1974 in spaceflight

Summary

1974 in spaceflight
Soyuz 18 booster.jpg
Soyuz-U launch vehicle
Orbital launches
First5 January
Last2 December

On March 29, 1974 Mariner 10 became the first ever spacecraft to fly by Mercury, that saw a spacecraft for the first and last time in the 20th century.


Launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January

5 January
01:45
United StatesAerobee 200A United StatesWhite Sands NASA
NASA Sub-orbital Aeronomy/Ultraviolet astronomy 5 January 1974 Successful
8 January
01:40
United StatesAerobee 200A United StatesWhite Sands NASA
NASA/NRL Sub-orbital Aeronomy/Ultraviolet astronomy 8 January 1974 Successful
12 January
19:12
United KingdomSkylark El Arenosillo NASA
Germany H-GR-58 DFVLR Sub-orbital Astronomy 12 Jan 1974 Successful
12 January Soviet Union R-36 Soviet Union Baikonur (LC-162/36) RVSN
Soviet Union Dkh RVSN Sub-orbital ICBM test 12 January 1974 Successful
15 January
20:00
United States Black Brant VC United States White Sands (LC-36) NASA
NASA Sub-orbital Solar research 15 January 1974 Successful
16 January
02:00
Japan Kappa 9M Japan Kagoshima (LC-36) ISAS
ISAS Sub-orbital Ionosphere & Solar research 16 January 1974 Successful
16 January
17:40
United States Nike Apache United States Wallops Island NASA
NASA Sub-orbital Aeronomy 16 January 1974 Successful
16 January
18:13
United States Super Arcas United States Wallops Island NASA
NASA Sub-orbital Ionosphere research 16 January 1974 Successful
16 January
01:40
United States Aerobee 200A United States White Sands NASA
NASA Sub-orbital Solar research 16 January 1974 Successful
17 January
02:37
United States Nike Tomahawk United States Poker Flat NASA
NASA/NRL Sub-orbital Plasma research 17 January 1974 Successful
17 January
02:37
Soviet Union Kosmos 3M Soviet Union Plesetsk (LC-132/2) VKS
Soviet UnionKosmos 628 (Tsiklon) MOM LEO Navigation In orbit Successful
19 January
01:38
United States Delta 2313 United States CCAFS (LC-17B) UK Ministry of Defence
United StatesSkynet 2A UK MOD Intended: GEO Achieved: LEO Comms 25 January 1974 Failure
Placed in incorrect orbit due to carrier rocket malfunction
19 January
11:34
United Kingdom Skua Spain El Arenosillo RAE
RAE Sub-orbital Ionosphere research 19 January 1974 Success
19 January Soviet Union R-36M Soviet Union LC-103, Baikonur RVSN
POR RVSN Sub-orbital ICBM Test 20 January 1974 Success
21 January
02:39
United States Nike Tomahawk United States Poker Flat NASA
NASA Sub-orbital Plasma research 21 January 1974 Success
21 January
11:30
United KingdomSkua4 SpainEl Arenosillo RAE
RAE Sub-orbital Ionosphere research 21 January 1974 Success
22 January
02:41
United States Nike Tomahawk United States Poker Flat NASA
NASA Sub-orbital Plasma research 22 January 1974 Success
22 January
11:00
Japan Lambda 3H Japan Area 3L, Kagoshima ISAS
ISAS Sub-orbital X-ray astronomy 22 January 1974 Success
22 January
01:40
United States Aerobee 200A United States White Sands NASA
NASA/NRL Sub-orbital Solar research 22 January 1974 Successful
22 January
01:40
United States Minuteman I United States LF-06, Vandenberg AFB USAF
USAF Sub-orbital ICBM test 22 January 1974 Successful
23 January
11:30
United Kingdom Skua Spain El Arenosillo RAE
RAE Sub-orbital Ionosphere research 23 January 1974 Success
23 January
12:50
Canada Black Brant VB Canada Churchill NRC
NRC Sub-orbital Aeronomy/Ionosphere/Aurora research 23 January 1974 Success
24 January
15:00
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk MOM
Soviet UnionKosmos 629 (Zenit-2M) MOM LEO Recon 5 February 1974 Success
25 January
11:30
United Kingdom Skua Spain El Arenosillo RAE
RAE Sub-orbital Ionosphere research 25 January 1974 Success
25 January Soviet Union UR-100N Soviet Union Baikonur Cosmodrome RVSN
RVSN Sub-orbital ICBM test 25 January 1974 Success
26 January United States Minuteman III United States LF-25, Vandenberg AFB USAF
GT-24GB-1 USAF Sub-orbital ICBM test 26 January 1974 Success
26 January Soviet Union UR-100N Soviet Union Baikonur Cosmodrome RVSN
GT-24GB-1 RVSN Sub-orbital ICBM test 26 January 1974 Success
27 January
19:08
United States Nike Tomahawk Norway Andøya NASA
Ferdinand 35 (Polar 3) NDRE Sub-orbital Aurora research 27 January 1974 Success
30 January
11:00
Soviet Union Voskhod Soviet Union Plesetsk MOM
Soviet UnionKosmos 630 (Zenit-4MK) MOM LEO Aurora research 13 February 1974 Success
30 January United States SSBS France BLB, Biscarosse DMA
DMA Sub-orbital Aurora research 30 January 1974 Success

February

1 February
06:30
Japan JCR Japan Area T, Tanegashima NADSA
JapanKosmos 547 (Zenit 2M) NASDA Sub-orbital Test flight 1 February 1974 Successful
4 February
14:40
United Kingdom Skylark 6AC Australia LA-2SL, Woomera BAC
BAC Sub-orbital Astronomy 4 February 1974 Successful
4 February Soviet Union MR-UR-100 Soviet Union LC-177, Baikonur RVSN
RVSN Sub-orbital ICBM test 4 February 1974 Successful
06 February
00:34
Soviet Union Kosmos-3M Soviet Union LC-132/2, Plesetsk VKS
Soviet Union Kosmos 631 (Tselina-O) VKS LEO ELINT 3 October 1980 Successful
6 February
22:48
Canada Black Brant IVB Norway Andoya DLR
DLR Sub-orbital Aurora research (DLR A-BB4-63 Auroral mission) 6 February 1974 Successful
6 February United States Polaris A3 United States Submarine, WTR US Navy
US Navy Sub-orbital SLBM test 6 February 1974 Successful
6 February United States Polaris A3 United States Submarine, WTR US Navy
US Navy Sub-orbital SLBM test 6 February 1974 Successful
9 February
02:10
United States Aerobee 200A United States White Sands NASA
NASA Sub-orbital Astronomy 9 February 1974 Successful
9 February
06:30
Japan LS-C Japan Area T, Tanegashima NASDA
NASDA Sub-orbital Test flight 9 February 1974 Successful
11 February
13:48
United States Titan IIIE/Centaur United States LC-41, CCAFS NASA
Boilerplate NASA Intended: GSO Test carrier rocket 12 February 1974 Failure
United States Viking NASA Intended: GSO Plasma research 12 February 1974 Failure
Upper stage turbopump malfunction

March

April

May

June

July

3 July Soviet Union Soyuz (11A511) Soviet UnionLC-1/5, Baikonur
Soviet Union Soyuz 14 LEO, docked to Salyut 3 Crewed orbital flight 19 July 1974 Successful
16 July United States Scout United States Western Space and Missile Center at Vandenberg AFB NASA
United States Aeros 2 NASA  

August

28 August
10:08
Soviet Union Soyuz (11A511) Soviet Union LC-1/5, Baikonur
Soviet Union Soyuz 15 LEO Plan: Dock to Salyut 3 Crewed orbital flight 28 August 1974 Failure
Failed to dock with Salyut 3

September

October

November

December

2 December
15:00
Soviet Union Soyuz-U (11A511U) Soviet Union LC-1/5, Baikonur
Soviet Union Soyuz 16 LEO Crewed orbital flight 8 December 1974 Successful
First successful crewed use of Soyuz-U launch vehicle
10 December
07:11:01
United StatesTitan IIIE/Star-37 United StatesCape Canaveral SLC-41 United StatesNASA
United StatesGermanyHelios-A NASA / DFVLR Heliocentric Solar probe In orbit Successful
Achieved a closest approach to the Sun of 46.5 million km (0.31 AU) in February 1975, the closest approach achieved by an artificial satellite at that point; it was succeeded later by Helios-B.

Deep Space Rendezvous

Date (GMT) Spacecraft Event Remarks
5 February Mariner 10 Flyby of Venus Gravity assist; Closest approach: 5,768 kilometres (3,584 mi)
10 February Mars 4 Flyby of Mars Closest approach: 2,200 kilometres (1,400 mi) (orbiter mission)
12 February Mars 5 Areocentric orbit injection
9 March Mars 7 Lander missed mars by 1,300 kilometres (810 mi)
12 March Mars 6 Lander lost a few seconds before anticipated landing
29 March Mariner 10 1st flyby of Mercury Closest approach: 703 kilometres (437 mi)
2 June Luna 22 Selenocentric orbit injection Photographic mission
21 September Mariner 10 2nd flyby of Mercury Closest approach: 48,069 kilometres (29,869 mi)
2 November Luna 23 Landed rough at Mare Crisium, the Moon Sample return mission
3 December Pioneer 11 Flyby of Jupiter Gravity assist; Closest approach: 42,960 kilometres (26,690 mi)

EVAs

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
3 February
15:19
5 hours
19 minutes
20:38 Skylab
SLM-3
United StatesGerald P. Carr
United StatesEdward Gibson
Retrieved the final film from the solar observatory and photographed Kohoutek using an electronographic camera.

References

Generic references:
RocketSunIcon.svg Spaceflight portal
  • Bergin, Chris. "NASASpaceFlight.com".
  • Clark, Stephen. "Spaceflight Now".
  • Kelso, T.S. "Satellite Catalog (SATCAT)". CelesTrak.
  • Krebs, Gunter. "Chronology of Space Launches".
  • Kyle, Ed. "Space Launch Report".
  • McDowell, Jonathan. "Jonathan's Space Report".
  • Pietrobon, Steven. "Steven Pietrobon's Space Archive".
  • Wade, Mark. "Encyclopedia Astronautica".
  • Webb, Brian. "Southwest Space Archive".
  • Zak, Anatoly. "Russian Space Web".
  • "ISS Calendar". Spaceflight 101.
  • "NSSDCA Master Catalog". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • "Space Calendar". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  • "Space Information Center". JAXA.
  • "Хроника освоения космоса" [Chronicle of space exploration]. CosmoWorld (in Russian).

Footnotes