and a seventh, former Social Democrat John Queen, ran as an "Independent Workers" candidate allied with the ILP. The other candidates were divided among themselves. The banned Communist Party ran three candidates under its legal front, the Workers Party. These candidates disrupted meetings of Socialist incumbent George Armstrong, and accused him of selling out his principles to moderates and social gospellers. Two conservative trade-unionists also ran as Union Labour candidates, opposing radicalism in the labour movement.

Five ILP candidates were elected, and John Queen was also elected in Winnipeg. Labour leader Fred Dixon topped the poll in Winnipeg for a second time, although by a reduced margin from 1920. George Armstrong lost his Winnipeg seat, and no other labour candidates were elected. Six independent candidates were also elected.

The Progressives would go on to govern Manitoba alone until 1932, when they joined forces with the Liberals to form the "Liberal-Progressive Party." The Liberal-Progressives would go on to govern Manitoba, either alone or in coalition, until 1959.

ResultsEdit

Summary of the 1922 election results for the 17th Manitoba Legislature
Party Party leader Candidates Seats Popular vote[a 1]
1920 1922 +/— 1920 1922 +/— % Change
Progressive none 49 10 28 +18 20,299 49,767 +29,468 32.8% +18.7%
Liberal Tobias Norris 38 21 8 -13 50,422 35,225 -15,197 23.2% -11.9%
Conservative Fawcett Taylor 26 8 7 -1 25,083 23,539 -1,544 15.5% -2.0%
  Dominion Labour Party Fred Dixon 12 8 5 -3 23,390 16,781 -6,609 11.1% -5.2%
Independent 20 1 5 +4 14,145 15,434 +1,289 10.2% +0.4%
  Moderation League J.K. Downes 1 1 +1 3,621 +3,621 2.8% n/a
  Independent Workers John Queen[a 2] 1 1 1 1,253 2,348 +1,095 2.7% +1.8%
  Brandon Labour Party Albert Edward Smith 1 1 -1 2,007 2,060 +53 1.4%
Labour 5 1,728 +1,728 1.1% n/a
  Socialist George Armstrong 1 1 -1 2,767 1,271 -1,496 0.8% -1.1%
  Independent Farmer 3 -3 2,863 -2,863 n/a
  Independent-Conservative 1 -1 1,434 -1,434 n/a
Totals 154 55 55 143,663 151,774 +8,111 100.0%
Registered voters and turnout 209,760 222,499 +12,739 69.4% -1.2%
  1. ^ includes first-preference votes in Winnipeg STV count
  2. ^ elected in 1920 under the Social Democratic ticket
Popular vote
Progressive
32.79%
Liberal
23.21%
Conservative
15.51%
DLP
11.06%
Others
17.43%
Seats summary
Progressive
50.91%
Liberal
14.55%
Conservative
12.73%
DLP
9.09%
Others
12.73%

Rural ManitobaEdit

Electoral district Candidates Incumbent
Progressive Liberal Conservative Labour Other
Arthur Duncan Lloyd McLeod
1130
John Williams
777
John Williams
Beautiful Plains George Little
1534
James A. Dempsey
429
Richard E. Coad
939
George Little
Birtle William Short
1307
William Iverbach
710
George Malcolm
Brandon City Albert Edward Smith (Brandon Labour Party/CLP)
2060
John Edmison (Ind)
3281
Albert Edward Smith
Carillon Albert Prefontaine
1010
Maurice Duprey (Ind)
694
Maurice Duprey
Cypress John Alexander Young
1205
William Spinks
1252
William Spinks
Dauphin Henry Pears Nicholson
658
Archibald Esplen
825
George Palmer (ILP)
742
George Palmer
Deloraine Duncan Stuart McLeod
1012
Robert Thornton
810
William Chalmers
829
Robert Thornton
Dufferin William Brown
1645
Herbert Robinson (Ind)
1504
Edward August
Emerson Robert Curran
566
H. Stewart
435
D.H. McFadden
567
Dmytro Yakimischak (Ind. Farmer)
998
Dmytro Yakimischak
Fairford G.L. Marron
398
Albert Kirvan
810
Albert Kirvan
Fisher Nicholas Bachynsky
581
John Garfield Hamilton
262
Henry L. Mabb (Ind)
354
Henry L. Mabb
Gilbert Plains Arthur Berry
1034
George Darling Shortreed
317
Horace Priestly Barrett (Ind)
499
William Findlater
Gimli Ingimar Ingaldson
1310
Michael Rojeski
1570
Elias Grabosky
103
Gudmundur Fjelsted
Gladstone Albert McGregor
1527
David Smith
649
F.J. Erick Rhind
387
James Armstrong
Glenwood Wellington Geddas Rathwell
950
James Breakey
1468
William Robson
Ind. Farmer
Hamiota Thomas Wolstenholme
1338
John Henry McConnell
935
John Henry McConnell
Iberville Arthur Boivin
902
H.A. Mullins
290
Arthur Boivin
Killarney Andrew Foster
949
Thomas H. Buck
394
G.W. Waldon
747
Samuel Fletcher
Lakeside Douglas Campbell
1591
Herbert Muir
1101
Charles Duncan McPherson
Lansdowne John Morrison Allen
1219
Tobias Norris
1680
Tobias Norris
La Verendrye Philippe Adjutor Talbot
1134
L.P. Roy
694
Philippe Adjutor Talbot
Manitou George Compton
1049
G.E. Davidson
531
John Ridley
1018
Joseph B. Lane (Ind)
548
John Ridley
Minnedosa Neil Cameron
1966
A.W. Shaw
1160
George Grierson
Morden and Rhineland John Sweet
960
John Kennedy
1297
John Kennedy
Morris William Clubb
1222
Alex Ayotte
751
William Clubb
Mountain Charles Cannon
1580
James Baird
968
George M. Fraser
578
James Baird
Norfolk John Muirhead
1279
Reuben J. Waugh
1142
Reuben J. Waugh
Portage la Prairie Charles D. McPherson
1307
Fawcett Taylor
1436
Fawcett Taylor
Roblin Henry Richardson
1176
Fred Newton
1185
Henry Richardson
Rockwood William McKinnell
1374
Harvey Hicks
706
Robert William Rutherford (Ind)
703
William McKinnell
Russell Isaac Griffiths
1177
William W.W. Wilson
783
Edgar Carnegy De Balinhard
741
William W.W. Wilson
St. George Albert E. Kristjansson
860
Skuli Sigfusson
1512
Albert E. Kristjansson
Ste. Rose Thomas McDonald
1272
Joseph Hamelin (Ind)
1362
Joseph Hamelin
Swan River Robert Emmond
1320
Daniel Hawe Sr.
548
Robert Emmond
Turtle Mountain R.W. Ramson
955
Richard G. Willis
1059
George William McDonald
Virden Robert Mooney
1638
George Clingan
961
George Clingan

Winnipeg suburbsEdit

Electoral district Candidates Incumbent
Progressive Liberal Conservative Labour Other
Assiniboia Charles L. Richardson
999
William Bayley (ILP)
1844
William Bourke (Ind)
843
John Haddon (Ind)
494
William Bayley
Kildonan & St. Andrews Samuel Henry Summerscales
828
Free Larter
977
Charles Albert Tanner (ILP)
1453
Charles Albert Tanner
St. Boniface H.M. Sutherland
1176
Charles W. Foster (ILP)
1124
Joseph Bernier (Ind)
2024
Joseph Bernier
St. Clements Hugh Connolly
532
Nicolas Kolisynk (Workers)
387
Matthew Stanbridge (ILP)
352
Donald Ross (Ind)
1245
Matthew Stanbridge
Springfield Clifford Barclay
1014
William James Black
854
Samuel Leonard Henry
365
Arthur Moore

WinnipegEdit

Final results for Winnipeg: Liberal 2, Conservative 2, ILP 3, Moderation League 1, Independent Worker 1, Progressive 1

Valid votes: 44,328 Quota: 4030

1922 election - Winnipeg (listed in order of 1st preference votes; number in brackets is the order in which elected)
Party Candidate Maximum
round
Maximum
votes
Share in
maximum
round
Maximum votes
First round votesTransfer votes


Independent Labour (x)Fred Dixon (1) 1 7,971 18.0%
Liberal Robert Jacob (2) 1 4,030 9.1%
Moderation League J.K. Downes (3) 11 4,053 9.2%
Conservative William Sanford Evans (4) 33 4,634 10.6%
Conservative (x)John Thomas Haig (5) 34 4,245 9.7%
Independent Workers (x)John Queen (6) 36 4,045 9.3%
Liberal (x)Edith Rogers (9) 37 3,485 8.3%
Liberal (x)Duncan Cameron 37 3,041 7.3%
Socialist (x)George Armstrong 35 2,064 4.7%
Independent Labour (x)William Ivens (8) 37 3,648 8.7%
Independent Labour Seymour Farmer (7) 36 4,036 9.2%
Progressive Richard Craig(10) 37 3,412 8.2%
Progressive George Chipman 31 1,467 3.4%
Conservative Arthur Sullivan 32 1,530 3.5%
Progressive Thomas J. Murray 36 2,181 5.0%
Workers Mathew Popovitch 28 1,039 2.4%
Liberal W.H. Trueman 30 1,323 3.0%
Progressive Patrick J. Henry 23 723 1.6%
Liberal James McTavish 26 848 1.9%
Liberal William James Donovan 27 922 2.1%
Conservative (x)William Johnston Tupper 24 754 1.7%
Liberal W.R. Milton 29 1,070 2.4%
Liberal Arni Eggertson 25 768 1.7%
Conservative Daniel McLean 20 612 1.4%
Progressive Charles K. Newcombe 21 654 1.5%
Union Labour James Winning 22 683 1.5%
Progressive Peter McCallum 18 521 1.2%
Liberal Hugh D. Cutler 17 489 1.1%
Conservative Mrs. L. Brown 16 449 1.0%
Independent Labour Sam Cartwright 19 557 1.3%
Independent B.B. Dubienski 14 364 <1%
Progressive Mrs. M.J. Hample 15 393 <1%
Liberal A.L. Maclean 12 275 <1%
Workers Arthur Henderson 13 282 <1%
Independent Fred Hilson 10 175 <1%
Union Labour F.W. McGill 9 165 <1%
Independent W.C. Morden 7 145 <1%
Progressive Arthur Puttee 8 150 <1%
Independent Labour James Simpkin 6 140 <1%
Workers William Hammond 5 112 <1%
Conservative Agnes Munro 4 100 <1%
Independent Labour Mrs. M. McCartney 3 96 <1%
Independent Colin McPhail 2 39 <1%
Exhausted votes 2511 5.7%
Order in which declared elected
Candidate Rank
   Fred Dixon 1
   Robert Jacob 2
   J.K. Downes 3
   William Sanford Evans 4
   John Thomas Haig 5
   John Queen 6
   Seymour Farmer 7
   William Ivens 8
   Edith Rogers 9
   Richard Craig 10
Results in 1920
   Fred Dixon 1
   Thomas Herman Johnson 2
   William Ivens 3
   John Thomas Haig 4
   John Queen 5
   John Stovel 6
   Duncan Cameron 7
   George Armstrong 8
   Edith Rogers 9
   William Johnston Tupper 10

Note: Reports of vote tallies were incomplete for counts 32–36. Count 31 was used as the base for calculating applicable percentages above.

Deferred electionsEdit

Elections for several northern ridings were deferred to later dates:


Electoral district Candidates Incumbent
Progressive Liberal Conservative Labour Other
Ethelbert
(August 26, 1922)
Nicholas A. Hryhorczuk
acclaimed
Nicholas A. Hryhorczuk
Ind. Farmer
Rupertsland
(September 13, 1922)
Francis Black
acclaimed
John Morrison
The Pas
(October 5, 1922)
John Bracken
472
Herman Finger (Ind) 118
P.C. Robertson (Ind) 71
R.H. MacNeill (Ind) 38
Edward Brown

Early by-electionsEdit

When Duncan Lloyd McLeod (Arthur), Neil Cameron (Minnedosa) and William Clubb (Morris) were appointed to cabinet on August 8, 1922, they were obliged to resign their seats and seek re-election. All were returned by acclamation on August 26, 1922.

Post-election changesEdit

Winnipeg (res. Fred Dixon, July 27, 1923)

Mountain (Charles Cannon appointed to cabinet, December 3, 1923), December 24, 1923:

Carillon (Albert Prefontaine appointed to cabinet, December 3, 1923), December 24, 1923:

Assiniboia (William Bayley leaves the Labour Party on January 8, 1924)

Lansdowne (res. Tobias Norris, 1925), December 9, 1925:

St. Boniface (res. Joseph Bernier, September 1, 1926)

Further readingEdit

  • "Historical Summaries" (PDF). Elections Manitoba. 2007.
  • Hopkins, J. Castell (1923). The Canadian Annual Review of Public Affairs, 1922. Toronto: The Canadian Review Company.