1953 in spaceflight

Summary

1953 in spaceflight
Deacon Rockoon.jpg
Launch of a Deacon Rockoon, several such launches occurred in 1953
Rockets
Maiden flightsSoviet UnionR-5 Pobeda
RetirementsUnited StatesAerobee RTV-A-1
United StatesAerobee XASR-SC-1
United StatesAerobee XASR-SC-2

The year 1953 saw the rockoon joining the Aerobee sounding rocket beyond the 100 kilometres (62 mi) boundary of space (as defined by the World Air Sports Federation).[1] Both the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics continued their development of ballistic missiles, the United States Air Force with its Atlas ICBM, the United States Army with its Redstone SRBM, the Soviet OKB-1 with its R-5 IRBM, and Factory 586 with its R-12 IRBM.

Space exploration highlights

U.S. Navy

On 25 May 1953, Viking 10, originally planned to be the last of the Naval Research Laboratory-built Viking rockets, arrived at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. A successful static firing on 18 June cleared the way for a 30 June launch date, a schedule that had been made months prior, before the rocket had even left the Glenn L. Martin Company plant where it had been built. At the moment of liftoff, the tail of Viking 10 exploded, setting the rocket afire. Water was immediately flooded into the rocket's base in an attempt to extinguish the fire, but flames continued to burn in the East Quadrant of the firing platform. Half an hour after launch, two of the launch team under manager Milton Rosen were dispatched to put out the fire to salvage what remained of the rocket.

Though successful, these efforts were then threatened by a slow leak in the propellant tank. The vacuum created by the departing fuel was causing the tank to dimple with the danger of implosion that would cause the rocket to collapse. Lieutenant Joseph Pitts, a member of the launch team, shot a rifle round into the tank, equalizing the pressure and saving the rocket. Three hours after the attempted launch, the last of the alcohol propellant had been drained from Viking 10. The launch team was able to salvage the instrument package of cameras, including X-ray detectors, cosmic ray emulsions, and a radio-frequency mass-spectrometer, valued at tens of thousands of dollars, although there was concern that the rocket was irreparable.

A thorough investigation of the explosion began in July, but a conclusive cause could not be determined. In a reported presented in September, Milton Rosen noted that a similar occurrence had not happened in more than 100 prior tests of the Viking motor. It was decided to rebuild Viking 10, and a program for closer monitoring of potential fail points was implemented for the next launch, scheduled for 1954.[2]

American civilian efforts

After the successful field tests of balloon-launched rockets (rockoons) the previous year, a University of Iowa physics team embarked on a second rockoon expedition aboard the USS Staten Island in summer 1953 with improved equipment. The new Skyhook balloons increased the rocket firing altitude from 40,000 feet (12,000 m) to 50,000 feet (15,000 m) affording a peak rocket altitude of 57 miles (92 km). The total payload weights were increased by 2 pounds (0.91 kg) to 30 pounds (14 kg). Between 18 July and 5 September, the Iowa team launched 16 rockoons from a variety of latitudes, seven of which reached useful altitudes and returned usable data. An NRL team aboard the same vessel launched six rockoons, of which half were complete successes. Data from these launches provided the first evidence of radiation associated with aurora borealis.[3]

Vehicle development

U.S. Air Force

Development of the Atlas, the nation's first ICBM proceeded slowly throughout 1953. Without firm figures as to the weight and dimension of a thermonuclear device (the U.S. tested its first H-bomb in November 1952, the U.S.S.R. announced their first successful test in August 1953), it was not known if the Atlas could deliver an atomic bomb payload.

In spring 1953, Colonel Bernard Schriever, an assistant in development planning at The Pentagon and a proponent of long-ranged ballistic missiles, pushed to obtain accurate characteristics of a nuclear payload. Trevor Gardner, special assistant for research and development to the new Secretary of the Air Force, Harold Talbott, responded by organizing the Strategic Missiles Evaluation Committee or "Teapot Committee" comprising eleven of the top scientists and engineers in the country. Their goal would be to determine if a nuclear payload could be made small enough to fit on the Atlas rocket. If so, the importance of the committee's members would allow such findings to accelerate Atlas development. By October, committee member John von Neumann had completed his report on weights and figures indicating that smaller, more powerful warheads within Atlas' launch capability would soon be available. Pending test verification of von Neumann's theoretical results, the Air Force began revising the Atlas design for the projected nuclear payload.[4]

U.S. Army

The first production Redstone, a surface-to-surface missile capable of delivering nuclear or conventional warheads to a range of 200 miles (320 km), was delivered on 27 July 1953. A Redstone R&D missile was flight tested on 20 August 1953.[5]

Soviet Union

The R-5 missile, able to carry the same 1,000 kilograms (2,200 lb) payload as the R-1 and R-2 but over a distance of 1,200 kilometres (750 mi)[6]:242 underwent its first series of eight test launches from 15 March to 23 May, 1953. After two failures, the third rocket, launched 2 April, marked the beginning of streak of success. Seven more missiles were launched between 30 October and December, all of which reached their targets. A final series of launches, designed to test modifications made in response to issues with the first series, was scheduled for mid-1954.[7]:100–101

In his brief tenure as Director of NII-88, responsible for the production of all Soviet ballistic missiles, engineer Mikhail Yangel chafed professionally with OKB-1 (formerly NII-88 Section 3) Chief Designer, Sergei Korolev, whom he had previously reported to as Deputy Chief Designer of the bureau. To relieve this tension, on 4 October 1953, Yangel was demoted to NII-88 Chief Engineer and assigned responsibility for production of missiles at State Union Plant No. 586 in Dnepropetrovsk. This plant under, Vasiliy Budnik, had been tasked on 13 February 1953 with developing the R-12 missile, possessing a performance similar to that of the R-5 (range of 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) vs. 1,200 kilometres (750 mi)) but using storable propellants so that it could be stored at firing readiness for extended periods of time.[7]:113–114

At the end of 1953, at a meeting of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, it was determined that a transportable thermonuclear device be developed (as opposed to the one detonated in August, which was stationary). It as further determined that an ICBM be developed to carry said bomb. As no ICBMs existed at the time, in reality or even in planning, development of a nuclear capable R-5 (dubbed the "R-5M") was ordered.[6]:275

Launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

February

10 February
21:09
United StatesAerobee RTV-N-10 United StatesWhite Sands - Launch Complex 35 United StatesNRL
NRL Suborbital Mass spectrometry 10 February Successful
Apogee: 137 kilometres (85 mi)[8]
12 February
07:09
United StatesAerobee RTV-N-10 United StatesWhite Sands LC-35 United StatesNRL
NRL Suborbital Mass spectrometry 12 February Successful
Apogee: 137.3 kilometres (85.3 mi)[8]
18 February
06:50
United StatesAerobee XASR-SC-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-35 United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesGRENADES US Air Force Suborbital Aeronomy 18 February Successful
Apogee: 106.9 kilometres (66.4 mi)[8]
18 February
06:50
United StatesAerobee RTV-A-1a United StatesHolloman AFB Launch Complex A United StatesARDC
ARDC Suborbital Test 18 February Successful
Apogee: 117.5 kilometres (73.0 mi)[8]

March

1 March GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 March Successful[9]
5 March GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 5 March Successful[9]
15 March Soviet UnionR-5 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar GTsP-4 Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 15 March Partial failure [7]
Maiden flight of R-5[10]
18 March Soviet UnionR-5 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar GTsP-4 Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 18 March Partial failure [10][7]
19 March GermanySoviet UnionR-5 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar GTsP-4 Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 19 March Successful[9]

April

2 April Soviet UnionR-5 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar GTsP-4 Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 2 April Successful
First successful R-5 launch[10]
8 April Soviet UnionR-5 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar GTsP-4 Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 8 April Partial failure[10]
14 April
15:47
United StatesAerobee RTV-A-1a United StatesHolloman AFB Launch Complex A United StatesARDC
ARDC Suborbital Test 14 April Successful
Apogee: 122.3 kilometres (76.0 mi)[8]
19 April Soviet UnionR-5 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar GTsP-4 Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 19 April Successful[10]
23 April
19:33
United StatesAerobee XASR-SC-2 United StatesWhite Sands - Launch Complex 35 United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesSPHERE US Air Force Suborbital Aeronomy 23 April Successful
Apogee: 124 kilometres (77 mi)[8]
24 April
10:19
United StatesAerobee XASR-SC-2 United StatesWhite Sands LC-35 United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesGRENADES US Air Force Suborbital Aeronomy 24 April Successful
Apogee: 107.8 kilometres (67.0 mi)[8]
24 April Soviet UnionR-5 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar GTsP-4 Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 24 April Successful
Apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi)

May

11 May GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 19 March Successful[9]
13 May Soviet UnionR-5 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar GTsP-4 Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 13 May Successful[10]
20 May
14:04
United StatesAerobee RTV-A-1a United StatesHolloman AFB Launch Complex A United StatesARDC
United StatesAirglow-3 ARDC Suborbital Aeronomy 20 May Successful
Apogee: 114.3 kilometres (71.0 mi)[8]
21 May
15:47
United StatesAerobee RTV-A-1a United StatesHolloman LC-A United StatesARDC
United StatesAirglow-4 ARDC Suborbital Aeronomy 21 May Successful
Apogee: 114.3 kilometres (71.0 mi)[8]
23 May Soviet UnionR-5 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar GTsP-4 Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 23 May Successful
with 4 supplementary combat compartments; end of 1st set of experimental launches[10]

June

3 June GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 3 June Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
26 June
19:10
United StatesAerobee RTV-A-1a United StatesHolloman AFB Launch Complex A United StatesARDC
United StatesAF / Utah Ionosphere 3 Ionosphere mission ARDC Suborbital Ionospheric 26 June Successful
Apogee: 135.2 kilometres (84.0 mi)[8]

July

1 July
17:52
United StatesAerobee RTV-A-1a United StatesHolloman AFB Launch Complex A United StatesARDC
United StatesAF / Utah Ionosphere 4 Ionosphere mission ARDC Suborbital Ionospheric 1 July Successful
Apogee: 138.4 kilometres (86.0 mi)[8]
6 July GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 6 July Successful[9]
14 July
15:30
United StatesAerobee RTV-A-1a United StatesHolloman LC-A United StatesARDC
ARDC Suborbital Solar UV 14 July Successful
Apogee: 103 kilometres (64 mi)[8]
18 July
22:27
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Staten Island, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 1 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesSUI-8 University of Iowa Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 18 July Launch failure
Apogee: 11 kilometres (6.8 mi)[11]
19 July
10:30
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Staten Island, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 2 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesSUI-9 University of Iowa Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 19 July Launch failure
Apogee: 11 kilometres (6.8 mi)[11]
19 July
15:53
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Staten Island, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 3 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesSUI-10 University of Iowa Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 19 July Launch failure
Apogee: 11 kilometres (6.8 mi)[11]
19 July
21:57
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Staten Island, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 4 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesSUI-11 University of Iowa Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 19 July Launch failure
Apogee: 11 kilometres (6.8 mi)[11]
23 July
09:47
United StatesAerobee RTV-A-1a United StatesHolloman LC-A United StatesARDC
ARDC Suborbital Aeronomy 23 July Successful
Apogee: 95.6 kilometres (59.4 mi)[8]
24 July
16:40
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Staten Island, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 5 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesSUI-12 University of Iowa Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 24 July Launch failure
Apogee: 11 kilometres (6.8 mi)[11]
29 July
09:41
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Staten Island, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 6 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesSUI-13 University of Iowa Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 29 July Successful
Apogee: 90 kilometres (56 mi)[11]

August

3 August
18:28
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Staten Island, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 7 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesSUI-14 University of Iowa Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 3 August Launch failure
Apogee: 11 kilometres (6.8 mi)[11]
5 August
21:54
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Staten Island, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 21 United StatesUS Navy
United States Naval Research Laboratory Suborbital Aeronomy 5 August
Apogee: 80 kilometres (50 mi);[11] first of six 1953 flights, three of which reached altitude and returned data[3]
6 August
15:07
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Staten Island, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 8 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesSUI-15 University of Iowa Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 6 August Launch failure
Apogee: 11 kilometres (6.8 mi)[11]
6 August
18:40
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Staten Island, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 9 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesSUI-16 University of Iowa Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 6 August Launch failure
Apogee: 96 kilometres (60 mi)[11]
8 August
15:09
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Staten Island, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 22 United StatesUS Navy
United States Naval Research Laboratory Suborbital Aeronomy 8 August
Apogee: 80 kilometres (50 mi);[11] second of six 1953 flights, three of which reached altitude and returned data[3]
9 August
05:54
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Staten Island, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 10 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesSUI-17 University of Iowa Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 9 August Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)[11]
9 August
19:15
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Staten Island, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 23 United StatesUS Navy
Naval Research Laboratory Suborbital Aeronomy 9 August Launch failure
Apogee: 38 kilometres (24 mi);[11] third of six 1953 flights, three of which reached altitude and returned data[3]
11 August
17:09
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Staten Island, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 24 United StatesUS Navy
Naval Research Laboratory Suborbital Aeronomy 11 August
Apogee: 80 kilometres (50 mi);[11] fourth of six 1953 flights, three of which reached altitude and returned data[3]
30 August
14:00
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Eastwind, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 11 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesSUI-18 University of Iowa Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 30 August Launch failure
Apogee: 11 kilometres (6.8 mi)[11]
30 August
16:20
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Eastwind, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 12 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesSUI-19 University of Iowa Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 30 August Launch failure
Apogee: 11 kilometres (6.8 mi)[11]
30 August
20:46
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Eastwind, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 13 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesSUI-20 University of Iowa Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 30 August Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)[11]

September

1 September
05:05
United StatesAerobee XASR-SC-2 United StatesWhite Sands - Launch Complex 35 United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesGRENADES US Air Force Suborbital Aeronomy 1 September Successful
Apogee: 107.8 kilometres (67.0 mi)[8]
3 September
09:50
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Eastwind, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 14 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesSUI-21 University of Iowa Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 3 September Successful
Apogee: 90 kilometres (56 mi)[8]
3 September
11:51
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Eastwind, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 15 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesSUI-22 University of Iowa Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 3 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)[8]
3 September
14:05
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Eastwind, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 16 United StatesUS Navy
United StatesSUI-23 University of Iowa Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 3 September Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)[8]
4 September
03:59
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Eastwind, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 25 United StatesUS Navy
Naval Research Laboratory Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 4 September
Apogee: 70 kilometres (43 mi);[11] fifth of six 1953 flights, three of which reached altitude and returned data[3]
4 September
15:51
United StatesDeacon Rockoon United StatesUSS Eastwind, Atlantic Ocean Launch Site 11, Launch Point 26 United StatesUS Navy
Naval Research Laboratory Suborbital Aeronomy/Ionospheric 4 September
Apogee: 70 kilometres (43 mi);[11] sixth of six 1953 flights, three of which reached altitude and returned data[3]
5 September
05:36
United StatesAerobee XASR-SC-1 United StatesWhite Sands LC-35 United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesGRENADES US Air Force Suborbital Aeronomy 5 September Successful
Apogee: 105.5 kilometres (65.6 mi)[8]
15 September
15:02
United StatesAerobee RTV-A-1a United StatesHolloman AFB Launch Complex A United StatesARDC
United StatesAirglow-5 ARDC Suborbital Aeronomy 15 September Partial launch failure
Apogee: 32.2 kilometres (20.0 mi) (Early cut-off due to a thrust chamber burn-through; subsequent shots incorporated improved chamber cooling)[8]
29 September
20:05
United StatesAerobee RTV-A-1a United StatesHolloman LC-A United StatesARDC
United StatesSphere ARDC Suborbital Aeronomy 29 September Successful
Apogee: 58 kilometres (36 mi)[8]

October

1 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 October Successful[12]
1 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 October Successful[12]
1 October GermanySoviet UnionR-2 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 October Successful[13]
1 October GermanySoviet UnionR-2 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 October Successful[13]
7 October
17:00
United StatesAerobee RTV-A-1a United StatesHolloman AFB Launch Complex A United StatesARDC
ARDC Suborbital Solar 7 October Successful
Apogee: 99.8 kilometres (62.0 mi)[8]
10 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 10 October Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
10 October GermanySoviet UnionR-2 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 10 October Successful[13]
16 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 16 October Successful[9]
17 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 17 October Successful[9]
19 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 19 October Successful[9]
20 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 20 October Successful[9]
24 October GermanySoviet UnionR-2 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 24 October Successful[13]
26 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 26 October Successful[9]
27 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 27 October Successful[9]
28 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 28 October Successful[9]
28 October GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 28 October Successful[9]
30 October Soviet UnionR-5 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar GTsP-4 Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 30 October Successful
Beginning of 2nd stage of experimental launches[10]

November

1 November GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful[12]
1 November GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful[12]
1 November GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful[12]
1 November GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful[12]
2 November
18:32
United StatesAerobee RTV-A-1a United StatesHolloman AFB Launch Complex A United StatesARDC
United StatesAF / Utah Ionosphere 5 Ionosphere mission ARDC Suborbital Ionospheric 2 November Successful
Apogee: 120.7 kilometres (75.0 mi)[8]
3 November
18:15
United StatesAerobee United StatesHolloman LC-A United StatesARDC
United StatesAF / Utah Ionosphere 6 Ionosphere mission ARDC Suborbital Ionospheric 3 November Successful
Apogee: 121 kilometres (75 mi)[8]
3 November Soviet UnionR-5 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar GTsP-4 Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 3 November Successful[10]
12 November GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 12 November Successful[9]
15 November GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 15 November Successful[12]
15 November GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 15 November Successful[9]
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
17 November Soviet UnionR-5 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar GTsP-4 Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 17 November Successful[10]
19 November
22:40
United StatesAerobee RTV-N-10 United StatesWhite Sands - Launch Complex 35 United StatesNRL
NRL Suborbital Aeronomy/Solar 19 November Successful
Apogee: 112.6 kilometres (70.0 mi)[8]
21 November Soviet UnionR-5 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar GTsP-4 Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 21 November Successful[10]
24 November GermanySoviet UnionR-1 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 24 November Successful[9]
25 November
15:46
United StatesAerobee RTV-N-10 United StatesWhite Sands LC-35 United StatesNRL
NRL Suborbital Aeronomy/Solar 25 November Successful
Apogee: 95.1 kilometres (59.1 mi)[8]
26 November Soviet UnionR-5 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar GTsP-4 Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 26 November Partial failure[10]

December

1 December
15:30
United StatesAerobee RTV-N-10 United StatesWhite Sands - Launch Complex 35 United StatesNRL
NRL Suborbital Aeronomy/Solar 1 December Successful
Apogee: 129.6 kilometres (80.5 mi)[8]
5 December Soviet UnionR-5 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar GTsP-4 Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 5 December Successful[10]
9 December GermanySoviet UnionR-5 Soviet UnionKapustin Yar Soviet UnionOKB-1
OKB-1 Suborbital Missile test 9 December Successful
End of second experimental flight series[10]

Suborbital launch summary

By country

Soviet Union: 21USA: 20Circle frame.svg
Country Launches Successes Failures Partial
failures
Unknown Remarks
 Soviet Union 44 42 0 3 0
 United States 46 41 2 4 0

By rocket


Rocket Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Unknown Remarks
Viking (second model)  United States 1 0 1 0 0
Aerobee RTV-N-10  United States 5 5 0 0 0
Aerobee XASR-SC-1  United States 1 1 0 0 0
Aerobee XASR-SC-2  United States 4 4 0 0 0
Aerobee RTV-A-1a  United States 12 11 10 0
SUI Deacon rockoon  United States 16 7 9 0 0 Maiden flight
NRL Deacon rockoon  United States 7 3 1 3 0 Maiden flight
R-1  Soviet Union 25 25 0 0 0
R-2  Soviet Union 14 14 0 0 0
R-5  Soviet Union 15 13 0 3 0

References

  1. ^ Voosen, Paul (24 July 2018). "Outer space may have just gotten a bit closer". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aau8822. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  2. ^ Milton W. Rosen (1955). The Viking Rocket Story. New York: Harper & Brothers. pp. 204–221. OCLC 317524549.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g George Ludwig (2011). Opening Space Research. Washington D.C.: geopress. pp. 18–32. OCLC 845256256.
  4. ^ John L. Chapman (1960). Atlas The Story of a Missile. New York: Harper & Brothers. pp. 71–73. OCLC 492591218.
  5. ^ "Installation History 1953 - 1955". U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Life Cycle Management Command. 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  6. ^ a b Boris Chertok (June 2006). Rockets and People, Volume II: Creating a Rocket Industry. Washington D.C.: NASA. OCLC 946818748.
  7. ^ a b c d Asif A. Siddiqi. Challenge to Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945-1974 (PDF). Washington D.C.: NASA. OCLC 1001823253.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Wade, Mark. "Aerobee". Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Wade, Mark. "R-1 8A11". Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Asif Siddiqi (2021). "R-5 Launches 1953-1959". Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Wade, Mark. "Deacon Rockoon". Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Wade, Mark. "R-1". Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  13. ^ a b c d Wade, Mark. "R-2". Retrieved 7 December 2020.