2014 Brazilian general election

Summary

General elections were held in Brazil on 5 October 2014 to elect the president, the National Congress, and state governorships.[1] As no candidate in the presidential election received more than 50% of the vote in the first round on 5 October 2014, a second-round runoff was held on 26 October 2014.[1]

2014 Brazilian general election

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Opinion polls
Presidential election
5 October 2014 (first round)
26 October 2014 (second round)
Turnout80.61% (first round), 78.90% (second round)
  Dilma Rousseff 2011.jpg Aécio Neves em 23 de outubro de 2014-2.jpg
Nominee Dilma Rousseff Aécio Neves
Party PT PSDB
Alliance With the Strength of the People Change Brazil
Home state Minas Gerais Minas Gerais
Running mate Michel Temer Aloysio Nunes
States carried 15 11 + DF
Popular vote 54,501,118 51,041,155
Percentage 51.64% 48.36%

2014 Brazil Presidential Elections, Round 2.svg
2014 Brazil Presidential Elections, Round 1.svg
Presidential election results

President before election

Dilma Rousseff
PT

Elected President

Dilma Rousseff (PT)
Rousseff impeached in 2016

Party Leader % Seats +/–
Chamber of Deputies
PT Vicentinho 13.94 69 -19
PSDB Antônio Imbassahy 11.39 54 +1
PMDB Eduardo Cunha 11.10 66 -13
PP Eduardo da Fonte 6.61 38 -5
PSB 6.44 34 0
PSD 6.14 36 New
PR Bernardo Santana 5.79 34 -7
PRB George Hilton 4.55 21 +13
DEM Mendonça Filho 4.20 21 -21
PTB Jovair Arantes 4.02 25 +4
PDT Félix Mendonça Jr. 3.57 19 -9
SDD 2.77 15 New
PSC André Moura 2.59 13 -5
PV Sarney Filho 2.06 8 -7
PROS 2.03 11 New
PPS Rubens Bueno 2.01 10 -2
PCdoB Jandira Feghali 1.97 10 -5
PSOL Ivan Valente 1.79 5 +2
PHS 0.95 5 +3
PTdoB 0.84 1 -2
PSL 0.83 1 0
PRP 0.75 3 +1
PTN 0.74 4 +4
PEN 0.69 2 New
PSDC 0.52 2 +2
PMN 0.48 3 -1
PRTB 0.47 1 -1
PTC 0.35 2 +1
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
Party Leader % Seats +/–
PSDB Antônio Imbassahy 26.73 10 -1
PT Vicentinho 16.96 12 -3
PMDB Eduardo Cunha 13.58 18 -1
PSB 13.57 7 +4
PSD 8.00 3 New
PDT Félix Mendonça Jr. 4.04 8 +4
DEM Mendonça Filho 3.93 5 -1
PTB Jovair Arantes 3.14 3 -3
PROS 2.50 1 New
PP Eduardo da Fonte 2.16 5 0
PSOL Ivan Valente 1.17 1 -1
PCdoB Jandira Feghali 0.90 1 -1
PV Sarney Filho 0.81 1 +1
PR Bernardo Santana 0.78 4 0
SDD 0.41 1 New
PRB George Hilton 0.34 1 0
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.

Elections were held in the midst of the devastating 2014 Brazilian economic crisis.[2] President Dilma Rousseff of the left-wing Workers' Party ran for reelection, choosing incumbent Vice President Michel Temer of the centre-right Brazilian Democratic Movement as her running-mate. During her first term, Dilma's presidency was rocked by the 2013 protests in Brazil, initiated mainly by the Free Fare Movement, in response to social inequality in the country.[3]

Aécio Neves, a Senator from the electorally crucial[4] state of Minas Gerais, entered the race as the candidate of the centre-right Brazilian Social Democracy Party. Neves, who previously served as a popular Governor of Minas Gerais,[5] had previously considered running for President in 2010 before ultimately declining. Unlike in past presidential elections, the PSDB ticket consisted of two members of the party, with party member and Senator from São Paulo Aloysio Nunes serving as his running mate.

Former Governor of Pernambuco Eduardo Campos, who served with Dilma in the left-wing Lula Administration, entered the race as a centre-left alternative to Dilma on the Brazilian Socialist Party ticket.[6] For his running mate, Campos chose Marina Silva, an environmentalist politician from the state of Acre who performed unexpectedly well in the 2010 presidential election. However, Campos unexpectedly died in a plane crash less than two months before the first round of voting, and Silva replaced him at the top of the ticket.

In the first round of voting Dilma Rousseff won 41.6% of the vote, ahead of Aécio Neves with 33.6% and Marina Silva with 21.3%.[7] Rousseff and Neves contested the runoff on 26 October and Rousseff won re-election by a narrow margin, 51.6% to Neves' 48.4%, the closest margin for a Brazilian presidential election since 1989.[8]

Presidential electionEdit

Incumbent President Dilma Rousseff of the Workers' Party (PT), Brazil's first female president, was challenged by 11 other candidates. Minas Gerais Senator Aécio Neves from the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB) and Marina Silva from the Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB) were her main rivals. Since none of the candidates obtained over 50% of the valid votes in the 5 October election, a second-round election was held on 26 October between Rousseff and Neves, who had finished first and second respectively in the 5 October vote.

In the run-up to the election, allies of 2010 PSDB presidential nominee José Serra pushed for Governor of São Paulo Geraldo Alckmin, who served as the party's nominee in 2006, to serve as the party's nominee versus Dilma.[9] One of the people who pushed for Alckmin's nomination was Senator from São Paulo Aloysio Nunes, who was later chosen as the running-mate of Neves.[10]

The original PSB candidate had been Eduardo Campos. However, he died in a plane crash in Santos on 13 August 2014,[11] after which the party chose Silva, who had been his running mate, to replace him as the presidential candidate.[12]

Conservative federal deputy Jair Bolsonaro had publicly declared his interest in running for either the presidency or vice presidency in the run-up to the election.[13] However, Bolsonaro did not enter the race.

Aécio Neves running mate selectionEdit

Six potential running mates were speculated on as potential vice presidential candidates to run with Aécio Neves on the PSDB ticket according to reporting done by O Globo.[14]

Campaign IssuesEdit

EconomyEdit

Dilma RousseffEdit

Rousseff defended the significant economic gains and improvements in living standards during her administration and that of her predecessor, Lula da Silva.

Aécio NevesEdit

Neves proposed sweeping reductions in the welfare state and state intervention in the economy.

Allegations of corruptionEdit

Shortly before the election, a former executive of the state-run oil company Petrobras accused a minister, three state governors, six senators and dozens of congressmen from President Dilma Rousseff's Workers’ Party (PT) and several coalition allies of having accepted kickback payments from contracts.[21]

CandidatesEdit

Candidates in runoffEdit

# Party/coalition Presidential candidate Political office(s) Vice-Presidential candidate
13
 
Dilma Rousseff (PT) President of Brazil since 2011; Chief of Staff of the Presidency 2005–10; Minister of Mines and Energy 2003–05
 
Michel Temer (PMDB)
45
 
Aécio Neves (PSDB) Senator for Minas Gerais since 2011; PSDB National President since 2013; Governor of Minas Gerais 2003–10; President of the Chamber of Deputies 2001–02; Federal Deputy from Minas Gerais 1987–2002
 
Aloysio Nunes (PSDB)

Candidates failing to make runoffEdit

# Party/coalition Presidential candidate Political office(s) Vice-Presidential candidate
16
 
José Maria de Almeida (PSTU) PSTU National President since 1993 Cláudia Durans (PSTU)
20
 
Everaldo Pereira (PSC) State Sub-Chief of Staff of Rio de Janeiro 1999–2003 Leonardo Gadelha (PSC)
21
 
Mauro Iasi (PCB) Researcher, historian, sociologist, politician and college professor
 
Sofia Manzano (PCB)
27
 
José Maria Eymael (PSDC) PSDC National President since 1997; Federal Deputy from São Paulo 1986–95 Roberto Lopes (PSDC)
28
 
Levy Fidelix (PRTB) PRTB National President since 1994 José Alves de Oliveira (PRTB)
29
 
Rui Costa Pimenta (PCO) PCO National President since 1994 Ricardo Machado (PCO)
40
"United for Brazil"
PSB, PPS, PSL, PHS, PPL, PRP
 
Marina Silva (PSB) Senator for Acre 1995–2011; Minister of the Environment 2003–08; State Deputy of Acre 1991–95; City Councillor of Rio Branco 1989–91
 
Beto Albuquerque (PSB)
43
 
Eduardo Jorge (PV) Federal Deputy from São Paulo 1987–2003; State Deputy of São Paulo 1983–86
 
Célia Sacramento (PV)
50
 
Luciana Genro (PSOL) Federal Deputy from Rio Grande do Sul 2003–11; State Deputy of Rio Grande do Sul 1995–2003
 
Jorge Paz (PSOL)

DebatesEdit

First roundEdit

Date Host Moderator Dilma Rousseff (PT) Aécio Neves (PSDB) Marina Silva (PSB) Luciana Genro (PSOL) Eduardo Jorge (PV) Everaldo Pereira (PSC) Levy Fidelix (PRTB) José Maria Eymael (PSDC) Zé Maria (PSTU) Mauro Iasi (PCB) Rui Costa Pimenta (PCO)
26 August 2014 Rede Bandeirantes Ricardo Boechat Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited
1 September 2014 SBT, Folha, Jovem Pan, UOL Carlos Nascimento Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited
16 September 2014 TV Aparecida, CNBB Rodolpho Gamberini Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited
28 September 2014 Rede Record, R7 Celso Freitas, Adriana Araújo Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited
2 October 2014 Rede Globo, G1 William Bonner Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited

Second roundEdit

Date Host Moderator Dilma Rousseff (PT) Aécio Neves (PSDB)
14 October 2014 Rede Bandeirantes Ricardo Boechat Present Present
16 October 2014 SBT, Folha, Jovem Pan, UOL Carlos Nascimento Present Present
19 October 2014 Rede Record, R7 Celso Freitas, Adriana Araújo Present Present
24 October 2014 Rede Globo William Bonner Present Present

Opinion pollsEdit

First RoundEdit

Polling aggregates
Active candidates
  Dilma Rouseff (PT)
  Aécio Neves (PSDB)
  Marina Silva (PSB)
  Eduardo Campos (PSB)
  Others
  Abstentions/Undecided
Pollster/client(s) Date(s)
conducted
Sample
size
Rousseff
PT
Lula
PT
Neves
PSDB
Serra
PSDB
Silva
PSB/PV
Campos
PSB
Genro
PSOL
Rodrigues
PSOL
Sampaio
PSOL
Pereira
PSC
Jorge
PV
Others Abst.
Undec.
Lead
2014 election 5 Oct 41.59% 33.55% 21.32% 1.55% 0.75% 0.61% 0.64% 9.64% 8.04
Ibope (exit poll) 5 Oct 64,200 44% 30% 22% 1% <1% <1% <1% 14%
Datafolha 3–4 Oct 18,116 40% 24% 22% 1% 1% 1% <1% 10% 16%
Datafolha 29–30 Sep 7,520 40% 20% 25% 1% 1% <1% <1% 10% 15%
Ibope 27–29 Sep 3,010 39% 19% 25% 1% 1% <1% <1% 14% 14%
Ibope 20–22 Sep 3,010 38% 19% 29% <1% 1% <1% <1% 12% 9%
Vox Populi 20–21 Sep 2,000 40% 17% 22% 1% 1% 0% 0% 18% 18%
Datafolha 17–18 Sep 5,340 37% 17% 30% 1% 1% <1% <1% 13% 7%
Ibope 13–15 Sep 3,010 36% 19% 30% <1% 1% <1% <1% 13% 6%
Vox Populi 13–14 Sep 2,000 36% 15% 27% 1% 1% 1% <1% 20% 9%
Datafolha 8–9 Sep 10,568 36% 15% 33% 1% 1% 1% <1% 13% 3%
CNI/Ibope 5–8 Sep 2,002 39% 15% 31% <1% 1% <1% <1% 13% 8%
Datafolha 1–3 Sep 10,054 35% 14% 34% 1% 1% 1% 1% 13% 1%
Ibope 31 Aug–2 Sep 2,506 37% 15% 33% <1% 1% <1% <1% 12% 4%
Datafolha 28–29 Aug 2,874 34% 15% 34% <1% 2% <1% <1% 14% Tie
CNT/MDA 21–24 Aug 2,202 36.2% 16.0% 28.2% 0.3% 1.3% 0.4% 0.5% 19.1% 8.0%
Ibope 23–25 Aug 2,506 34% 19% 29% 1% 1% <1% <1% 15% 5%
Datafolha 14–15 Aug 2,843 36% 20% 21% <1% 3% 1% <1% 17% 15%
41% 25% <1% 4% 1% 2% 25% 16%
13 Aug Eduardo Campos dies in a plane crash; Marina Silva is nominated the new PSB candidate
Ibope 3–6 Aug 2,506 38% 23% 9% 1% 3% 1% 1% 24% 15%
Ibope 18–21 Jul 2,002 38% 22% 8% 1% 3% 1% 1% 25% 16%
Datafolha 15–16 Jul 5,377 36% 20% 8% 1% 3% 1% 3% 27% 16%
Datafolha 1–2 Jul 2,857 38% 20% 9% 1% 4% 1% 3% 24% 18%
Ibope 13–15 Jun 2,002 39% 21% 10% 3% 6% 21% 18%
Ibope 4–7 Jun 2,002 38% 22% 13% 3% 1% 3% 20% 16%
Datafolha 3–5 Jun 4,337 34% 19% 7% 30% 15%
Vox Populi 31 May–1 Jun 2,200 40% 21% 8% <1% 2% <1% <1% 28% 19%
Ibope 15–19 May 2,002 40% 20% 11% 3% 1% 1% 24% 20%
Datafolha 7–8 May 2,844 37% 20% 11% 1% 3% 1% 2% 24% 17%
41% 22% 14% 23% 19%
52% 19% 11% 18% 33%
49% 17% 9% 1% 2% 1% 2% 19% 32%
Ibope 10–14 Apr 2,002 37% 14% 6% 1% 2% 0% 1% 37% 23%
37% 14% 10% 1% 2% 0% 33% 23%
Vox Populi 6–8 Apr 2,200 40% 16% 10% 0% 2% 1% 3% 29% 22%
Datafolha 2–3 Apr 2,637 38% 16% 10% 0% 2% 1% 3% 29% 22%
43% 18% 14% 25% 25%
39% 16% 27% 19% 12%
52% 16% 11% 21% 36%
48% 14% 23% 15% 25%
Ibope 13–17 Mar 2,002 40% 13% 6% 1% 3% 0% 36% 27%
40% 13% 9% 1% 2% 0% 34% 27%
Datafolha 19–20 Feb 2,614 47% 17% 12% 24% 30%
43% 15% 23% 24% 28%
42% 15% 8% 16% 20% 22%
41% 12% 17% 14% 16% 24%
44% 16% 9% <1% 3% 1% 1% 26% 28%
54% 15% 9% 21% 39%
51% 14% 19% 16% 32%
Vox Populi Archived 2014-10-11 at the Wayback Machine 13–15 Feb 2,201 41% 17% 6% <1% <1% <1% 35% 24%
2010 election 3 Oct 2010 46.91% 32.61% 19.33% 0.87% 0.28 8.64% 14.30

Second roundEdit

Polling aggregates
Active candidates
  Dilma Rouseff (PT)
  Aécio Neves (PSDB)
Pollster/client(s) Date(s)
conducted
Sample
size
Rousseff
PT
Neves
PSDB
Abst.
Undec.
Lead
2014 election 26 Oct 51.64% 48.36% 6.34% 3.28%
Valid votes
Vox Populi 25 Oct 2,000 54% 46% 8%
Datafolha 24–25 Oct 19,318 52% 48% 3%
Ibope 24–25 Oct 3,010 53% 47% 6%
CNT/MDA 23–24 Oct 2,002 49.7% 50.3% 0.6%
Datafolha 22–23 Oct 9,910 53% 47% 6%
Datafolha 21 Oct 4,355 52% 48% 4%
Ibope 20–22 Oct 3,010 54% 46% 8%
Datafolha 20 Oct 4,389 52% 48% 4%
Vox Populi 18–19 Oct 2,000 52% 48% 4%
CNT/MDA 18–19 Oct 2,002 50.5% 49.5% 1%
Datafolha 14–15 Oct 9,081 49% 51% 2%
Ibope 12–14 Oct 3,010 49% 51% 2%
Vox Populi 11–12 Oct 2,000 51% 49% 2%
Datafolha 8–9 Oct 2,879 49% 51% 2%
Ibope 7–8 Oct 3,010 49% 51% 2%
Total votes
Vox Populi 25 Oct 2,000 48% 41% 10% 7%
Datafolha 24–25 Oct 19,318 47% 43% 10% 4%
Ibope 24–25 Oct 3,010 49% 43% 8% 6%
CNT/MDA 23–24 Oct 2,002 44.7% 45.3% 10.1% 0.6%
Datafolha 22–23 Oct 9,910 48% 42% 10% 6%
Datafolha 21 Oct 4,355 47% 43% 10% 4%
Ibope 20–22 Oct 3,010 49% 41% 10% 8%
Datafolha 20 Oct 4,389 46% 43% 11% 3%
Vox Populi 18–19 Oct 2,000 46% 43% 11% 3%
CNT/MDA 18–19 Oct 2,002 45.5% 44.5% 10.0% 1%
Datafolha 14–15 Oct 9,081 43% 45% 12% 2%
Ibope 12–14 Oct 3,010 43% 45% 12% 2%
Vox Populi 11–12 Oct 2,000 45% 44% 11% 1%
Datafolha 8–9 Oct 2,879 44% 46% 10% 2%
Ibope 7–8 Oct 3,010 44% 46% 10% 2%

ResultsEdit

PresidentEdit

 
Second Round results
Municipalities won by Dilma Rousseff:      
Municipalities won by Aécio Neves:      
CandidateRunning matePartyFirst roundSecond round
Votes%Votes%
Dilma RousseffMichel Temer (PMDB)Workers' Party43,267,66841.5954,501,11851.64
Aécio NevesAloysio NunesBrazilian Social Democracy Party34,897,21133.5551,041,15548.36
Marina SilvaBeto AlbuquerqueBrazilian Socialist Party22,176,61921.32
Luciana GenroJorge PazSocialism and Liberty Party1,612,1861.55
Everaldo PereiraLeonardo GadelhaSocial Christian Party780,5130.75
Eduardo JorgeCélia SacramentoGreen Party630,0990.61
Levy FidelixJosé Alves de OliveiraBrazilian Labour Renewal Party446,8780.43
José Maria de AlmeidaCláudia DuransUnited Socialist Workers' Party91,2090.09
José Maria EymaelRoberto LopesChristian Social Democratic Party61,2500.06
Mauro IasiSofia ManzanoBrazilian Communist Party47,8450.05
Rui Costa PimentaRicardo MachadoWorkers' Cause Party12,3240.01
Total104,023,802100.00105,542,273100.00
Valid votes104,023,80290.36105,542,27393.66
Invalid/blank votes11,099,0819.647,141,6066.34
Total votes115,122,883100.00112,683,879100.00
Registered voters/turnout142,822,04680.61142,822,04678.90
Source: Election Resources

Voter demographicsEdit

Demographic subgroup Rousseff Neves % of
total vote
Total vote 52 48 100
Gender
Men 51 49 48
Women 54 46 52
Age
16–24 years old 50 50 16
25–34 years old 52 47 23
35–44 years old 55 45 20
45–59 years old 53 47 24
60 and older 50 50 17
Education
Less than high school 61 39 36
High school diploma 51 49 43
Bachelor's degree or more 39 61 21
Family income
Under 2x min wage 63 37 38
2-5x min wage 50 50 39
5-10x min wage 40 60 13
Over 10x min wage 35 65 10
Region
Southeast 44 56 44
South 45 55 15
Northeast 70 30 27
Central-West 44 56 7
North 58 42 7
Source: Datafolha

Chamber of DeputiesEdit

PartyVotes%Seats+/–
Workers' Party13,554,16613.9469–19
Brazilian Social Democracy Party11,073,63111.3954+1
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party10,791,94911.1066–13
Progressive Party6,429,7916.6138–5
Brazilian Socialist Party6,267,8786.44340
Social Democratic Party5,967,9536.1436New
Party of the Republic5,635,5195.7934–7
Brazilian Republican Party4,423,9934.5521+13
Democrats4,085,4874.2021–21
Brazilian Labour Party3,914,1934.0225+4
Democratic Labour Party3,469,1683.5719–9
Solidariedade2,689,7012.7715New
Social Christian Party2,520,4212.5913–5
Green Party2,004,4642.068–7
Republican Party of the Social Order1,977,1172.0311New
Popular Socialist Party1,955,6892.0110–2
Communist Party of Brazil1,913,0151.9710–5
Socialism and Liberty Party1,745,4701.795+2
Humanist Party of Solidarity926,6640.955+3
Labour Party of Brazil812,4970.841–2
Social Liberal Party808,7100.8310
Progressive Republican Party724,8250.753+1
National Labour Party723,1820.744+4
National Ecologic Party667,9830.692New
Christian Social Democratic Party509,9360.522+2
Party of National Mobilization467,7770.483–1
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party454,1900.471–1
Christian Labour Party338,1170.352+1
United Socialist Workers' Party188,4730.1900
Free Fatherland Party141,2540.150New
Brazilian Communist Party66,9790.0700
Workers' Cause Party12,9690.0100
Total97,263,161100.005130
Valid votes97,263,16184.65
Invalid/blank votes17,643,41915.35
Total votes114,906,580100.00
Registered voters/turnout142,384,19380.70
Source: Election Resources

SenateEdit

PartyVotes%Seats
WonTotal+/–
Brazilian Social Democracy Party23,880,07826.73410–1
Workers' Party15,155,81816.96212–3
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party12,129,96913.58518–1
Brazilian Socialist Party12,123,19413.5737+4
Social Democratic Party7,147,2458.0023New
Democratic Labour Party3,609,6434.0448+4
Democrats3,515,4263.9335–1
Brazilian Labour Party2,803,9993.1423–3
Republican Party of the Social Order2,234,1322.5001New
Progressive Party1,931,7382.16150
Socialism and Liberty Party1,045,2751.1701–1
Communist Party of Brazil803,1440.9001–1
Green Party723,5760.8101+1
Party of the Republic696,4620.78140
Solidariedade370,5070.4101New
United Socialist Workers' Party355,5850.40000
Brazilian Republican Party301,1620.34010
Progressive Republican Party170,2570.19000
Brazilian Communist Party68,1990.08000
National Ecologic Party65,5970.0700New
Party of National Mobilization57,9110.0600–1
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party38,4290.04000
Christian Social Democratic Party31,0110.03000
Free Fatherland Party29,3660.0300New
Christian Labour Party21,9930.02000
Social Christian Party19,2860.0200–1
Labour Party of Brazil11,3000.01000
Workers' Cause Party8,5610.01000
National Labour Party2,7410.00000
Total89,351,604100.0027810
Valid votes89,351,60477.76
Invalid/blank votes25,554,97822.24
Total votes114,906,582100.00
Registered voters/turnout142,384,19380.70
Source: Election Resources

AftermathEdit

The small difference between the votes of both candidates, around 3.5 million, made this election to be the most disputed of Brazil since the redemocratization.[22] Dilma was sworn in as 36th President of Brazil on 1 January 2015 in a ceremony conducted by Renan Calheiros in the floor of the Chamber of Deputies.[23]

International reactionEdit

 
Swearing-in ceremony of Dilma Rousseff, in 2015.

Presidents and representatives of different countries saluted the victory of Dilma Rousseff on 26 October over Aécio Neves.[24]

  •   Argentina - President of Argentina Cristina Kirchner used her social media to salute Dilma. In a letter directed to Dilma and published in her Facebook page, Kirchner celebrated the results of the election in Brazil which, according to her, "shows the Brazilian society reaffirming their unshakable commitment with a political project that guarantees economic growth with social inclusion". Also stated that the mutual cooperation between Brazil and Argentina would increase from this moment.[25]
  •   Bolivia - Bolivian president Evo Morales highlighted president Dilma's victory and stated that it "represents the model of change" in Brazil and in the Latin America. "Bolivia salutes the triumph of partner Dilma. We greet the continuity of the model of change in Brazil and the region", declared the leader in Shinahota, according to the state agency ABI.[26]
  •   El Salvador - Salvadoran president Salvador Sánchez Cerén congratulated Dilma for her victory through his Twitter account.[27]
  •   Ecuador - Ecuatorian president Rafael Correa celebrated, in his Twitter account, the "amazing victory of Dilma in Brazil". "We salute the president of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, for her today's electoral victory", commented the Ecuatorial chancellor, Ricardo Patiño, also using the social network.[27]
  •   France - The French government greeted president Rousseff for her reelection. "France wishes to work in strict cooperation with the Brazilian government to boost the strategic partnership between both countries in all areas", declared the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The French government also remembered that the relationship with Brazil was centered in three priorities: reinforce the political dialogue about climate changes, increase commercial and investment connections, and dynamize the cooperation of university exchange programs.[28]
  •   Germany - German Chancellor Angela Merkel sent a telegram congratulating Dilma Rousseff for her reelection, expressing in text the possibility to keep the ties between both countries. "I congratulate you for the reelection as president of Brazil. I am glad that we can keep our political and economic cooperation. In face of the challenges that both nations are facing, only together and as partners, we can overcome them", stated Merkel.[29]
  •   Russia - Russian president Vladimir Putin also congratulated Dilma for her reelection and stated "the victory in the polls is a proof of the popular support for her politics". In his telegram, Putin expressed that "the results of the voting showed that the people supports Dilma Rousseff's politics and looks for the economic development of the country and the strengthening of its international positions". The Russian president also rated as very good the attention Dilma gives to the "strengthening of the Russian-Brazilian strategic association".[30]
  •   United States - American president Barack Obama congratulated Dilma and requested that the ties with Brazil should be strengthened, which, according to Obama, it was "an important ally of the United States". The American president also expressed interest to schedule a meeting to discuss the possibility to "reinforce the collaboration for the world security and the respect to human rights, as well as deepen the bilateral cooperation in areas like education, energy and, mostly, trade".[31]
  •   Venezuela - Venezuelan president Nicolás Maduro highlighted Dilma's victory in his official Twitter account, shortly after the announce of the first results. "Victory of Dilma in Brazil. Victory of the People. Victory of Lula and his legacy. Victory of the people of Latin America and Caribbean", stated in his account.[32]

Besides chiefs of state, the international press also reverberated Dilma's victory. The New York Times in the United States highlighted the reelection on the front page of the newspaper and states that the victory "endosses a leftist leader who has achieved important gains in reducing poverty and keeping unemployment low";[33] Argentine El Clarín highlighted on the front page that Dilma won by a narrow margin "at the end of a tough campaign, full of denounced and mutual accusations";[34] for the United Kingdom Financial Times, "Dilma now faces the task of uniting a country divided by the most aggressive campaign of recent times, to resurrect a creeping economy and pacify hostile markets";[35] Venezuelan El Universal highlighted on its first page Aécio Neves' reaction, who acknowledged his defeated and highlighted in his speech that "the priority now is to unite Brazil";[36] French Le Monde mentioned the defeat in São Paulo, main electoral college of the country, but "compensated by the victory in Minas Gerais, the second largest electoral college and Aécio Neves' political fief";[37] Spanish El País brings as a highlight an article signed by journalist Juan Arais, from Rio de Janeiro, entitled "The political change in Brazil will have to wait".[38]

CrisisEdit

 
Percentage change of Brazil's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), according to Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics.[39] It is notice the low growth in 2014 and severe drops in the following years.

From 2014 and on, right after the results of the elections, an economic crisis began in Brazil, having as a consequence the strong economic recession, succeeded by a retreat of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 2 consecutive years.[40][41] The economy reduced in around 3.8% in 2015 and 3.6% in 2016. The crisis also brought a high level of unemployment, which reached its peak in March 2017, with a rate of 13.7%, representing more than 14 million Brazilians unemployed.[42]

In 2016, the effects of the economic crisis were widely felt by the population, who needed to adapt their bills to the financial reality. According to a research made by the Industry National Confederation (CNI) in that year, almost half of the interviewed (48%) began to use more public transportation and 34% don't have a health insurance anymore.[43] The deepening of the crisis made 14% of the families to change their children's schools, from private to public, with a percentage higher than the one verified in 2012 and 2013, before the crisis. Besides that, consumers change products to the cheaper ones (78%), waited for sales to buy higher value goods (80%) and saved more money for emergencies (78%).[44]

In the first quarter of 2017, GDP rose 1%, being the first growth after 8 consecutive quarter drops.[45] Minister of Finance Henrique Meirelles said that, in that moment, the country "left the largest recession of the century".[46]

 
Protests in the Ministries Terrace of groups in favor and against the Impeachment of Dilma Rousseff.

Yet in 2014 also began a political crisis. The match of this crisis happened on 17 March 2014, when the Federal Police of Brazil began a series of investigations and would be known as Operation Car Wash, initially investigating a corruption scheme and money laundry of billions of reais involving many politicians of the largest parties of the country.[47] The operation had direct impact in the country politics, contributing for the impopularity of Dilma's administration, just as, posteriorly, for Temer's administration, as long as many of their ministers and allies were targeted of the operation, such as Geddel Vieira Lima and Romero Jucá.[48][49] The operation is still ongoing with 51 operational phases and splits.[50]

The protests against Dilma Rousseff government, due to the results of Operation Car Wash, occurred in many regions of Brazil, having as one of the main goals the impeachment of the president.[51][52] The movement brought together millions of people on 15 March, 12 April, 16 August and 13 December 2015 and, according to some estimates, were the largest popular mobilizations in the country.[53][54] The protest of 13 March 2016 was considered the largest political act in the history of Brazil and occurred over all the country, overcoming also Diretas Já, which occurred during the transition period from the Military Dictatorship to the redemocratization.[55][56]

Rousseff's impeachmentEdit

 
Dilma gives her defence speech during the impeachment session that ended in her removal from office.

On 2 December 2015, president of Chamber of Deputies, Eduardo Cunha, accepted one of the seven impeachment requests against Dilma, which was registered by jurists Hélio Bicudo, Miguel Reale Júnior and Janaína Paschoal, and delivered to Cunha 2 months before.[57] In the original request, were included denounces of decrees signed by the president in 2015, to release R$ 2.5 billions (US$ 0.75 billion), without Congress approval, nor prevision on budget.[58] This operation is known as fiscal pedaling (Pedalada fiscal), and it's characterized as administrative misconduct.[59]

The acceptance of the impeachment request was considered by part of the press as a retaliation against the president's party, which deputies announced on that same day that they would vote against Cunha in the Chamber's Ethics Committee, where he was investigated for a supposed participation in the scheme denounced in Operation Car Wash. Cunha denied any "bargain" relation with the government, stating that "the decision to accept the impeachment is factual, is concrete, has clear tipification",[60] but kept attributing to president Rousseff responsibilities about the investigations against him.[61] According to Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Dilma didn't have "the will of doing politics" and didn't have any meeting with party caucuses to try to repeal the impeachment.[62]

 
Result of the voting of the acceptance of the impeachment process in the Chamber of Deputies, which took the process to the Federal Senate.

Due to the parliamentary recess and the sues filed in the Supreme Federal Court with the objective to decide formally the rite of the process only on 17 March 2016, the Chamber elected, with open voting, the 65 members of the Special Committee which analyzed the impeachment request against Dilma Rousseff. There were 433 votes in favor of the committee membership and 1 against.[63] On 11 April, the Special Committee, with 38 votes in favor and 27 against, approved the report, which defended the admissibility of the process.[64] The report, made by deputy Jovair Arantes (PTB-GO), went for voting in the floor of the Chamber.[65] On 17 April 2016, a Sunday, the Chamber of Deputies, with 367 votes in favor, 137 against, besides 7 abstentions and 2 absences, impeached Rousseff and authorized the Federal Senate to install the process against the president.[66]

On 6 May 2016, the Senate Impeachment Special Committee approved, with 15 votes in favor and 5 against, the report of senator Antônio Anastasia (PSDB-MG), in favor of the impeachment.[67] On 11 May, Justice Teori Zavascki denied a government request to null the process. With the decision, the Senate kept the voting that would decide the suspension of Rousseff from office.[68][69]

On 12 May 2016, with 55 favorable votes, 22 contrary and 2 absences, the Federal Senate authorized the opening of the impeachment process, and determined her suspension from the Presidency of the Republic for up to 180 days.[70] On 31 August, the Federal Senate, with a voting of 61 to 20, removed Rousseff from office of President, but kept her political rights.[71] With the impeachment, Michel Temer, who was Vice President of Brazil and Acting President until that moment, took office as President until the end of the term.[72]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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