2009 in spaceflight

Summary

Several significant events in spaceflight occurred in 2009, including Iran conducting its first indigenous orbital launch, the first Swiss satellite being launched and New Zealand launching its first sounding rocket. The H-IIB and Naro-1 rockets conducted maiden flights, whilst the Tsyklon-3, Falcon 1 and Ariane 5GS were retired from service.[3][4] The permanent crew of the International Space Station increased from three to six in May, and in the last few months of the year, Japan's first resupply mission to the outpost, HTV-1, was conducted successfully.

2009 in spaceflight
STS-125 FD9 Release.jpg
The Hubble Space Telescope was serviced for the last time during the STS-125 mission
Orbital launches
First18 January
Last29 December
Total78
Successes73
Failures4
Partial failures1
Catalogued75
National firsts
Spaceflight New Zealand
Satellite Switzerland[1]
Orbital launch Iran[2]
Rockets
Maiden flightsDelta IV-M+ (5,4)
H-IIB
Naro-1
Taurus-XL 3110
Unha-2
RetirementsAriane 5GS
Falcon 1
Tsyklon-3
Crewed flights
Orbital9
Total travellers46

OverviewEdit

 
An Iridium satellite

The internationally accepted definition of a spaceflight is any flight which crosses the Kármán line, 100 kilometres above sea level. The first spaceflight launch of the year was that of a Delta IV Heavy, carrying the USA-202 ELINT satellite, which launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 02:47 GMT on 18 January. This was also the first orbital launch of the year.

On 2 February, Iran conducted its first successful orbital launch,[2] when a Safir was used to place the Omid satellite into low Earth orbit.

At 16:56 GMT on 10 February, the first major collision between two satellites in orbit occurred, resulting in the destruction of Kosmos 2251 and Iridium 33, launched in 1993 and 1997 respectively. Up until the collision, Iridium 33 was operational, and an active part of the Iridium network of satellites, whilst Kosmos 2251 was an inactive piece of space junk.

On 25 August, the Russo- South Korean Naro-1 rocket made its maiden flight on 25 August, marking South Korea's first involvement in conducting a satellite launch attempt, however the rocket failed to reach orbit after its payload fairing malfunctioned.

 
HTV-1 arriving at the ISS

The first flight of the SpaceX Falcon 9 carrier rocket was scheduled to occur in November, but was delayed to February 2010 to allow more time for preparations. The SpaceX Dragon, a commercial uncrewed logistics spacecraft which was developed as part of NASA's COTS programme, was also scheduled to make its first flight in 2009, however its launch has also slipped to 2010 as a result of knock-on delays. The first H-II Transfer Vehicle, HTV-1, was successfully launched on the maiden flight of the H-IIB carrier rocket on 10 September. The first Swiss satellite, SwissCube-1, was launched on 23 September aboard a PSLV.

On 18 December, the Ariane 5GS made its final flight, delivering the Helios-IIB satellite into a sun-synchronous orbit. The last orbital launch of the year was conducted eleven days later, on 29 December, when a Proton-M with a Briz-M upper stage launched the DirecTV-12 satellite.

Space explorationEdit

Although no planetary probes were launched in 2009, four astronomical observatories were placed into orbit. The Kepler spacecraft, which was launched by a Delta II on 7 March, entered an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit from where it will search for exoplanets. On 14 May, and Ariane 5ECA launched the Herschel and Planck spacecraft. Both were placed at the L2 Lagrangian point between the Earth and Sun, from where they will be used for astronomy. Herschel carries an infrared telescope whilst Planck carries an optical one. The fourth observatory to be launched was the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, which is a replacement for the Wide Field Infrared Explorer which failed shortly after launch. WISE was launched into a sun-synchronous orbit by a Delta II on 14 December, and will be used for infrared astronomy. Repairs made to the Hubble Space Telescope during STS-125 restored it to full operations after a series of malfunctions in 2008.

Two lunar probes were launched in 2009; the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite were launched on a single Atlas V rocket on 18 June. LRO entered selenocentric orbit and began a series of experiments, whilst LCROSS remained attached to the Centaur upper stage of the carrier rocket, and flew past the Moon. After orbiting the Earth twice, LCROSS separated from the upper stage and both it and the Centaur impacted the Cabeus crater at the South Pole of the Moon, on 9 October. By observing the Centaur's impact, LCROSS was able to confirm the presence of water on the Moon.[5] Several other Lunar probes ceased operations in 2009; Okina impacted the far side of the Moon on 12 February, Chang'e 1 was deorbited on 1 March, having completed its operations. Kaguya was also deorbited following a successful mission, impacting near Gill crater on 12 June. The Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft failed on 29 August, having operated for less than half of its design life.

The Mars Science Laboratory and Fobos-Grunt missions to Mars had been scheduled for launch at the end of 2009, however both were delayed to 2011 to allow more time for the spacecraft to be developed. Fobos-Grunt, a sample return mission to Mars' natural satellite Phobos, would have carried the first Chinese planetary probe, Yinghuo-1.

Several flybys occurred in 2009, with Cassini continuing to orbit Saturn, passing close to a number of its natural satellites. In February, Dawn passed within 549 kilometres (341 mi) of Mars, during a gravity assist manoeuvre for its journey to the asteroid belt. In September, MESSENGER made its third and final flyby of Mercury before entering orbit in 2011. Whilst the primary objective of the flyby, achieving a gravitational assist, was successful, the spacecraft entered safe mode shortly before its closest approach, which prevented it recording data as it flew away from the planet.[6] In November, the Rosetta spacecraft performed its third and final gravity assist flyby of Earth.

Crewed spaceflightEdit

 
Launch of Space Shuttle Atlantis on STS-125, the last Hubble servicing flight

Nine crewed launches occurred in 2009, the most since 1997. STS-119, using Space Shuttle Discovery, was launched on 15 March. It installed the last set of solar arrays on the International Space Station. Soyuz TMA-14, the 100th crewed Soyuz launch, delivered the Expedition 19 crew in March. In May, Space Shuttle Atlantis conducted the final mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope, STS-125. Several days later, Soyuz TMA-15 launched with the ISS Expedition 20 crew, brought the total ISS crew size up to six for the first time. This was also the 100th crewed spaceflight of the Soyuz programme, excluding the original Soyuz T-10 mission which failed to reach space. In July, Space Shuttle Endeavour delivered the final component of the Japanese Experiment Module on mission STS-127. STS-128, using Discovery in August, delivered supplies using the Leonardo MPLM. September saw the launch of Soyuz TMA-16, with the ISS Expedition 21 crew. This was the 100th crewed Soyuz mission reach orbit. In November, Space Shuttle Atlantis flew mission STS-129, delivering two EXPRESS Logistics Carriers to the ISS. The final crewed flight of the year, Soyuz TMA-17, was launched on 20 December with the ISS Expedition 22 crew.

 
The launch of Ares I-X

Although not a spaceflight in its own right, the Ares I-X test flight was conducted on 28 October, with the rocket lifting off from Launch Complex 39B of the Kennedy Space Center at 15:30 GMT. The flight was successful and reached an altitude of around 46 kilometres (29 mi), within the upper atmosphere. A parachute failure during descent resulted in some damage to the first stage, which was recovered.

Launch failuresEdit

 
OCO launches on a Taurus

Four orbital launch failures occurred in 2009. On 24 February, a Taurus-XL launched from the Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, United States, with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory. The payload fairing did not separate from the rocket, leaving the upper stage with too much mass to reach orbit. The stage, with spacecraft and fairing still attached, reentered the atmosphere, coming down off the coast of Antarctica. The second failure was a controversial North Korean launch attempt using an Unha rocket to launch the Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2 communications satellite. The launch was conducted on 5 April, and North Korea maintains that it successfully reached orbit, however no objects from the launch were tracked as having orbital velocity, and US radar systems tracking the rocket detected that it failed at around the time of third stage ignition, with debris falling in the Pacific Ocean.

A Soyuz-2.1a suffered a failure during the launch of Meridian 2 on 21 May, due to the premature cutoff of the second core stage of the carrier rocket. The satellite was placed in a lower than planned orbit, which it was initially expected to be able to correct by means of its onboard propulsion system, and the launch was reported to be a partial failure. By the time of the next Meridian launch in 2010 it had been confirmed that the satellite could not correct its own orbit, and that the mission was a failure.[7] On 25 August, the Naro-1 rocket was launched on its maiden flight, however one half of the payload fairing failed to separate, and it did not reach orbit.

On 31 August a Long March 3B placed the Palapa-D satellite into a lower than expected orbit after its third stage gas generator burned through, resulting in an engine failure at the start of the second burn.[8] The satellite was able to raise itself to its correct orbit at the expense of fuel which would have been used for five or six years of operations.[8]

Summary of launchesEdit

In total, seventy eight orbital launches were attempted in 2009, with seventy five catalogued as having reached orbit, and the three outright launch failures, including the North Korean launch, not being catalogued. This is an increase of nine attempts compared to 2008, and eight more launches reached orbit. This continues a four-year trend of increasing annual launch rates. The United States National Space Science Data Center catalogued 123 spacecraft placed into orbit by launches which occurred in 2009.[9]

 
Launch of a Delta IV-M+(4,2) EELV with GOES 14

Suborbital spaceflight in 2009 saw a number of sounding rocket and missile launches. New Zealand's Ātea-1 sounding rocket was launched on 30 November, marking that country's first suborbital flight. Russia twice attempted launches of its Bulava missile, however both launches failed. The second failure, which occurred on 9 December, resulted in a spiral pattern which was observed in the sky over Norway. The SpaceLoft-XL rocket experienced another launch failure during its third flight, on 2 May. The payload section separated from the rocket whilst it was still burning, and as a result the vehicle did not reach space.[10] It had been carrying samples of cremated human remains for Celestis, and student experiments.

By countryEdit

China conducted six launches in 2009; satellite problems early in the year followed by the fallout of the August partial launch failure resulted in many planned launches slipping into 2010. Europe launched seven Ariane 5 rockets, six in the ECA configuration and one in the GS configuration. It had also intended to launch the first Vega rocket, however this was delayed due to ongoing development issues, which had already left the project several years behind schedule. India conducted two launches of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicles, however the first flight of a new variant of the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle with an Indian-built upper stage slipped into 2010. Japan conducted three launches; two using the H-IIA, plus the first H-IIB. Russia and the former Soviet Union conducted twenty nine launches, not including the international Sea and Land launch programmes, which conducted four, and the single Naro-1 launch conducted in cooperation with South Korea.

The United States made twenty four launch attempts, with the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles accounting for eight; the most EELV launches in a single year to date. Eight Delta II launches were also made, including its last mission with a GPS satellite, and its last flight with a payload for the United States armed forces. As the Delta II programme wound down, Space Launch Complex 17A at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, one of the oldest operational launch pads in the world, was deactivated. SpaceX launched a single Falcon 1, which successfully placed an operational satellite into orbit for the first time. This was the final flight of the Falcon 1, which was subsequently retired from service in favour of the Falcon 1e.[4] At the start of the year, a mockup Falcon 9 was erected on its launch pad at Canaveral, however the type's maiden flight slipped into 2010.

Sea Launch only conducted a single launch in 2009; a Zenit-3SL launched Sicral 1B in April. In June, the company was declared bankrupt,[11] and subsequently it lost a number of launch contracts.[12] By the end of the year it was expecting to resume launches in 2010.[12] Its subsidiary, Land Launch, conducted three launches. Iran made its first successful indigenous orbital launch, however planned follow-up launches had not been conducted by the end of the year. North Korea made one launch which it claimed had successfully placed a satellite into orbit, however no such satellite was detected by any country capable of doing so. Israel was not reported to have scheduled or conducted an orbital launch attempt.

Orbital launchesEdit

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

JanuaryEdit

18 January
02:47[13]
  Delta IV Heavy[14]   Cape Canaveral SLC-37B   United Launch Alliance
  USA-202[15] (Mentor) NRO Geosynchronous ELINT In orbit Operational
NRO Launch 26
23 January
03:54[17]
  H-IIA 202   Tanegashima LA-Y1   Mitsubishi
  Ibuki (GOSAT) JAXA Low Earth (SSO) Climatology In orbit Operational
  SDS-1 JAXA Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Successful[18]
  Sohla-1 (Maido-1) SOHLA[19] Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Successful[20]
  Raijin (Sprite-Sat)[21] Tohoku University Low Earth (SSO) Sprite research In orbit Spacecraft failure[16]
  Kagayaki[22] Sorun[23] Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Spacecraft failure[16]
  Hitomi (PRISM)[24] University of Tokyo Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
  Kukai (STARS)[25][26] Kagawa University Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Spacecraft failure[16]
  Kiseki (KKS-1)[27] TMCIT Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Spacecraft failure[16]
Raijin failed to respond to commands from ground following electromagnetic boom deployment, Kagayaki failed to contact ground, STARS tether deployment failed, Kiseki failed to respond to commands from ground.[16]
30 January
13:30[3]
  Tsyklon-3   Plesetsk Site 32/2   Roscosmos
  Koronas-Foton Roscosmos / MEPhI / NIIEM[29] Low Earth[29] Heliophysics In orbit Spacecraft failure
Final flight of Tsyklon-3 rocket,[3] satellite problems during mid-2009, loss of signal in early December due to power system malfunction. Declared a total loss in April 2010.[28]

FebruaryEdit

2 February
18:36[30]
  Safir   Semnan   ISA
  Omid[31] ISA Low Earth Technology demonstration 25 April Successful
First successful Iranian orbital launch[2]
6 February
10:22:01[32]
  Delta II 7320-10C   Vandenberg SLC-2W   United Launch Alliance
  NOAA-19 (NOAA-N') NOAA / NASA Low Earth (SSO) Meteorology In orbit Operational
10 February
05:49:46[33]
  Soyuz-U   Baikonur Site 31/6   Roscosmos
  Progress M-66 Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 18 May
15:14:45
Successful
ISS flight 32P
11 February
00:03[34]
  Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced   Baikonur Site 200/39   Khrunichev
  Ekspress-AM44[35] RSCC Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
  Ekspress-MD1 RSCC Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
12 February
22:09:00[36]
  Ariane 5 ECA   Kourou ELA-3   Arianespace
  Hot Bird 10 Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
  NSS-9 SES New Skies Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
  Spirale-A CNES Highly elliptical Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
  Spirale-B CNES Highly elliptical Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
24 February
09:55:30[38]
  Taurus-XL 3110   Vandenberg LC-576E   Orbital Sciences
  OCO NASA Intended: Low Earth (SSO) Climatology 24 February Launch failure
Maiden flight of Taurus-XL 3110, payload fairing failed to separate, failed to reach orbit.[37] Satellite was to have been part of A-train constellation
26 February
18:29:55[39]
  Zenit-3SLB   Baikonur Site 45/1   Land Launch
  Telstar 11N Telesat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
28 February
04:10
  Proton-K / DM-2   Baikonur Site 81/24   Khrunichev
  Raduga-1 VKS Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational

MarchEdit

7 March
03:49:57[41]
  Delta II 7925-10L   Cape Canaveral SLC-17B   United Launch Alliance
  Kepler NASA Heliocentric Exoplanetary science In orbit Operational
Exosolar planet research, operating in an Earth-trailing orbit[40]
15 March
23:43:44[42]
  Space Shuttle Discovery[43]   Kennedy LC-39A   United Space Alliance
  STS-119[44] NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly[45][46] 28 March
19:13[47]
Successful
  ITS S6 Truss NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly In orbit Operational
Crewed flight with seven astronauts.
17 March
14:21[48]
  Rokot / Briz-KM   Plesetsk Site 133/3[49]     Eurockot
  GOCE ESA Low Earth Gravitational research 11 November 2013
00:16
Successful
24 March
08:34:00[50]
  Delta II 7925-9.5   Cape Canaveral SLC-17A   United Launch Alliance
  USA-203 (GPS IIR-20/M7) U.S. Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Partial spacecraft failure
Operational
26 March
11:49:06
  Soyuz-FG   Baikonur Site 1/5   Roscosmos
  Soyuz TMA-14[14] Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Expedition 19 11 October
04:32
Successful
Crewed flight with three cosmonauts. First space tourist to make two flights.

AprilEdit

3 April
16:24
  Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced   Baikonur Site 200/39     International Launch Services
  Eutelsat W2A Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
4 April
00:31[51]
  Atlas V 421   Cape Canaveral SLC-41   United Launch Alliance
  USA-204 (WGS-2) U.S. Air Force Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
5 April
02:30:15[53]
  Unha-2   Tonghae   KCST
  Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2 KCST Intended: Low Earth Technology demonstration 5 April Launch failure
North Korea claimed the launch was successful;[52] however, no objects were tracked in orbit.
14 April
16:16
  Long March 3C   Xichang LA-2   CNSA
  Compass-G2 CNSA Geosynchronous Navigation In orbit Spacecraft failure
Failed in orbit shortly after launch. Towed to a high graveyard orbit by Shijian-21 on 22 January 2022.[54]
20 April
01:15
  PSLV-CA   Satish Dhawan SLP   ISRO
  RISAT-2 ISRO Low Earth Radar imaging 30 October 2022
00:06[55]
Successful
  ANUSAT Anna University Low Earth Technology demonstration 18 April 2012 Successful
20 April
08:16
  Zenit-3SL   Ocean Odyssey   Sea Launch
  Sicral-1B ASI Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
22 April
02:55
  Long March 2C   Taiyuan LC-1   CASC
  Yaogan-6 CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
29 April
16:58
  Soyuz-U   Plesetsk Site 16/2   VKS
  Kosmos 2450 (Kobal't-M) VKS Low Earth Optical reconnaissance 27 July Successful

MayEdit

5 May
20:24:25[14][51]
  Delta II 7920-10C   Vandenberg SLC-2W   United Launch Alliance
  USA-205 (STSS-ATRR) U.S. Air Force / MDA Low Earth (SSO) Missile defence
Technology demonstration
In orbit Operational
7 May
18:37
  Soyuz-U   Baikonur Site 1/5   Roscosmos
  Progress M-02M Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 13 July
16:28:47
Successful
ISS flight 33P
11 May
18:01
  Space Shuttle Atlantis[43]   Kennedy LC-39A   United Space Alliance
  STS-125[56] NASA[57] Low Earth (HST) HST servicing flight[58][59] 24 May
15:39
Successful
Crewed flight with seven astronauts, final Space Shuttle mission to the Hubble Space Telescope.
14 May[60]
13:12
  Ariane 5 ECA   Kourou ELA-3   Arianespace
  Herschel[61] ESA Sun–Earth L2 Infrared astronomy In orbit Operational
  Planck[62] ESA Sun–Earth L2 Space telescope In orbit Operational
16 May
00:57
  Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced   Baikonur Site 200/39     International Launch Services
  ProtoStar II ProtoStar Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
19 May
23:55
  Minotaur I   MARS LP-0B   Orbital Sciences
  TacSat-3 USAF-RL Low Earth Technology demonstration 30 April 2012 Successful
  PharmaSat NASA Low Earth Biological 14 August 2012 Successful
  AeroCube 3 Aerospace Corporation Low Earth Technology demonstration 6 January 2011 Successful
  HawkSat I[63] HISS Low Earth Technology demonstration[63][64] 4 September 2011 Successful
  CP6[63] CalPoly Low Earth Technology demonstration 6 October 2011 Successful
All payloads except TacSat-3 and Pharmasat are CubeSats.
21 May
21:53
  Soyuz-2.1a / Fregat   Plesetsk Site 43/4   RVSN RF
  Meridian 2[66] VKS Intended: Molniya
Achieved: Medium Earth
Communications 23 April 2021
04:48[69]
Launch failure[68]
Core vehicle second stage shut down five seconds early,[65] attempt to compensate using Fregat resulted in propellent depletion during second of three burns[66] Satellite reached a lower orbit than expected, and despite being expected to be recoverable to fully operational status[67] was unable to recover.[68]
27 May
10:34:42
  Soyuz-FG   Baikonur Site 1/5   Roscosmos
  Soyuz TMA-15 Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Expedition 20 1 December
07:17
Successful
Crewed flight with three cosmonauts, established first permanent six-man crew on the ISS.

JuneEdit

18 June[70]
21:32
  Atlas V 401   Cape Canaveral SLC-41   United Launch Alliance
  LRO NASA Selenocentric Lunar orbiter In orbit Operational
  LCROSS NASA High Earth (TLI) Lunar impactor 9 October
11:37
Successful
LCROSS observed the upper stage impacting the Cabeus crater on the Moon at 11:31 on 9 October shortly before its own impact into the same crater. The LCROSS spacecraft confirmed the presence of water at the Lunar South Pole.[5]
21 June
21:50
  Zenit-3SLB   Baikonur Site 45/1   Land Launch
  MEASAT-3a MEASAT Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
27 June
22:51[71]
  Delta IV-M+ (4,2)   Cape Canaveral SLC-37B   United Launch Alliance
  GOES-O (GOES-14) NOAA / NASA Geosynchronous Meteorology In orbit Operational
30 June
19:10
  Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced   Baikonur Site 200/39     International Launch Services
  Sirius FM-5 (RadioSat-5) Sirius XM Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational

JulyEdit

1 July
17:52[72]
  Ariane 5 ECA   Kourou ELA-3   Arianespace
  TerreStar-1 TerreStar Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
6 July
01:26
  Rokot / Briz-KM   Plesetsk Site 133/3   VKS
  Kosmos 2451 (Rodnik) VKS Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
  Kosmos 2452 (Rodnik) VKS Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
  Kosmos 2453 (Rodnik) VKS Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
14 July
03:35[73]
  Falcon 1   Omelek   SpaceX
  RazakSat-1 (MACSat) ATSB Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Spacecraft failure
Final flight of Falcon 1.[4]
15 July[71]
22:03
  Space Shuttle Endeavour[44]   Kennedy LC-39A   United Space Alliance
  STS-127 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly 31 July
14:48
Successful
  JEM-EF JAXA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly In orbit Operational
  AggieSat 2 NASA Low Earth Technology demonstration 17 March 2010
18:26[74]
Partial spacecraft failure
Successful
  BEVO-1 NASA Low Earth Technology demonstration Partial spacecraft failure
Successful
  Castor[75] NRL Low Earth Atmospheric science 18 August 2010
17:48[76]
Successful
  Pollux[75] NRL Low Earth Atmospheric science 29 March 2010 Successful
Crewed flight with seven astronauts, AggieSat 2 and BEVO-1 collectively designated Dragonsat, Castor and Pollux collectively designated ANDE-2, both deployed on 30 July; Dragonsat at 12:34:30 UTC and ANDE-2 at 17:23:02; Dragonsat satellites failed to separate from each other.
21 July
03:57:43
  Kosmos-3M   Plesetsk Site 132/1   RVSN RF
  Kosmos 2454 (Parus) VKS Low Earth Navigation
Communications
In orbit Operational
  Sterkh-1 Roscosmos Low Earth Communications
Search and rescue
In orbit Operational
24 July
10:56:51
  Soyuz-U   Baikonur Site 1/5   Roscosmos
  Progress M-67 Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 27 September
10:19:11
Successful
Final flight of original Progress-M; ISS flight 34P
29 July
18:46
  Dnepr   Baikonur Site 109/95   ISC Kosmotras
  DubaiSat-1 EIAST Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  Deimos-1 Deimos Space Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  UK-DMC 2 BNSC (2009-2010)
UKSA (2010—)
Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  Nanosat 1B INTA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  AprizeSat-3 LatinSat Low Earth (SSO) Communications In orbit Operational
  AprizeSat-4 LatinSat Low Earth (SSO) Communications In orbit Operational

AugustEdit

11 August
19:47
  Proton-M / Briz-M   Baikonur Site 200/39     International Launch Services
  AsiaSat 5 AsiaSat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
17 August
10:35:00
  Delta II 7925-9.5   Cape Canaveral SLC-17A   United Launch Alliance
  USA-206 (GPS IIR-21/M8) U.S. Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
Final launch from SLC-17A,[50] final GPS IIR launch, final flight of Delta II 7925
21 August
22:09
  Ariane 5 ECA   Kourou ELA-3   Arianespace
  JCSAT-12 SKY Perfect JSAT Group Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
  Optus D3 Optus Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
25 August[80]
08:00
    Naro-1   Naro[81]     Khrunichev / KARI[81]
  STSAT-2A KARI[82] Intended: Low Earth Technology demonstration 25 August Launch failure[83]
Maiden flight of Naro-1,[77] first South Korean orbital launch attempt (with Russian assistance). First flight of Angara Universal Rocket Module (used as first stage), half of payload fairing failed to separate, failed to reach orbit.[78][79]
29 August
03:59
  Space Shuttle Discovery   Kennedy LC-39A   United Space Alliance
  STS-128[84] NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly 11 September
00:53
Successful
    Leonardo MPLM ASI / NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics Successful
Crewed flight with seven astronauts.
31 August
09:28[85]
  Long March 3B   Xichang   CASC
  Palapa-D Indosat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Partial launch failure
Operational[86]
Third stage failed during restart[85] due to gas generator burn-through.[8]

SeptemberEdit

8 September
21:35
  Atlas V 401   Cape Canaveral SLC-41   United Launch Alliance
  USA-207 (PAN) NRO Geosynchronous Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
10 September
17:01:46[87]
  H-IIB   Tanegashima LA-Y2   JAXA[88]
  HTV-1 JAXA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 1 November
21:26
Successful
Maiden flight of H-IIB and H-II Transfer Vehicle, first launch from LA-Y2.
17 September
15:55:07[89][90]
  Soyuz-2.1b / Fregat   Baikonur Site 31/6   Roscosmos
  Meteor M-1 Roscosmos Low Earth (SSO) Meteorology In orbit Successful
  Universitetsky-Tatyana-2[91] MSU Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Spacecraft failure; Partial success
  Sterkh-2 Roscosmos Low Earth (SSO) Communications
Search and rescue
In orbit Spacecraft failure[92]
  UGATUSAT[93] UGATU Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Spacecraft failure[94]
  BLITS Roscosmos Low Earth (SSO) Radar calibration In orbit Operational
  SumbandilaSat[95] Stellenbosch Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration 10 December 2021 Spacecraft failure; Partial success
  IRIS[96] NPO Lavochkin / EADS Astrium Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration 12 March 2021[97] Successful
Meteor M-1 was a replacement for Meteor-3M No.1. IRIS intentionally remained attached to upper stage.
17 September
19:19:19
  Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced   Baikonur Site 200/39     International Launch Services
  Nimiq 5 Telesat Canada Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[98]
23 September
06:21[99]
  PSLV-CA   Satish Dhawan FLP   ISRO
  Oceansat-2 ISRO Low Earth (SSO) Oceanography In orbit Operational
  BeeSat TU Berlin Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
  UWE-2 Würzburg Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
  ITU-pSat1 ITU Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
  SwissCube-1 EPFL Low Earth (SSO) Atmospheric science In orbit Operational
  Rubin 9.1 OHB-System Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Successful
  Rubin 9.2 OHB-System Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Successful
First Swiss satellite, Rubin payloads intentionally remained attached to upper stage.
25 September
12:20[100]
  Delta II 7920-10C   Cape Canaveral SLC-17B   United Launch Alliance
  USA-208 (STSS-Demo 1) U.S. Air Force Low Earth Technology demonstration
Missile defence
In orbit Successful[101]
  USA-209 (STSS-Demo 2) U.S. Air Force Low Earth Technology demonstration
Missile defence
In orbit Successful[101]
30 September
07:14
  Soyuz-FG   Baikonur Site 1/5   Roscosmos
  Soyuz TMA-16 Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Expedition 21 18 March 2010 Successful
Crewed flight with three cosmonauts

OctoberEdit

1 October
21:59[102]
  Ariane 5 ECA   Kourou ELA-3   Arianespace
  Amazonas-2 Hispasat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
  COMSATBw-1 Bundeswehr Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
8 October
18:51[103]
  Delta II 7920   Vandenberg SLC-2W   United Launch Alliance
  WorldView-2 DigitalGlobe Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
15 October
01:14
  Soyuz-U   Baikonur Site 1/5   Roscosmos
  Progress M-03M Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 27 April 2010
18:50:56
Successful
ISS flight 35P
18 October
16:12
  Atlas V 401   Vandenberg SLC-3E   United Launch Alliance
  USA-210 (DMSP-5D3 F18) U.S. Air Force / NOAA Low Earth (SSO) Meteorology In orbit Operational
29 October
20:00
  Ariane 5 ECA   Kourou ELA-3   Arianespace
  Thor-6 Telenor Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
  NSS-12 SES World Skies Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational

NovemberEdit

2 November
01:50
  Rokot / Briz-KM   Plesetsk Site 133/3     Eurockot[104]
  SMOS[105] ESA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  Proba-2 ESA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
10 November[51]
14:22
  Soyuz-U   Baikonur Site 1/5   Roscosmos
  Progress M-MIM2 Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Orbital tug 8 December
05:27[106]
Successful
  Poisk (MRM-2) Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly In orbit Operational
ISS flight 5R
12 November
02:45[107]
  Long March 2C   Jiuquan LA-4   CASC
  Shijian 11-01 CASC Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
16 November[71]
19:28
  Space Shuttle Atlantis[44]   Kennedy LC-39A   United Space Alliance
  STS-129 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly 27 November
14:44[108]
Successful
  ExPRESS-1 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics In orbit Operational
  ExPRESS-2 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics In orbit Operational
Crewed flight, launching with six astronauts, and landing with seven.
20 November
10:44
  Soyuz-U   Plesetsk Site 16/2   RVSN RF
  Kosmos 2455 (Lotos-S) VKS Low Earth ELINT In orbit Operational
23 November
06:55[109]
  Atlas V 431   Cape Canaveral SLC-41   United Launch Alliance
  Intelsat 14 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
24 November
14:19[110]
  Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced[111]   Baikonur Site 200/39     International Launch Services
  Eutelsat W7 Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
28 November[112]
01:21
  H-IIA 202   Tanegashima LA-Y1   Mitsubishi
  IGS Optical 3[113] CSICE Low Earth (SSO) Reconnaissance In orbit Successful[114]
30 November
21:00[115]
  Zenit-3SLB[116]   Baikonur Site 45/1   Land Launch
  Intelsat 15 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational

DecemberEdit

6 December
01:47[117]
  Delta IV-M+ (5,4)   Cape Canaveral SLC-37B   United Launch Alliance
  USA-211 (WGS-3) U.S. Air Force Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful
Maiden flight of Delta IV-M+ (5,4), final Block I WGS satellite.
9 December
08:42[118]
  Long March 2D   Jiuquan SLS-2   CASC
  Yaogan-7 CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
14 December
10:38[119]
  Proton-M / DM-2 Enhanced   Baikonur Site 81/24   Khrunichev
  Kosmos 2456 (Glonass-M 730) VKS Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
  Kosmos 2457 (Glonass-M 733) VKS Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
  Kosmos 2458 (Glonass-M 734) VKS Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
14 December
14:09[120]
  Delta II 7320   Vandenberg SLC-2W   United Launch Alliance
  WISE NASA Low Earth (SSO) Infrared astronomy In orbit Operational
15 December
02:31[121]
  Long March 4C   Taiyuan LC-2   CASC
  Yaogan-8 CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  Xiwang 1 CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Amateur radio In orbit Operational
18 December
16:26
  Ariane 5GS   Kourou ELA-3   Arianespace
  Helios IIB DGA Low Earth (SSO) Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
Final flight of Ariane 5GS.
20 December
21:52
  Soyuz-FG   Baikonur Site 1/5   Roscosmos
  Soyuz TMA-17 Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Expedition 22 2 June 2010
03:25
Successful
Crewed flight with three cosmonauts.
29 December
00:22
  Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced   Baikonur Site 200/39     International Launch Services
  DirecTV-12 DirecTV Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational

Suborbital flightsEdit

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks
26 January
00:15[122]
  S-310   Andøya LA-U3   ISAS
  Delta-2 JAXA/Nagoya[122][123][124] Suborbital Auroral[122] 26 January Successful
29 January
09:49
  Black Brant IX   Poker Flat   NASA
  ACES-I[125] University of Iowa Suborbital Auroral 09:59 Successful
29 January
09:51
  Black Brant VB   Poker Flat   NASA
  ACES-II[125] University of Iowa Suborbital Auroral 10:01 Successful
13 February[126]   UGM-133 Trident II D5   USS Alabama, Pacific Ocean   U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy Suborbital Missile test 13 February Successful
18 February
09:52:00[127]
  Terrier-Orion   Poker Flat   NASA
Clemson Suborbital Atmospheric 18 February Successful
18 February
10:29:00[127]
  Terrier-Orion   Poker Flat   NASA
Clemson Suborbital Atmospheric 18 February Successful
18 February
10:59:00[127]
  Terrier-Orion   Poker Flat   NASA
Clemson Suborbital Atmospheric 18 February Successful
18 February
11:47:00[127]
  Terrier-Orion   Poker Flat   NASA
Clemson Suborbital Atmospheric 18 February Successful
25 February
10:45[128]
  Black Brant IX   White Sands LC-36   NASA
  CIBER Caltech Suborbital IR Astronomy[129] 10:55 Successful
February[30]   UGM-133 Trident II D5   Submarine, Pacific Ocean   U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy Suborbital Missile test February Successful
6 March
10:54[130]
  Dhanush   Ship, Indian Ocean   DRDO
DRDO Suborbital Target 6 March Successful
Target for successful Prithvi interceptor test, apogee: 120 kilometres (75 mi)[130]
18 March[131]
00:25[66]
  TRBM FTT-10a   USS Tripoli, Barking Sands   U.S. Army
U.S. Army/MDA Suborbital Target 18 March Successful
Intercepted by THAAD launched at 00:30 UTC[131][66]
18 March[131]
00:30[66]
  THAAD FTT-10a   Barking Sands   U.S. Army
U.S. Army/MDA Suborbital ABM test 18 March Successful
Intercepted target missile[131]
18 March[131]
00:30[66]
  THAAD FTT-10a   Barking Sands   U.S. Army
U.S. Army/MDA Suborbital ABM test 18 March Successful
Backup interceptor, destroyed by range safety after first missile succeeded[132]
20 March
11:04
  Black Brant XII   Poker Flat   NASA
  Cascades-2 Dartmouth Suborbital Auroral 20 March Successful
25 March
13:25[133]
  Hera   Fort Wingate LC-96   U.S. Army
U.S. Army Suborbital Target 25 March Successful
Target for MIM-104 Patriot PAC-3 test, interceptor failed
7 April   Blue Sparrow   F-15 Eagle, Israel   Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force Suborbital Arrow-2 target 7 April Successful
Arrow-2 target, successfully intercepted
7 April   Arrow-2   Negev   Israel Aerospace Industries
IAI/Israeli Defense Forces Suborbital ABM Test 7 April Successful
Successful intercept of a Blue Sparrow target over the Mediterranean
10 April
09:10
  RS-12M Topol   Plesetsk   RVSN RF
RVSN RF Suborbital Missile test 10 April Successful
17 April
11:17[134]
  FalconLaunch   White Sands   US Air Force Academy
  FalconLAUNCH VII US Air Force Academy Suborbital Technology demonstration 17 April Successful
Apogee: 108 kilometres (67 mi),[134] first student-built rocket to reach space
2 May
14:02[citation needed]
  SpaceLoft XL   Spaceport America   UP Aerospace
  SL-3 NMSGC Suborbital Student research 2 May Launch failure[136]
  Discovery Celestis Suborbital Space burial
Failed to reach space due to premature payload separation whilst rocket was still burning[10][135][136]
7 May
02:42:00[137]
  Terrier-Orion[137]   Woomera   DSTO
   HiFIRE 0 DSTO/AFRL Suborbital Technology demonstration 7 May Successful
19 May
04:36
  Agni II   Integrated Test Range   Indian Army/DRDO
Indian Army/DRDO Suborbital Missile test +127 seconds Launch failure
Loss of control, landed in sea 203 kilometres (126 mi) downrange[138]
20 May[66]   Sejjil-2   Semnan   IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test 20 May Successful
Apogee: 800 kilometres (500 mi)
22 May
10:32[139]
  Nike-Orion   Esrange   EuroLaunch
  MAPHEUS DLR Suborbital Technology demonstration 22 May Successful
Apogee: 140.8 kilometres (87.5 mi)[139]
26 May   UGM-133 Trident II D5   HMS Victorious   Royal Navy
Royal Navy Suborbital Missile test 26 July Successful
28 May
16:52
  Terrier-Orion   Wallops Island   NASA
  SOAREX VII NASA Suborbital 28 May Successful
29 May   Orion   Alcântara   AEB
  Maracati 1 INPE Suborbital Microgravity 29 May Successful
6 June   Terrier-Lynx   San Nicolas   U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force Suborbital YAL-1 target 6 June Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
13 June   Terrier-Lynx   San Nicolas   U.S. Air Force
U.S. Air Force Suborbital YAL-1 target 13 June Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
26 June
09:30
  Terrier-Orion   Wallops Island LA-2   NASA
  RockOn! University of Colorado Suborbital Student research 09:45 Successful
27 June
07:30
  Black Brant IX   White Sands LC-36   NASA
  DICE University of Colorado Suborbital UV Astronomy 07:40 Spacecraft failure[140]
29 June
10:01
  LGM-30G Minuteman III   Vandenberg   U.S. Air Force
  GT-199GM U.S. Air Force Suborbital Missile test 29 June Successful
13 July
01:20[141]
  R-29RMU Sineva   K-84 Ekaterinburg, North Pole   VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 13 July Successful
Carried ten re-entry vehicles, impacted Kura Test Range
13 July
23:50[141]
  R-29RMU Sineva   K-117 Bryansk, North Pole   VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 14 July Successful
Carried ten re-entry vehicles, impacted Chizha test site
16 July[142]   RSM-56 Bulava   TK-208 Dmitri Donskoi, White Sea   VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 16 July Launch failure
First stage malfunction[142]
22 July
03:40
  LRALT C-17 Globemaster III, Pacific Ocean   MDA
MDA/IMDO Suborbital ABM target 22 July Successful
Target for Arrow test, interceptor launch scrubbed
31 July
03:40
FTM-17  Kauai   MDA
MDA Suborbital ABM target 31 July Successful
Target for Stellar Avenger test, intercept successful
31 July
03:42
  RIM-161 SM-3 FTM-17   USS Hopper   MDA
  Stellar Avenger MDA Suborbital ABM test 31 July Successful
31 July
04:00[141]
FTM-17  Kauai   MDA
MDA Suborbital ABM target 31 July Successful
Radar target for exercise after Stellar Avenger, not intercepted
11 August
04:50
  Black Brant IX  San Nicolas   NASA
  MARTI U.S. Air Force Suborbital ABL target 11 August Successful
17 August
12:52:00[143]
  Black Brant IX   Wallops Island   NASA
  IRVE-II NASA Suborbital Technology demonstration 17 August Successful
23 August
16:01[144]
  LGM-30G Minuteman III   Vandenberg   U.S. Air Force
  GT-200GM U.S. Air Force Suborbital Missile test 23 August Successful[144]
Travelled 6,743 kilometres (4,190 mi) downrange[144]
3 September[145]   UGM-133 Trident II D5   USS West Virginia, Eastern Range   U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy Suborbital Missile test 3 September Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
4 September[145]   UGM-133 Trident II D5   USS West Virginia, Eastern Range   U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy Suborbital Missile test 4 September Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
14 September
17:40[140]
  Black Brant IX   White Sands LC-36   NASA
  HERSCHEL NRL Suborbital Solar 14 September Successful
19 September
23:32
  Black Brant XII   Wallops Island LP-1   NASA
  CARE[146] NRL Suborbital Aeronomy 19 September Successful
27 September[145]   Shahab 1  Iran  IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test 27 September Successful
Part of Great Prophet IV exercise, apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
27 September[145]   Shahab 2  Iran  IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test 27 September Successful
Part of Great Prophet IV exercise, apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
28 September[145]   Shahab 3  Iran  IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test 28 September Successful
Part of Great Prophet IV exercise, apogee: 500 kilometres (310 mi)
28 September[145]   Sejjil-1  Iran  IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test 28 September Successful
Part of Great Prophet IV exercise, apogee: 800 kilometres (500 mi)
6 October[147]   R-29R Volna   K-433 Svyatoy Georgiy Pobedonosets, Sea of Okhotsk  VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 6 October Successful
Carried four re-entry vehicles
7 October[147]  R-29R Volna   K-44 Ryazan, Sea of Okhotsk  VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 7 October Successful
Carried four re-entry vehicles
12 October  Prithvi 2  Odisha   Indian Air Force
Indian Air Force Suborbital Target 12 October Successful
16 October[147]   ARAV-B (Terrier-Oriole)  Kauai  MDA
 FTX-06 Event 2 MDA Suborbital ABM target 16 October Successful
Radar target, not intercepted
16 October[147]  ARAV-B (Terrier-Oriole)  Kauai  MDA
 FTX-06 Event 3 MDA Suborbital ABM target 16 October Successful
Radar target, not intercepted
28 October
04:00[147]
JFTM-3  Kauai  MDA
JMSDF/MDA Suborbital ABM target 28 October Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi), intercepted by SM-3
28 October
04:04[147]
 RIM-161 SM-3 JFTM-3   JDS Myōkō, Pacific Ocean  JMSDF
JMSDF Suborbital ABM test 28 October Successful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi), intercepted target
1 November[147]  R-29RMU Sineva  K-117 Bryansk, Barents Sea  VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 1 November Successful
Carried four re-entry vehicles
5 November[147]   ARAV-C (Talos-Castor)  Kauai  MDA
 FTX-06 Event 4 MDA Suborbital ABM target 5 November Successful
Radar target, not intercepted
14 November
02:30[148]
  Black Brant IX   White Sands LC-36   NASA
  CyXESS Colorado Suborbital X-ray astronomy[149] 14 November Successful
22 November
11:15[150]
  VSB-30   Esrange   EuroLaunch
  TEXUS-46 ESA Suborbital Microgravity 22 November Successful
Apogee: 252 kilometres (157 mi)[113]
23 November
14:20[151]
  Agni II   Integrated Test Range   Indian Army/DRDO
Indian Army/DRDO Suborbital Missile test 23 November Launch failure
Loss of control after second stage separation[151]
29 November
09:00[150]
  VSB-30   Esrange   EuroLaunch
  TEXUS-47 ESA Suborbital Microgravity 29 November Successful
Apogee: 264 kilometres (164 mi)[113]
30 November
01:38[113]
  Ātea-1   Great Mercury Island   Rocket Lab
  Manu Karere Rocket Lab Suborbital Test flight 30 November Successful
Apogee: 120 kilometres (75 mi),[113] maiden flight of Ātea-1, first spaceflight to be conducted by New Zealand
9 December
06:45[113]
  RSM-56 Bulava  TK-208 Dmitri Donskoi, White Sea  VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 9 December Launch failure
Loss of control during third stage burn,[113] caused spiral patterns in the sky above Norway
10 December
11:35[113]
  RS-12M Topol   Kapustin Yar   RVSN RF
RVSN RF Suborbital Missile test 10 December Successful
11 December   LRALT FTT-11 C-17 Globemaster III, Pacific Ocean  MDA
MDA/IMDO Suborbital ABM target 11 December Launch failure
Target for THAAD
13 December   Dhanush   INS Subhadra   Indian Navy
Indian Navy Suborbital Target 13 December Successful
16 December[113]   Sejjil-2   Iran   IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test 16 December Successful
Apogee: 800 kilometres (500 mi)
17 December
03:25
  Terrier-Orion   Wallops Island   NASA
  HAROH[152] ERAU Suborbital Aeronomy 17 December Successful
19 December[153]   UGM-133 Trident II D5   USS Alaska   US Navy
U.S. Navy Suborbital Test flight 19 December Successful
Demonstration and Shakedown Operation
24 December[154]   R-36M2 Voyevoda   Dombarovsky   RVSN RF
RVSN RF Suborbital Missile test 24 December Successful

Deep space rendezvousEdit

Date Spacecraft Event Remarks
7 February Cassini 50th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 960 kilometres (600 mi)
12 February[155] Okina Lunar impact Farside of the Moon
17 February Dawn Flyby of Mars Gravity assist, closest approach 549 kilometres (341 mi) at 00:28 GMT
1 March[156] Chang'e 1 Lunar impact Deorbited at 07:36 and impacted at 08:13[156]
27 March Cassini 51st flyby of Titan Closest approach: 960 kilometres (600 mi)
4 April Cassini 52nd flyby of Titan Closest approach: 4,150 kilometres (2,580 mi)
20 April Cassini 53rd flyby of Titan Closest approach: 3,600 kilometres (2,200 mi)
5 May Cassini 54th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 3,244 kilometres (2,016 mi)
21 May Cassini 55th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 965 kilometres (600 mi)
6 June Cassini 56th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 965 kilometres (600 mi)
10 June[157] Kaguya Lunar Impact at 18:25 UTC, around Gill crater.
22 June Cassini 57th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 955 kilometres (593 mi)
23 June LRO Selenocentric orbit insertion Orbital insersion burn lasted from 09:47 to 10:26 UTC
23 June LCROSS/Centaur Lunar flyby Gravity assist to align for impact in October, closest approach: 3,200 kilometres (2,000 mi) at 10:30:33 UTC
8 July Cassini 58th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 965 kilometres (600 mi)
24 July Cassini 59th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 955 kilometres (593 mi)
9 August Cassini 60th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 970 kilometres (600 mi)
25 August Cassini 61st flyby of Titan Closest approach: 970 kilometres (600 mi)
17 September Artemis P1 Lunar flyby Closest approach: 43,875 kilometres (27,263 mi) at 00:49 UTC[158]
30 September MESSENGER 3rd flyby of Mercury Gravity assist, closest approach: 229 kilometres (142 mi)[159]
9 October AV-020 Centaur Lunar impact 2,000-kilogram (4,400 lb) upper stage of the Atlas V rocket used to launch LRO and LCROSS. Impacted Cabeus crater[5] at Lunar South Pole.[160] Impact occurred at 11:31 UTC, and was observed by LCROSS.
LCROSS (S-S/C) Lunar impact 700-kilogram (1,500 lb) shepherding spacecraft. Detached from Centaur at 01:50 UTC, and impacted same crater at 11:37.
12 October Cassini 62nd flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,300 kilometres (810 mi)
2 November Cassini 7th flyby of Enceladus Closest approach: 103 kilometres (64 mi)
13 November Rosetta 3rd flyby of Earth Gravity assist
21 November Cassini 8th flyby of Enceladus Closest approach: 1,607 kilometres (999 mi)
8 December Artemis P1 Lunar flyby Closest approach: 16,101 kilometres (10,005 mi) at 01:25 UTC[158]
12 December Cassini 63rd flyby of Titan Closest approach: 4,850 kilometres (3,010 mi)
28 December Cassini 64th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 955 kilometres (593 mi)
Distant, non-targeted flybys of Dione, Mimas, Rhea, Tethys and Titan by Cassini occurred throughout the year.

EVAsEdit

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
10 March
16:22
4 hours
49 minutes
21:11 Expedition 18
ISS Pirs
  Yuri Lonchakov
  Michael Fincke
Installed the EXPOSE-R experiment, removed tape straps from a docking target on the Pirs docking compartment, inspected and photographed the exterior of the Russian portion of the station.[161][162]
19 March
17:16
6 hours
7 minutes
23:23 STS-119
ISS Quest
  Steven Swanson
  Richard R. Arnold
Installed the S6 truss to the S5 truss, connected S5/S6 umbilicals, released launch restraints, removed keel pins, stored and removed thermal covers, and deployed the S6 photovoltaic radiator.[163]
21 March
16:51
6 hours
30 minutes
23:21 STS-119
ISS Quest
 Steven Swanson
  Joseph M. Acaba
Advanced preparation of worksite for STS-127, installation of an unpressurised cargo carrier attachment system on the P3 truss, installation of a Global Positioning System antenna to the Kibo laboratory, and infrared imagery of panels of the radiators on the P1 and S1 trusses.[164][165] Cargo carrier installation unsuccessful
23 March
15:37
6 hours
27 minutes
22:04 STS-119
ISS Quest
 Joseph M. Acaba
 Richard R. Arnold
Relocation of a crew equipment cart, complete the deployment of a cargo carrier, lubricated the station robotic arm's latching end effector B snare bearings, and finish swapping electrical relays to the station's gyroscopes.[166] Cargo carrier deployment unsuccessful
14 May
12:52
7 hours
20 minutes
20:12 STS-125
Atlantis
  John M. Grunsfeld
  Andrew J. Feustel
HST servicing: Replaced the WFPC-2 with WFC-3, replaced the Science Instrument Command and Data Handling Unit, lubricated three shroud doors, installed SCM.[167][168][169]
15 May
12:49
7 hours
56 minutes
20:46 STS-125
Atlantis
  Michael J. Massimino
  Michael T. Good
HST servicing: Replaced rate sensing gyroscopes, removed one of two batteries.[170][171]
16 May
13:35
6 hours
36 minutes
20:11 STS-125
Atlantis
 John M. Grunsfeld
 Andrew J. Feustel
HST servicing: Replaced COSTAR with COS. Repaired ACS, performed get-ahead tasks from EVA-5.[172]
17 May
13:45
8 hours
2 minutes
21:47 STS-125
Atlantis
 Michael J. Massimino
 Michael T. Good
HST servicing: Repaired Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph.[173]
18 May
13:20
7 hours
2 minutes
20:22 STS-125
Atlantis
 John M. Grunsfeld
 Andrew J. Feustel
HST servicing: Final HST servicing EVA, final EVA from Space Shuttle. Replaced second battery, installed FGS-3, replaced some insulation and a low-gain antenna cover.[174][175][176]
5 June
07:52
4 hours
54 minutes
12:46 Expedition 20
ISS Pirs
  Gennady Padalka
  Michael R. Barratt
Prepared the Zvezda service module transfer compartment for the arrival of the Poisk module, installed docking antenna for the module, photographed antenna for evaluation on the ground, and photographed the Strela-2 crane. First use of the Orlan-MK spacesuit.[177][178][179]
10 June
06:55
12 minutes 07:07 Expedition 20
ISS Zvezda
 Gennady Padalka
 Michael R. Barratt
Internal spacewalk in the depressurised Zvezda transfer compartment, replaced one of the Zvezda hatches with a docking cone, in preparation for the docking of Poisk, later this year.[180]
18 July
16:19
5 hours
32 minutes
21:51 STS-127
ISS Quest
  David Wolf
  Timothy L. Kopra
JEF installed and P3 nadir UCCAS deployed. S3 zenith outboard PAS deploy postponed due to time constraints.
20 July
15:27
6 hours
53 minutes
22:20 STS-127
ISS Quest
 David Wolf
  Thomas Marshburn
Transferred Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) from the Shuttle Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) to the External Stowage Platform-3 (ESP-3). Transferred materials included a spare high-gain antenna, cooling-system pump module and spare parts for the Mobile Servicing System. JEF Visual Equipment (JEF-VE) installation on the forward section was postponed due to time constraints.
22 July
14:32
5 hours
59 minutes
20:31 STS-127
ISS Quest
 David Wolf
  Christopher Cassidy
JPM preparation work, ICS-EF MLI, and P6 battery replacement (2 of 6 units). EVA was cut short due to high levels of CO2 in Cassidy's suit.
24 July
13:54
7 hours
12 minutes
21:06 STS-127
ISS Quest
 Christopher Cassidy
 Thomas Marshburn
P6 battery replacement (final 4 of 6).
27 July
11:33
4 hours
54 minutes
16:27 STS-127
ISS Quest
 Christopher Cassidy
 Thomas Marshburn
SPDM thermal cover adjustment, Z1 patch panel reconfiguration, JEM visual equipment (JEM-VE) installation (forward and aft), and JEM-LTA reconfigurations. S3 Nadir PAS (outboard) deployment postponed to later mission.
1 September
21:49
6 hours
35 minutes
2 September
04:24
STS-128
ISS Quest
  John D. Olivas
  Nicole P. Stott
Prepared for the replacement of an empty ammonia tank on the station's port truss by releasing its bolts. Retrieved the MISSE-6 and EuTEF experiments mounted outside Columbus, and stowed them in the Shuttle's payload bay for their return to Earth. Nicole Stott becomes the tenth woman to conduct a spacewalk.
3 September
22:13
6 hours
39 minutes
4 September
04:51
STS-128
ISS Quest
 John D. Olivas
  Christer Fuglesang
Removed the new ammonia tank from the shuttle's payload bay and replaced it with the used tank from the station. The new tank, weighing about 1,800 pounds (820 kg), was the most mass ever moved by spacewalking astronauts. With this spacewalk, Christer Fuglesang became the first person, who is not from either an American or Russian space program, to have participated in four or more spacewalks.
5 September
20:39
7 hours
1 minute
6 September
03:40
STS-128
ISS Quest
 John D. Olivas
 Christer Fuglesang
Prepared for the arrival of Tranquility by attaching cables between the starboard truss and Unity, the area where Tranquility will be installed. The spacewalkers also replaced a communications sensor device, installed two new GPS antennas, deployed the PAS on the S3 truss, and replaced a circuit breaker.
19 November
14:24
6 hours
37 minutes
21:01 STS-129
ISS Quest
  Michael Foreman
  Robert Satcher
Installed a spare antenna on the station's truss and a bracket for ammonia lines on Unity. Lubricated the grapple mechanism on the Payload Orbital Replacement Unit Attachment Device on the Mobile Base System and lubricated the snares of the hand of the station's Japanese robotic arm. Deployed the S3 outboard Payload Attach System.
21 November
14:31
6 hours
8 minutes
20:39 STS-129
ISS Quest
 Michael Foreman
  Randolph Bresnik
Installed the GATOR (Grappling Adaptor to On-Orbit Railing) bracket to Columbus and an additional ham radio antenna. Installed on the truss an antenna for wireless helmet camera video. Relocated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit that records electrical potential around the station as it orbits the Earth. Deployed two brackets to attach cargo on the truss.
23 November
13:24
5 hours
42 minutes
19:06 STS-129
ISS Quest
 Robert Satcher
 Randolph Bresnik
Installed a new High Pressure Gas Tank (HPGT) on the Quest airlock. Installed MISSE-7A and 7B on ELC-2. Strapped two micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shields to External Stowage Platform #2. Relocated foot restraint, released a bolt on Ammonia Tank Assembly, installed insulated covers on cameras on mobile servicing system and Canadarm 2's end effector. Worked heater cables on docking adapter.

Orbital launch statisticsEdit

By countryEdit

China: 6Europe: 7India: 2Iran: 1Japan: 3North Korea: 1South Korea: 1Russia: 27Ukraine: 6USA: 24 
Country Launches Successes Failures Partial
failures
Remarks
  China 6 5 0 1
  Europe 7 7 0 0
  India 2 2 0 0
  Iran 1 1 0 0 First successful orbital launch[2]
  Japan 3 3 0 0
  North Korea 1 0 1 0
  South Korea 1 0 1 0 With Russian assistance
  Russia 27 26 1 0
  Ukraine 6 6 0 0
  United States 24 23 1 0
World 78 73 4 1

By rocketEdit

By familyEdit

By typeEdit

By configurationEdit

By launch siteEdit