2012 in spaceflight

Summary

2012 in spaceflight
COTS2Dragon.2..jpg
The Dragon spacecraft (pictured) conducted the first COTS demonstration logistics flight in May 2012, becoming the first commercial spacecraft to rendezvous with the International Space Station.
Orbital launches
First9 January
Last19 December
Total77
Successes72
Failures2
Partial failures3
Catalogued75
National firsts
Satellite Hungary
 Poland
 Romania
 Belarus
 North Korea
Orbital launch North Korea
Rockets
Maiden flightsDelta IV-M+ (5,2)
Unha-3
Vega
RetirementsProton-K
Crewed flights
Orbital5
Total travellers15
EVAs5

The year 2012 saw a number of significant events in spaceflight. In May and October, the first Commercial Orbital Transportation Services resupply missions took place, during which the SpaceX Dragon became the first private spacecraft to dock with the International Space Station (ISS). In June, China launched the crewed Shenzhou 9 orbital mission, and North Korea achieved its first successful orbital launch in December. 2012 also saw China's first successful asteroid exploration mission, and the landing of NASA's Curiosity rover on Mars. The Vega and Unha-3 rockets made their maiden flights in 2012, while the Proton-K made its last.

A total of 77 orbital launches were attempted in 2012, of which 72 were successful, three were partially successful and two were failures. Five crewed orbital missions were conducted over the course of the year, all successfully, carrying a total of 15 individuals into orbit. The year also saw five EVAs by ISS astronauts. The majority of the year's orbital launches were conducted by Russia, China and the United States, with 29, 19 and 13 launches respectively. A total of 139 payloads were launched during the year, including communication and navigation satellites, logistics spacecraft and scientific probes. Additionally, a large number of suborbital sounding rockets and ballistic missiles were launched by scientific and military organisations.

Overview of orbital spaceflight

A total of 77 orbital launches were attempted in 2012, with 72 being reported as successful, and a total of 139 payloads launched.[1] The three most prolific spacefaring nations were Russia, with 29 launches and 27 successes; China, with 19 launches, all of which succeeded; and the United States, with 13 launches, of which 12 succeeded and one was a partial failure.[1] European nations conducted eight orbital launches, all successfully, while India and Japan conducted two each, also successfully. Iran and North Korea both achieved one successful orbital launch during 2012, but Iran also suffered one launch failures, while North Korea suffered one.[2][3]

Crewed spaceflight

Five crewed orbital launches were conducted during 2012, all successfully, carrying a total of 15 astronauts into orbit. Four of these missions were flown using Russian Soyuz spacecraft, while the fifth was a Chinese Shenzhou launch.[4] All of the year's crewed missions rendezvoused with space stations – the four Soyuz missions docked with the International Space Station (ISS), while China's Shenzhou 9 docked with the Tiangong-1 orbital laboratory. Five spacewalks were also undertaken in 2012, all by ISS crewmembers.[5][6][7][8][9]

Robotic exploration

Numerous significant milestones in robotic spaceflight occurred in 2012, including the landing of NASA's Curiosity rover on Mars in August,[10] and the first commercial resupply missions to the ISS in May and October.[11][12] The latter also marked the first fully operational use of SpaceX's Dragon spacecraft. Elsewhere in the Solar System, NASA's Dawn spacecraft completed its mission to 4 Vesta in September 2012,[13] while China achieved its first asteroid flyby in December.

Orbital launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January

9 January
03:17:09
China Long March 4B China Taiyuan LC-9 China SAST
China Ziyuan 3 MLR Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational[14]
Luxembourg VesselSat-2 Luxspace Low Earth (SSO) Communications 27 October 2016[15] Successful
13 January
00:56:04
China Long March 3A China Xichang LC-3 China CALT
China Fengyun 2-07[16] CMA Geosynchronous Meteorology In orbit Operational[17]
20 January
00:38:00
United States Delta IV-M+ (5,4) United States Cape Canaveral SLC-37B United States United Launch Alliance
United States USA-233 (WGS-4) U.S. Air Force Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[18]
25 January
23:06:40
Russia Soyuz-U Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 1/5 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Progress M-14M / 46P Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 28 April
13:46
Successful[19]

February

3 February
00:04
Iran Safir-1B Iran Semnan LP-1 Iran ISA
Iran Navid ISA Low Earth Earth observation 1 April[20] Successful[21]
13 February
10:00:00
Europe Vega France Kourou ELV France Arianespace
Italy LARES ASI Low Earth Geodesy In orbit Operational[22]
Italy ALMASat-1[23] Università di Bologna Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational[22]
Spain Xatcobeo[24] Vigo/INTA Low Earth Technology demonstration 31 August 2014 Successful[22]
Italy UniCubeSat-GG[24] Rome Low Earth Atmospheric science 16 February 2015[25] Successful
France Robusta[24] Montpellier Low Earth Technology demonstration 28 January 2015[26] Partial spacecraft failure
Italy e-st@r[24] Torino Low Earth Technology demonstration 16 January 2015[27] Partial spacecraft failure
Romania Goliat[24] Bucharest Low Earth Technology demonstration 31 December 2014 Partial spacecraft failure[22]
Poland PW-Sat[24] Warsaw Low Earth Technology demonstration 28 October 2014 Successful[22]
Hungary MaSat-1 BME Low Earth Technology demonstration 9 January 2015[28] Successful
Maiden flight of Vega rocket; all payloads CubeSats except LARES and ALMASat-1. First Hungarian, Romanian and Polish satellites.
14 February
19:36:37
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 200/39 Russia United States International Launch Services
Netherlands SES-4 SES World Skies Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[29]
24 February
16:12:04
China Long March 3C China Xichang LC-2 China CALT
China Compass-G5 CNSA Geosynchronous Navigation In orbit Operational[30]
24 February
22:15:00
United States Atlas V 551 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-41 United States United Launch Alliance
United States MUOS-1 U.S. Navy Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[31]

March

23 March
04:34:05
Europe Ariane 5 ES France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
Europe Edoardo Amaldi ATV ESA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 3 October
01:23
Successful[32]
25 March
12:10:32
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 200/39 Russia United States International Launch Services
United States Intelsat 22 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[33]
30 March
05:49:32
Russia Proton-K / DM-2 Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 81/24 Russia RVSN RF
Russia Kosmos 2479 (US-KMO) VKO Geosynchronous Missile defense In orbit Operational[34]
Final flight of Proton-K, final US-KMO satellite.
31 March
10:27:04
China Long March 3B/E China Xichang LC-2 China CALT
China Apstar-7 APT Satellite Holdings Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational[35]

April

3 April
23:12:57
United States Delta IV-M+(5,2) United States Vandenberg SLC-6 United States United Launch Alliance
United States USA-234 (FIA-R) NRO Low Earth Reconnaissance In orbit Operational[36]
NRO Launch 25
12 April
22:38:55
North Korea Unha-3 North Korea Sohae North Korea KCST
North Korea Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3[37] KCST Intended: Low Earth Technology demonstration 12 April Launch failure[3]
Probable first stage failure, disintegrated over the Yellow Sea.[3]
20 April
12:50:24
Russia Soyuz-U Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 31/6 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Progress M-15M / 47P Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 20 August 2012 Successful[38]
23 April
22:18:13
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 200/39 Russia United States International Launch Services
United Arab Emirates Yahsat 1B Yahsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[39]
26 April
00:17
India PSLV-XL India Satish Dhawan Space Centre FLP India ISRO
India RISAT-1 ISRO Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation[40] In orbit Operational[41]
29 April
20:50:03[42]
China Long March 3B/E China Xichang LC-2 China CALT
China Compass-M3 CNSA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational[42]
China Compass-M4 CNSA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational[42]

May

4 May
18:42:00
United States Atlas V 531 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-41 United States United Launch Alliance
United States USA-235 (AEHF-2) U.S. Air Force Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[43]
6 May
07:10:04[44]
China Long March 2D China Jiuquan SLS-2 China SAST
China Tianhui 1B CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational[44]
10 May
07:06:04[45]
China Long March 4B China Taiyuan LC-9 China SAST
China Yaogan 14 CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Reconnaissance In orbit Operational[45]
China Tiantuo 1 NUDT Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration 3 November 2014 Successful
15 May
03:01:23
Russia Soyuz-FG Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 1/5 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Soyuz TMA-04M Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Expedition 31/32 17 September
02:53
Successful[46]
Crewed flight
15 May
22:13:07
Europe Ariane 5 ECA France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
Japan JCSAT-13 SKY Perfect JSAT Group Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[47]
Vietnam Vinasat-2 VNPT Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[48]
17 May
14:05
Russia Soyuz-U Russia Plesetsk Site 16/2 Russia VKO
Russia Kosmos 2480 (Kobalt-M No.8) VKO Low Earth Reconnaissance 24 September Successful[49]
Final Soyuz-U launch from Plesetsk.
17 May
16:39
Japan H-IIA Japan Tanegashima LA-Y1 Japan MHI
Japan United States GCOM-W1 JAXA / NASA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational[50]
South Korea Arirang-3 KARI Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational[50]
Japan SDS-4 JAXA Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational[50]
Japan Horyu-2 KIT Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration
Amateur radio
In orbit Successful[51]
17 May
19:12:14
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 81/24 Russia United States International Launch Services
Canada Nimiq 6 Telesat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[52]
22 May
07:44:38[11]
United States Falcon 9 v1.0 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-40 United States SpaceX
United States Dragon C2+ SpaceX / NASA Low Earth (ISS) Flight test
ISS logistics
31 May
16:42
Successful[56]
United States New Frontier Celestis Low Earth Space burial 27 June Successful
COTS Demo 2+,[53] orbital test manoeuvres and ISS rendezvous, berthing and cargo delivery. First commercial spacecraft to visit the ISS.[54] Celestis payload, containing cremated remains of 308 people including Gordon Cooper and James Doohan, remained intentionally attached to the upper stage.[55]
23 May[2] Iran Safir-1B Iran Semnan Iran ISA
Iran Fajr ISA Planned: Low Earth[2] Earth observation 23 May Launch failure
Probable launch failure;[2] identity of launch attempt, rocket, satellite and launch time not confirmed.
26 May
15:56:04
China Long March 3B/E China Xichang LC-2 China CALT
China Chinasat-2A China Satcom Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[57]
29 May
07:31:05
China Long March 4C China Taiyuan LC-9 China SAST
China Yaogan 15 CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Reconnaissance In orbit Operational[58]

June

1 June
05:22:59
Ukraine Zenit-3SL Norway Ocean Odyssey United Nations Sea Launch
United States Intelsat 19 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Partial spacecraft failure
Second solar panel initially failed to deploy after launch.[59] It eventually deployed, but was damaged.
13 June
16:00:37
United States Pegasus-XL Marshall Islands Stargazer, Kwajalein Atoll United States Orbital Sciences
United States NuSTAR NASA Low Earth X-ray astronomy In orbit Operational[60]
16 June
10:37:24[63]
China Long March 2F China Jiuquan LA-4/SLS-1 China CALT
China Shenzhou 9 CNSA Low Earth (Tiangong-1) Technology demonstration 29 June
02:01[64]
Successful[4]
China Shenzhou-9-GC (Orbital Module)[65] CNSA Low Earth (Tiangong-1) Space rendezvous 2 December Successful
Crewed flight; first Chinese woman in space,[61][62]and first crewed mission to Tiangong-1.
20 June
12:28
United States Atlas V 401 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-41 United States United Launch Alliance
United States USA-236 (SDS) NRO Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[66]
NRO Launch 38
29 June
13:15
United States Delta IV Heavy United States Cape Canaveral SLC-37B United States United Launch Alliance
United States USA-237 (Mentor 6) NRO Geosynchronous ELINT In orbit Operational[67]
NRO Launch 15, first flight of Delta IV with RS-68A engines.

July

5 July
21:36:07[68]
Europe Ariane 5 ECA France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
United States Echostar XVII Hughes Network Systems Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Europe MSG 3 EUMETSAT Geosynchronous Meteorology In orbit Operational
9 July
18:38:30
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 81/24 Russia United States International Launch Services
Luxembourg SES-5 SES Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[69]
15 July
02:40:03
Russia Soyuz-FG Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 1/5 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Soyuz TMA-05M Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Expedition 32/33 19 November
01:56
Successful[70]
Crewed flight
21 July
02:06:18[71]
Japan H-IIB Japan Tanegashima LA-Y2 Japan JAXA[72][73]
Japan Kounotori 3 JAXA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 14 September Successful[74]
Japan Raiko Wakayama/Tohuku Low Earth Technology demonstration 6 August 2013[75] Successful
Japan FITSAT-1 (Niwaka) FIT Low Earth Technology demonstration 4 July 2013[76] Successful
Japan We-Wish Meisei Electric Low Earth Technology demonstration 11 March 2013[77] Successful
Vietnam F-1 FPT Low Earth Technology demonstration May 2013[78] Successful[citation needed]
United States TechEdSat San Jose Low Earth Technology demonstration 5 May 2013[79] Successful
All payloads CubeSats other than Kounotori 3. CubeSats carried aboard Kounotori and deployed from the ISS.
22 July
06:41:39
Russia Soyuz-FG / Fregat Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 31/6 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Kanopus V-1 Roscosmos Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational[80]
Belarus BelKA-2 NASRB Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational[80]
Russia Zond-PP Roscosmos Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration
Earth observation
In orbit Spacecraft failure[81]
Germany TET-1 DLR Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational[80]
Canada exactView 1 exactEarth Low Earth (SSO) AIS ship tracking In orbit Operational[80]
First Belarusian satellite.
25 July
15:43:04
China Long March 3C China Xichang LC-2 China CALT
China Tianlian I-03 CNSA Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[82]
28 July
01:35:34[83]
Russia Rokot / Briz-KM Russia Plesetsk Site 133/3 Russia VKO
Russia Gonets M-3 Gonets Satellite System Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Russia Gonets M-4 Gonets Satellite System Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Russia Kosmos 2481 (Strela-3M) VKO Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Russia MiR (Yubileiny 2) NPO PM Low Earth Amateur radio
Technology demonstration
In orbit Operational

August

1 August
19:35:13
Russia Soyuz-U Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 1/5 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Progress M-16M / 48P Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 9 February 2013 Successful[85]
Russia Sfera-53 Roscosmos Low Earth Atmospheric density 24 November[86] Successful[87]
Fast rendezvous test;[84] Sfera-53 deployed from ISS at 18:29 UTC on 20 August during a spacewalk.
2 August
20:54
Europe Ariane 5 ECA France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
United States Intelsat 20 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[88]
United Kingdom HYLAS-2 Avanti Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[88]
6 August
19:31:00
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 81/24 Russia Khrunichev
Indonesia Telkom-3 PT Telkom Planned: Geosynchronous
Achieved: Medium Earth
Communications In orbit Launch failure[90]
Russia Ekspress MD2 RSCC Planned: Geosynchronous
Achieved: Medium Earth
Communications In orbit
Briz-M stage failure 7 seconds into its third burn.[89] Stage exploded on 16 October, generating over 500 pieces of orbital debris.
19 August
06:54:59
Ukraine Zenit-3SL Norway Ocean Odyssey United Nations Sea Launch
United States Intelsat 21 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[91]
30 August
08:05:27[94]
United States Atlas V 401 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-41 United States United Launch Alliance
United States Van Allen Probe A (RBSP-A) NASA Highly elliptical Magnetospheric research In orbit Successful
United States Van Allen Probe B (RBSP-B) NASA Highly elliptical Magnetospheric research In orbit Successful
Launch of the two Van Allen Probes, formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes. Van Allen Probe B ceased operations on 19 July 2019;[92] Van Allen Probe A was deactivated on 18 October 2019.[93]

September

9 September
04:23
India PSLV-CA India Satish Dhawan FLP India ISRO
France SPOT 6 CNES Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational[95]
Japan PROITERES Osaka Institute of Technology Low Earth (SSO) Amateur radio
Technology demonstration
In orbit Operational[95]
13 September
21:39:00[96]
United States Atlas V 401 United States Vandenberg SLC-3E United States United Launch Alliance
United States USA-238 (NOSS) NRO Low Earth ELINT In orbit Operational
United States USA-238 (NOSS) NRO Low Earth ELINT In orbit Operational
United States CINEMA 1 UCB Low Earth Magnetospheric research In orbit Operational
United States CXBN Morehead Low Earth X-ray astronomy In orbit Operational
United States CP 5 CalPoly Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States CSSWE CU-Boulder Low Earth Magnetospheric research In orbit Operational
United States Aeneas USC / NRO Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States STARE A Lawrence Livermore Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States SMDC-ONE 2.1 U.S. Army Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States SMDC-ONE 2.2 U.S. Army Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States AeroCube 4 The Aerospace Corporation Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States AeroCube 4.5A The Aerospace Corporation Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
United States AeroCube 4.5B The Aerospace Corporation Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
NRO Launch 36
17 September
16:28:40
Russia Soyuz-2.1a / Fregat Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 31/6 Europe Russia Starsem
Europe MetOp-B EUMETSAT Low Earth (SSO) Meteorology In orbit Operational[97]
18 September
19:10:04
China Long March 3B/E China Xichang LC-2 China CALT
China Compass-M5 CNSA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational[98]
China Compass-M6 CNSA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational[98]
28 September
21:18:07
Europe Ariane 5 ECA France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
Luxembourg Astra 2F SES Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[99]
India GSAT-10 ISRO Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[100]
29 September[101]
04:12:04
China Long March 2D China Jiuquan SLS-2 China SAST
Venezuela VRSS-1 MPPCTII Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational[102]

October

4 October
12:10:00
United States Delta IV M+(4,2) United States Cape Canaveral SLC-37B United States United Launch Alliance
United States USA-239 (GPS IIF-3) U.S. Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational[103]
8 October
00:35:07[105]
United States Falcon 9 v1.0 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-40 United States SpaceX
United States SpaceX CRS-1 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 28 October
19:22[12]
Successful[12]
United States Orbcomm-2 F1 Orbcomm Low Earth Communications 10 October Launch failure[106][107]
First flight of Commercial Resupply Services programme.[104] First stage engine failure resulted in a too-low orbit for Orbcomm payload; CRS-1 nonetheless placed into correct orbit.
12 October
18:15:01
Russia Soyuz ST-B / Fregat-MT France Kourou ELS France Arianespace
European Union Galileo IOV 3 ESA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational[108]
European Union Galileo IOV 4 ESA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational[108]
14 October
03:25:05
China Long March 2C/SMA China Taiyuan LC-9 China CALT
China Shijian 9A CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational[109]
China Shijian 9B CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational[109]
14 October
08:37:00
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 81/24 Russia United States International Launch Services
United States Intelsat 23 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[110]
23 October
10:51:11[111]
Russia Soyuz-FG Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 31/6 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Soyuz TMA-06M Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS)[112] Expedition 33/34 16 March 2013
03:06
Successful[113]
Crewed flight
25 October
15:33:04
China Long March 3C China Xichang LC-2 China CALT
China Compass-G6 CNSA Geosynchronous Navigation In orbit Operational[115]
Compass navigation system became commercially operational in Asia-Pacific region in December 2012.[114]
31 October
07:41:18
Russia Soyuz-U Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 1/5 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Progress M-17M / 49P[116] Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 21 April 2013 Successful[117]

November

2 November
21:04:00
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 81/24 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Luch 5B Gonets Satellite System Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[118]
Russia Yamal-300K Gazprom Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[118]
10 November
21:05:07
Europe Ariane 5 ECA France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
France Eutelsat 21B Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[119]
Brazil Star One C3 Star One Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[119]
14 November
11:42:46
Russia Soyuz-2.1a / Fregat Russia Plesetsk Site 43/4 Russia VKO
Russia Meridian 6 VKO Molniya Communications In orbit Operational[120]
18 November
22:53:04[121]
China Long March 2C China Taiyuan LC-9 China CALT
China Huanjing 1C CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Xinyan 1 CASC Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration 5 October 2019 Successful[122]
China Fengniao 1 SAST Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
China Fengniao 1A SAST Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
20 November
18:31:00
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 200/39 Russia United States International Launch Services
United States EchoStar XVI EchoStar Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[123]
25 November
04:06:04
China Long March 4C China Jiuquan SLS-2 China SAST
China Yaogan 16A CNSA Low Earth ELINT In orbit Operational[124]
China Yaogan 16B CNSA Low Earth ELINT In orbit Operational[124]
China Yaogan 16C CNSA Low Earth ELINT In orbit Operational[124]
27 November
10:13:03[125]
China Long March 3B/E China Xichang LC-2 China CALT
China Sri Lanka ChinaSat 12 / SupremeSAT-I China Satcom / SupremeSAT Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[125]
Part of satellite's communications payload was leased to SupremeSAT, a Sri Lankan satellite operator, as SupremeSAT-I.

December

2 December
02:02:51
Russia Soyuz ST-A / Fregat France Kourou ELS France Arianespace
France Pléiades-HR 1B CNES Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational[126]
3 December
20:43:59
Ukraine Zenit-3SL Norway Ocean Odyssey United Nations Sea Launch
France Eutelsat 70B Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[127]
8 December
13:13:43
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 200/39 Russia United States International Launch Services
Russia Yamal-402 Gazprom Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational; partial launch failure[129]
Briz-M stage failure 4 minutes before scheduled shut down on its fourth burn.[128]
11 December
18:03
United States Atlas V 501 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-41 United States United Launch Alliance
United States USA-240 (X-37B OTV-3) U.S. Air Force Low Earth Technology demonstration 17 October 2014 Successful[130][131]
270-day X-37B endurance mission ultimately extended to over 680 days.[130]
12 December
00:49:46[134][135]
North Korea Unha-3 North Korea Sohae North Korea KCST
North Korea Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2 KCST Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Spacecraft failure[133]
First successful North Korean orbital launch, first North Korean satellite;[132] satellite reached orbit but malfunctioned thereafter.[133]
18 December
16:13:04[136]
China Long March 2D China Jiuquan SLS-2 China SAST
Turkey Göktürk-2 MSB Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational[137]
19 December
12:12:35
Russia Soyuz-FG Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 1/5 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Soyuz TMA-07M Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Expedition 34/35 14 May 2013
02:31
Successful[138]
Crewed flight
19 December
21:49:07
Europe Ariane 5 ECA France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
United Kingdom Skynet 5D Astrium Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[139]
Mexico Mexsat-3 SCT Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[139]
Skynet 5D military communications satellite operated by Astrium Services on behalf of the British Ministry of Defence.

Suborbital flights

Deep space rendezvous

Date (UTC) Spacecraft Event Remarks
1 January GRAIL-B Lunar orbit insertion Joined its twin, GRAIL-A, which entered lunar orbit on 31 December 2011.[197]
2 January Cassini 80th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 29,415 kilometres (18,278 mi).[198]
30 January Cassini 81st flyby of Titan Closest approach: 31,131 kilometres (19,344 mi).[198]
19 February Cassini 82nd flyby of Titan Closest approach: 3,803 kilometres (2,363 mi).[198]
9 March Cassini Flyby of Enceladus Closest approach: 9,000 kilometres (5,600 mi).[198]
27 March Cassini 17th flyby of Enceladus Closest approach: 74 kilometres (46 mi).[198]
14 April Cassini 18th flyby of Enceladus
Flyby of Tethys
Closest approach to Enceladus: 74 kilometres (46 mi).[198]
Closest approach to Tethys: 9,000 kilometres (5,600 mi).[198]
2 May Cassini 20th flyby of Enceladus
Flyby of Dione
Closest approach to Enceladus: 74 kilometres (46 mi).[198]
Closest approach to Dione: 8,000 kilometres (5,000 mi).[198]
20 May Cassini Flyby of Methone
Flyby of Telesto
Closest approach to Methone: 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi).[198]
Closest approach to Telesto: 11,000 kilometres (6,800 mi).[198]
21 May Cassini 83rd flyby of Titan Closest approach: 955 kilometres (593 mi).[198]
6 June Cassini 84th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 959 kilometres (596 mi).[198]
24 July Cassini 85th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,012 kilometres (629 mi).[198]
6 August Curiosity Landing on Mars in Gale Crater Used the Sky Crane soft landing system. Successful landing at 05:14 UTC.[10]
5 September[13][199] Dawn Leaving Vestiocentric orbit Headed for Ceres, which it reached on 6 March 2015.[200]
26 September Cassini 86th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 956 kilometres (594 mi).[198]
13 November Cassini 87th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 973 kilometres (605 mi).[198]
29 November Cassini 88th flyby of Titan Closest approach to Titan: 1,014 kilometres (630 mi).[198]
13 December Chang'e 2 Flyby of 4179 Toutatis First Chinese asteroid flyby. Closest approach to 4179 Toutatis: less than 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) (770 metres).[201]
17 December GRAIL Lunar impact at "Sally K. Ride" site Both GRAIL satellites concluded their mission by impacting the Moon's surface.[202][203]
22 December Cassini Distant flyby of Titan
Flyby of Rhea
Closest approach to Titan: 715,000 kilometres (444,000 mi).[198]
Closest approach to Rhea: 23,000 kilometres (14,000 mi).[198]

EVAs

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
16 February
14:31[5]
6 hours
15 minutes
20:46 Expedition 29/30

ISS Pirs

Russia Oleg Kononenko

Russia Anton Shkaplerov

Moved Strela 1 crane from ISS Pirs module to Poisk module, installed four materials experiments on the exterior of the ISS, and installed supporting struts on the EVA ladder on Pirs.
20 August
16:37[6]
5 hours
51 minutes
22:28 Expedition 31/32

ISS Pirs

Russia Gennady Padalka

Russia Yuri Malenchenko

Relocated Strela 2 telescoping boom from Pirs docking compartment to Zarya control module, in preparation for undocking of Pirs, which will pave the way for arrival of the Russian Multipurpose Laboratory Module in 2013. Also installed micrometeoroid debris shields on Zvezda service module, retrieved two experiments from Pirs' exterior, installed two support struts for hatch ladder and deployed two small tracking satellites.[87]
30 August
12:16
8 hours
17 minutes
20:33 Expedition 31/32

ISS Quest

United States Sunita Williams

Japan Akihiko Hoshide

Connected two power cables between the US and Russian orbital segments; removed and replaced Main Bus Switching Unit (MBSU) 1. The crew had difficulty in removing connecting bolts of the old MBSU, and were unable to tighten up the bolts for the new unit. The new MBSU was tied down for future trouble-shooting, with all other tasks deferred to a future EVA. Third-longest EVA in history.[7]
5 September
11:06
6 hours
28 minutes
17:34 Expedition 31/32

ISS Quest

United States Sunita Williams

Japan Akihiko Hoshide

Installed the new MBSU unit, working around difficulty with one of the bolts; replaced one of the cameras mounted on the Canadarm2. During this spacewalk, Sunita Williams broke Peggy Whitson's 2007 record for most total time spacewalking by a woman.[8][204]
1 November
12:29
6 hours
38 minutes
19:07 Expedition 32/33

ISS Quest

United States Sunita Williams

Japan Akihiko Hoshide

Reconfigured and isolated a leak in the ammonia cooling system of power channel 2B on the P6 truss by bypassing a leaking cooling loop and re-connecting jumpers to an unused loop of the Early External Thermal Control System (EETCS), and by redeploying the trailing Thermal Control Radiator of the system.[9][205]

Orbital launch statistics

By country

For the purposes of this section, the yearly tally of orbital launches by country assigns each flight to the country of origin of the rocket, not to the launch services provider or the spaceport. For example, Soyuz launches by Arianespace in Kourou are counted under Russia because Soyuz-2 is a Russian rocket.

China: 19Europe: 8India: 2Iran: 2Japan: 2North Korea: 2Russia: 26Ukraine: 3USA: 13Circle frame.svg
Country Launches Successes Failures Partial
failures
Remarks
 China 19 19 0 0
 Europe 8 8 0 0
 India 2 2 0 0
 Iran 2 1 1 0
 Japan 2 2 0 0
 North Korea 2 1 1 0 First successful orbital launch
 Russia 26 24 1 1 Includes 2 Soyuz launches from Kourou
 Ukraine 3 3 0 0 Includes 3 Zenit from Sea Launch
 United States 13 12 0 1
World 77 72 3 2

By rocket

By family

By type

By configuration

By spaceport

5
10
15
20
25
30
China
France
India
International waters
Iran
Japan
Kazakhstan
Marshall Islands
North Korea
Russia
United States
Site Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Baikonur  Kazakhstan 21 19 1 1
Cape Canaveral  United States 10 9 0 1
Kourou  France 10 10 0 0
Jiuquan  China 5 5 0 0
Kwajalein  Marshall Islands 1 1 0 0
Ocean Odyssey United Nations International waters 3 3 0 0
Plesetsk  Russia 3 3 0 0
Satish Dhawan  India 2 2 0 0
Semnan  Iran 2 1 1 0
Sohae  North Korea 2 1 1 0
Tanegashima  Japan 2 2 0 0
Taiyuan  China 5 5 0 0
Vandenberg  United States 2 2 0 0
Xichang  China 9 9 0 0
Total 77 72 3 2

By orbit

  •   Transatmospheric
  •   Low Earth
  •   Low Earth (ISS)
  •   Low Earth (SSO)
  •   Low Earth (retrograde)
  •   Medium Earth
  •   Geosychronous
    (transfer)
  •   Inclined GSO
  •   High Earth
  •   Heliocentric
Orbital regime Launches Successes Failures Accidentally
achieved
Remarks
Transatmospheric 0 0 0 0
Low Earth 39 37 2 0 12 to ISS, 1 to Tiangong-1
Medium Earth / Molniya 5 5 0 1
Geosynchronous / GTO 32 31 1 0
High Earth / Lunar transfer 1 1 0 0
Heliocentric / Planetary transfer 0 0 0 0
Total 77 74 3 1

See also

References

Generic references:
RocketSunIcon.svg Spaceflight portal
  • Bergin, Chris. "NASASpaceFlight.com".
  • Clark, Stephen. "Spaceflight Now".
  • Kelso, T.S. "Satellite Catalog (SATCAT)". CelesTrak.
  • Krebs, Gunter. "Chronology of Space Launches".
  • Kyle, Ed. "Space Launch Report".
  • McDowell, Jonathan. "Jonathan's Space Report".
  • Pietrobon, Steven. "Steven Pietrobon's Space Archive".
  • Wade, Mark. "Encyclopedia Astronautica".
  • Webb, Brian. "Southwest Space Archive".
  • Zak, Anatoly. "Russian Space Web".
  • "ISS Calendar". Spaceflight 101.
  • "NSSDCA Master Catalog". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • "Space Calendar". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  • "Space Information Center". JAXA.
  • "Хроника освоения космоса" [Chronicle of space exploration]. CosmoWorld (in Russian).

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b "Space Year Review 2012: Launch vehicles – Falcon 9, Delta IV and Soyuz show robustness in mishaps but not so for Safir or Proton". Flightglobal. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d Hansen, Nick (1 October 2012). "Rocket science - Iran's rocket programme". Jane's Intelligence Review. 24 (10). Archived from the original on 20 April 2013. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  3. ^ a b c "North Korea's rocket launch fails as world condemns action". The Guardian. 13 April 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  4. ^ a b "China's Shenzhou 9 spacecraft returns to earth". The Guardian. 29 June 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  5. ^ a b Pete Harding (16 February 2012). "Cosmonaut duo complete Russian spacewalk outside ISS". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  6. ^ a b "Russian cosmonauts perform six-hour spacewalk outside International Space Station". The Daily Telegraph. 21 August 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  7. ^ a b Pete Harding (30 August 2012). "Astronaut duo complete challenging first post-Shuttle US spacewalk on ISS". NASASpaceflight. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
  8. ^ a b "Williams sets record in spacewalk". The Peninsula Qatar. 20 November 2012. Archived from the original on 4 February 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2012.
  9. ^ a b "Astronauts take spacewalk to find ammonia leak". AP via USA TODAY. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
  10. ^ a b "Nasa's Curiosity rover successfully lands on Mars". BBC. 6 August 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  11. ^ a b "SpaceX Launches Private Capsule on Historic Trip to Space Station". Space.com. 22 May 2012. Archived from the original on 3 October 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  12. ^ a b c "SpaceX's Dragon returns to Earth with precious cargo from ISS". NASASpaceflight.com. 28 October 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  13. ^ a b "NASA's Dawn Spacecraft Hits Snag on Trip to 2 Asteroids". Space.com. 15 August 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  14. ^ "China opens 2012 with ZiYuan-3 launch via Long March 4B". NASASpaceflight.com. 8 January 2012. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  15. ^ "VESSELSAT 2". N2YO.com. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  16. ^ "长三甲遥二十二火箭将发射风云二号卫星 ('Long March 3A rocket will launch the Fengyun satellite')" (in Chinese). China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology. 15 December 2011. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  17. ^ "China launch again – Long March 3A launches FengYun-2F". NASASpaceflight.com. 12 January 2012. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  18. ^ "Photos: Air Force Satellite Launch Lights Up the Night". Space.com. 20 January 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  19. ^ "Russian Progress M-14M Splashes Down in Pacific". RIA Novosti. 28 April 2012. Retrieved 8 December 2012.
  20. ^ "Navis [sic] Satellite". Recent Reentries. Center for Orbital and Reentry Debris Studies. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
  21. ^ "Iran launches another satellite". Discovery News. 3 February 2012. Archived from the original on 23 April 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  22. ^ a b c d e "Europe launches new Vega rocket on maiden voyage". Space.com. 13 February 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  23. ^ "Lares e Vega verso il lancio (in Italian)". ASI. 22 December 2010. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  24. ^ a b c d e f "ESA Announces Vega CubeSat Selection". Education Office. European Space Agency. 7 June 2008. Archived from the original on 18 July 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2008.
  25. ^ "UNICUBESAT". N2YO.com. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  26. ^ "ROBUSTA". N2YO.com. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  27. ^ "E-STAR". N2YO.com. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  28. ^ "MASAT-1". N2YO.com. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  29. ^ "50th SES spacecraft in orbit after successful ILS Proton launch". SES. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  30. ^ "China launches 11th satellite for navigation system". Xinhua via China.org.cn. 25 February 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  31. ^ "Amazing Launch Photos: Blastoff for Navy's Next-Gen MUOS-1 Satellite". Space.com. 24 February 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  32. ^ "Mission accomplished! Arianespace launches ATV Edoardo Amaldi cargo vessel to the International Space Station". Arianespace. 23 March 2012. Archived from the original on 26 June 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  33. ^ "Intelsat's Global Broadband Maritime and Aeronautical Infrastructure Continues to Advance with ILS Proton Launch Success of Intelsat 22". International Launch Services. 25 March 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  34. ^ a b "Russian Proton-K completes 45 years of service with US-KMO satellite launch". NASASpaceflight.com. 29 March 2012. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  35. ^ Bergin, Chris (31 March 2012). "Chinese Long March 3B/E launches Apstar-7". NASASpaceflight.com. Archived from the original on 25 September 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  36. ^ "USA 234". N2YO.com. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  37. ^ "North Korea moves rocket into position for launch". The Guardian. 8 April 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  38. ^ "Russia Buries Space Freighter in Pacific". RIA Novosti. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  39. ^ "Yahsat 1B launch success". SatBeams.com. 24 April 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  40. ^ "Earth Observation System". Indian Space Research Organisation. Archived from the original on 2 May 2008. Retrieved 7 May 2008.
  41. ^ "PSLV-C19 puts RISAT-1 in orbit". The Hindu. 26 April 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2012.
  42. ^ a b c "China launches Compass duo via Long March 3B". NASASpaceflight.com. 29 April 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  43. ^ "2012 - Launches to Orbit and Beyond". Zarya.info. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
  44. ^ a b "China launches Tianhui-1B via Long March 2D". NASASpaceflight.com. 6 May 2012. Archived from the original on 27 September 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
  45. ^ a b "China increases the pace with Long March 4B spy satellite launch". NASASpaceflight.com. 10 May 2012. Archived from the original on 27 September 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  46. ^ "Photos: Space Station's Expedition 32 Crew Lands on Earth". Space.com. 16 September 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
  47. ^ "Ariane 5 ECA launches JCSAT-13 and VINASAT-2 into orbit". NASASpaceflight.com. 15 May 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  48. ^ "Lockheed Martin-Built VINASAT-2 Satellite Begins Service for Vietnam Posts and Telecommunications Group". Lockheed Martin. 5 July 2012. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  49. ^ "Kobalt-M satellite". RussianSpaceWeb.com. 2012. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
  50. ^ a b c "Launch Success for H-IIA delivering 4 Payloads to Orbit". Spaceflight101.com. 17 May 2012. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  51. ^ HORYU-II project members (24 February 2017). "Announcement about the end of HORYU-II operation". Kyushu Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 23 April 2017. Retrieved 9 July 2017.
  52. ^ "Nimiq 6". Telesat. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  53. ^ "NASA managers announce February 7 launch date for Dragon ISS mission". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 10 December 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  54. ^ "Space station captures SpaceX Dragon capsule". USA Today. 25 May 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  55. ^ Moskowitz, Clara (22 May 2012). "Ashes of Star Trek's 'Scotty' Ride Private Rocket Into Space". Space.com. New York. Archived from the original on 22 May 2012. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  56. ^ Bergin, Chris (31 May 2012). "SpaceX's Dragon returns to Earth following successful ISS mission". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
  57. ^ "Long March 3B launches military satellite Chinasat-2A". NASASpaceflight.com. 26 May 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  58. ^ Christy, Robert. "List of Yaogan Launches". Zarya.info. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
  59. ^ "Space: SeaLaunch puts Intelsat 19 in orbit, problem ahead". Electronics Weekly. 6 June 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
  60. ^ "NuSTAR Launch". NASA. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  61. ^ "Why is China sending a woman into space?". SpaceDaily.com. 1 June 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2012.
  62. ^ "China to send first woman astronaut Liu Yang into space". BBC. 15 June 2012.
  63. ^ "China Launches 1st Female Astronaut and 2 Men to Space Lab". Space.com. 16 June 2012.
  64. ^ "China's Shenzhou 9 spacecraft returns to earth". The Guardian. 29 June 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  65. ^ "2012 - Launches to Orbit and Beyond: 2012-032 | Shenzhou 9 Orbital Module". Zarya.info. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  66. ^ "USA 236". N2YO.com. 20 June 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  67. ^ "Launch Updates". AGI.com. 29 June 2012. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  68. ^ "Meteosat launches to maintain Europe's weather services". BBC. 6 July 2012.
  69. ^ "Successful launch for SES-5". Broadband TV News. 10 July 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2013.
  70. ^ "Soyuz TMA-05M lands, returns three space station crewmates to Earth". CollectSpace.com. 18 November 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
  71. ^ "Launch Result of H-IIB Launch Vehicle No. 3 with H-II Transfer Vehicle "KOUNOTORI3" (HTV3) Onboard". JAXA. 21 July 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  72. ^ "H-2B sends craft toward ISS/Japanese rocket's 3rd launch seen to boost international prestige". Yomiuri Shimbun. 22 July 2012. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013. Future launches of the domestically produced rockets will be handled by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., the rockets' manufacturer, as opposed to previous launches managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.
  73. ^ H2B打ち上げ、三菱重工に移管へ 大型通信衛星も対応可能に [Launch Service of H2B To Be Transferred To MHI, Capable of Large Com Satellites]. Nihon Keizai Shimbun (in Japanese). Tokyo. 21 July 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  74. ^ "Successful re-entry of H-II Transfer Vehicle "KOUNOTORI3" (HTV3)". JAXA. 14 September 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  75. ^ RAIKO_CUBESAT [@RAIKO_CUBESAT] (6 August 2013). "最新の予報では、12:46に軌道離脱です。Space-Track.Org のDecay予報を参照しています。" (Tweet). Retrieved 17 September 2013 – via Twitter.
  76. ^ "FITSAT-1 (Niwaka)". FIT. 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  77. ^ "CubeSat "WE WISH" Re-entered Earth's Atmosphere". Meisei Electric. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  78. ^ "HTV4 (KOUNOTORI 4) Mission Press Kit" (PDF). JAXA. 2 August 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013.
  79. ^ "JSpOC estimates that the time of our reentry was 2013-05-05 0:00:00". Twitter. 6 May 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  80. ^ a b c d "Belarus' first satellite enters orbit". Xinhua. 23 July 2012. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
  81. ^ Krebs, Gunter (21 July 2019). "Zond-PP (MKA-PN 1)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  82. ^ "Chinese data relay satellite TianLian-1C is launched successfully on a Long March 3C". Flightglobal. 26 July 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
  83. ^ "Russia Launches Cluster of Four Satellites". RIA Novosti. 28 July 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2012.
  84. ^ "Progress M-16M successfully tests new fast rendezvous with ISS". NASASpaceflight.com. 1 August 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  85. ^ "Progress M-16M departs the Space Station, headed for Re-Entry". Spaceflight101.com. 9 February 2013. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  86. ^ "SFERA". N2YO.com. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
  87. ^ a b "Sfera-53". Gunter's Space Page. 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  88. ^ a b "Ariane 5 ECA successfully launches Intelsat 20 and Hylas 2". NASASpaceflight.com. 2 August 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  89. ^ "The launch of "Proton-M" with the upper stage "Briz-M" and the spacecraft "Express-MD2" and "Telkom-3"". Roscosmos. Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
  90. ^ "Russia Investigates Failed Rocket Launch". Space.com. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  91. ^ "Intelsat 21 Launch Success Refreshes Capacity for Leading Latin America Video Neighborhood; Furthers Mobility Coverage Across South Atlantic Ocean". Intelsat. 19 August 2012. Archived from the original on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  92. ^ "Van Allen Probes Spacecraft B Completes Mission Operations". Applied Physics Laboratory. 23 July 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  93. ^ "Ten Highlights From NASA's Van Allen Probes Mission". NASA. 17 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
  94. ^ "NASA Launches Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission". NASA.gov. 30 August 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  95. ^ a b "India's 100th Space Mission Launches Satellites Into Orbit". Space.com. 10 September 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  96. ^ "Atlas 5 launch success confirmed". Lompoc Record. 13 September 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2012.
  97. ^ "European weather satellite Metop-B launched into orbit". The Guardian. 17 September 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  98. ^ a b "China back in action with dual Compass launch". NASASpaceflight.com. 18 September 2012.
  99. ^ "Astra 2F ready for disputed orbital slot". Broadband TV News. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  100. ^ "India launches GSAT-10 successfully". Hindustan Times. 29 September 2012. Archived from the original on 7 October 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  101. ^ "State File:China launches 2nd satellite for Venezuela". CNN. 29 September 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
  102. ^ "China Launches Earth-Observing Satellite for Venezuela". Space.com. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  103. ^ "GPS IIF-3 Satellite Now Transmitting L1, L2 Signals". GPS World. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2013.
  104. ^ "Falcon 9 undergoes pad rehearsal for October launch". Spaceflight Now. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 12 September 2012.
  105. ^ "Private Spacecraft to Launch Space Station Cargo On Oct. 7". LiveScience. 25 September 2012.
  106. ^ a b "Falcon 9 Drops Orbcomm Satellite in Wrong Orbit". Aviation Week. 8 October 2012. Archived from the original on 6 October 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  107. ^ Clark, Stephen (11 October 2012). "Orbcomm craft falls to Earth, company claims total loss". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 11 October 2012.
  108. ^ a b "Galileo: Europe's version of GPS reaches key phase". BBC. 12 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  109. ^ a b "Long March 2C launches Shijian-9 tech demonstrator satellite duo". NASASpaceflight. 13 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  110. ^ "Intelsat 23 Launch Success to Provide Enhanced Capacity for the Americas, Europe and Africa". Intelsat. 14 October 2012. Archived from the original on 24 January 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  111. ^ "Three-man Soyuz crew blasts off for space station". CNET. 23 October 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  112. ^ "Soyuz and crew arrive at ISS". Florida Today. 25 October 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2012.
  113. ^ "U.S., Russian Space Station Crew Descends to Earth, Leaving First Canadian in Command". Aviation Week. 15 March 2013. Archived from the original on 24 April 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
  114. ^ "China's Beidou GPS-substitute opens to public in Asia". BBC. 27 December 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  115. ^ Barbosa, Rui C. (25 October 2012). "China's Long March 3C lofts another Compass-G into orbit". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
  116. ^ "Progress M-17-M (ISS 49P)". Space Newsfeed. Archived from the original on 21 April 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  117. ^ "Progress M-17M completes its Mission with Destructive Re-Entry April 21, 2013". Spaceflight101.com. 21 April 2013. Archived from the original on 20 March 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  118. ^ a b "Russian rocket puts 2 satellites into orbit". Kyiv Post. 3 November 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  119. ^ a b "Eutelsat launches satellite to boost capacity in EMEA". ZDNet.com. 10 November 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  120. ^ "Russia Launches Dual-Purpose Telecoms Satellite". RIA Novosti. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
  121. ^ Rui C. Barbosa (18 November 2012). "Chinese Long March 2C lofts Huanjing-1C into orbit". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 18 November 2012.
  122. ^ "XINYAN 1". In-The-Sky.org. 5 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  123. ^ "EchoStar Telecom Satellite Launched from Baikonur". RIA Novosti. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
  124. ^ a b c "Long March 4C launches Yaogan Weixing-16 spy satellite for China". NASASpaceflight.com. 25 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  125. ^ a b "China's 18th launch of 2012 sees Long March 3B loft ChinaSat-12". NASASpaceflight.com. 27 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  126. ^ "Russian-made rocket blasts French satellite into orbit". MSNBC. 2 December 2012. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  127. ^ "SeaLaunch successfully puts Eutelsat 70B into orbit". Flightglobal. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
  128. ^ "ILS Declares a Proton Launch Anomaly". International Launch Services. 8 December 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  129. ^ "Yamal-300K and Yamal-402 satellites start commercial operation". Gazprom. 25 January 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  130. ^ a b Bergin, Chris. "Third X-37B returns home after nearly two years in space". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  131. ^ "Air Force's Secret X-37B Space Plane Launches on Third Mission". Universe Today. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
  132. ^ "North Korea launches rocket, raising nuclear arms stakes". Reuters. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  133. ^ a b Talmadge, Eric (18 December 2012). "Crippled NKorean probe could orbit for years". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  134. ^ "North Korea defies warnings to launch rocket". BBC. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  135. ^ "North Korea Launches Rocket". Wall Street Journal. 11 December 2012. Archived from the original on 12 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  136. ^ Barbosa, Rui C. (18 December 2012). "China end 2012 with Long March 2D launch of Göktürk-2". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  137. ^ "China launches Turkish satellite: state media". AFP via Google. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  138. ^ Chris Bergin (13 May 2013). "Soyuz TMA-07M returns ISS crew to Earth". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved 15 May 2013.
  139. ^ a b "UK's Skynet military satellite launched". BBC. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  140. ^ "Sounding Rocket Launch Scheduled January 11". NASA. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 24 October 2012.
  141. ^ "Wallops Flight Facility". NASA. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  142. ^ "S-520-26 launch result". JAXA. 13 January 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  143. ^ "Israel tests Arrow 3 anti-ballistic missile system". Army-Technology.com. 25 January 2012. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
  144. ^ "India Successfully Test Interceptor Missile". DefenceNow.com. 11 February 2012. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  145. ^ "US-Israel Arrow completes successful test". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 10 February 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  146. ^ "MASER 12 - successfully launched". SSC. 13 February 2012. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  147. ^ "36.273 UE POWELL/CORNELL UNIVERSITY". NASA. 21 February 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  148. ^ "Lockheed Martin-Built Trident II D5 Missile Achieves 137th Successful Test Flight". Lockheed Martin. 14 March 2012. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  149. ^ "Minuteman III test missile launches from Vandenberg". Vandenberg Air Force Base. 25 February 2012. Archived from the original on 5 March 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
  150. ^ "CIBER Mission Launched". NASA. 22 March 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
  151. ^ a b c d e "ATREX Mission: NASA's Five-Rocket Barrage to Study Winds at Edge of Space". Space.com. 27 March 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
  152. ^ "April 5, 2012: UP Aerospace Launches Payloads Into Space for the DoD and NASA Flight Opportunities Program". UP Aerospace. 5 April 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
  153. ^ a b c d "Lockheed Martin-Built Trident II D5 Missile's Reliability Record Reaches 142 Successful Test Flights". Lockheed Martin. 31 May 2012. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  154. ^ "India test launches Agni-V long-range missile". BBC. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  155. ^ "Pakistan Test-fires Improved Shaheen-1 Missile". DefenseNews.com. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  156. ^ a b "Advanced version of Aegis interceptor missile to be built in Huntsville destroys target in test (video)". Huntsville Times. 10 May 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  157. ^ "Russia tests secret missile after Nato shield launched". BBC. 23 May 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  158. ^ "Test of Topol from Kapustin Yar". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. 7 June 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  159. ^ "NASA Sounding Rocket Launch Launched June 21". NASA. 21 June 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  160. ^ "Experiments on SHEFEX II successful". DLR.de. 28 June 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  161. ^ "36.286 UE WOODS/UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO". NASA. 23 June 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  162. ^ a b "Second-Generation Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System Completes Second Successful Intercept Flight Test". United States Missile Defense Agency. 27 June 2012. Archived from the original on 20 February 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  163. ^ a b c "Iran tests long-range ballistic missiles". The Guardian. 3 July 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  164. ^ "SUMI Sounding Rocket Mission Launches Successfully". NASA. 5 July 2012. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
  165. ^ "The Hi-C Suborbital Spacecraft Snaps the Sun's Hottest Spots". Gizmodo UK. 30 January 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  166. ^ "Agni-I a success". The Hindu. 13 July 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  167. ^ "39.011 NR CHEATWOOD/NASA LANGLEY RESEARCH CENTER". NASA. 23 July 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  168. ^ "36.263 US JUDGE/UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA". NASA. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  169. ^ "観測ロケットS-310-41号機 打上げ終了('Exit launch rocket S-310-41 observation')" (in Japanese). JAXA. 7 August 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
  170. ^ "2012年度第1次観測ロケット実験の実施について ('Sounding rocket experiment on the implementation of the first fiscal year following 2012')" (in Japanese). JAXA. 1 June 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2012.
  171. ^ "S-310-41 launch completed". JAXA. 7 August 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  172. ^ "Agni-II launch, a flawless mission". The Hindu. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  173. ^ "Rocket Launch at Wallops Flight Facility". Delmarva Public Radio. 12 September 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  174. ^ "Dazzling Army Missile Test Triggers UFO Reports in Western US". Space.com. 14 September 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  175. ^ "HIFiRE 3 Launched from Andøya". Andøya Rocket Range. 19 September 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  176. ^ "Long range strategic missile Agni-IV test-fired". The Hindu. 19 September 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  177. ^ "India test fires nuclear-capable Agni-III ballistic missile". IBN Live. 21 September 2012. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  178. ^ "RockSat-X launches; next launch Sept. 22". NASA. 21 September 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  179. ^ "NASA successfully tests new launch vehicle from WFF". NASA. 22 September 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  180. ^ "Prithvi-II successfully test-fired from Odisha". The Hindu. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  181. ^ "Nuclear-capable Dhanush successfully test-fired". The Hindu. 5 October 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  182. ^ a b "В России завершены небывалые по масштабу учения стратегических ядерных сил ('Russia has completed an unprecedented scale test of strategic nuclear forces')" (in Russian). 1TV.ru. 20 October 2012. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
  183. ^ "UK Trident Missile Test Launch 23 October 2012: Caroline Lucas Asks About Cost & Informing Other Govts In Advance". Acronym.org.uk. 19 November 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  184. ^ "Russia to create new missiles to compete with U.S." Missile Threat. 9 January 2013. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  185. ^ a b c d e "Ballistic Missile Defense System Engages Five Targets Simultaneously During Largest Missile Defense Flight Test in History". United States Missile Defense Agency. 25 October 2012. Archived from the original on 16 February 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  186. ^ "A Next-Generation X-Ray Telescope Launches". NASA. 2 November 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  187. ^ "Minuteman III test missile launches from Vandenberg". Vandenberg Air Force Base. 14 November 2012. Archived from the original on 20 February 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  188. ^ "IMAGER Launch Successful". NASA. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  189. ^ "India successfully tests ballistic missile shield". NDTV. 23 November 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  190. ^ "MAPHEUS 3, successfully launched!". SSC. 25 November 2012. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  191. ^ "Pak test fires N-capable Hatf V Ghauri missile". Zeenews.india.com. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  192. ^ "Site G1 - Globo.com Foguete de sondagem VS-30/Orion é lançado com sucesso em Alcântara". IAE. 9 December 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  193. ^ "36.283 UH GALEAZZI/UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI". NASA. 13 December 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  194. ^ "観測ロケットS-520-28号機 打上げ終了('Observation of S-520-28 rocket launch')" (in Japanese). JAXA. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
  195. ^ "S-520-28 launch result". JAXA. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  196. ^ "India Successfully Test-Fires Prithvi-2 Missile". Turkish Weekly. 20 December 2012. Archived from the original on 25 December 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  197. ^ "NASA's Twin Grail Spacecraft Reunite in Lunar Orbit". NASA.gov. 1 January 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  198. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Cassini Saturn Tour Dates: 2012". NASA. 2012. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  199. ^ "Dawn departs Vesta to become first asteroid hopper". New Scientist. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  200. ^ "Spacecraft Dawn has arrived at Ceres, one of solar system's last unexplored planets". Washington Post. 6 March 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
  201. ^ "Chinese space probe flies by asteroid Toutatis". Xinhua. 15 December 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  202. ^ "NASA's Grail Lunar Impact Site Named for Astronaut Sally Ride". NASA. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  203. ^ "GRAIL orbiters make DEATH DIVE into lunar mountain". The Register. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
  204. ^ "Spacewalk Success as second EVA installs troublesome MBSU-1". NASASpaceflight. 5 September 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2012.
  205. ^ "ISS Managers Mull Spacewalks To Address Power, Cooling Issues". Aviation Week. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  206. ^ "First Delta IV Medium in 5/2 configuration launches from Vandenberg". US Air Force Space Command. 4 April 2012. Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2013.

External links

  • "Forecasts 2012: Spaceflight". Flightglobal. 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  • "The 12 Most Anticipated Space Missions of 2012". Space.com. 26 December 2011. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
  • "2012 Human Spaceflight: A Look Ahead". Discovery News. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2013.