2014 RC

Summary

2014 RC
2014RC Radar Sep07.jpg
2014 RC imaged by the Goldstone Radar on 7 September 2014
Discovery[1][2][3]
Discovered byCSS
Discovery siteCatalina Stn.
Discovery date1 September 2014
(first observed only)
Designations
2014 RC
NEO · Apollo[3][4]
Orbital characteristics[4]
Epoch 1 July 2021 (JD 2459396.5)
Uncertainty parameter 3[3][4]
Observation arc18 days w/Radar
Aphelion1.8064 AU
Perihelion0.8211 AU
1.3138 AU
Eccentricity0.3750
1.51 yr (550 d)
155.44°
0° 39m 16.2s / day
Inclination4.5687°
344.91°
71.090°
Earth MOID0.0003 AU (0.1169 LD)
Physical characteristics
Dimensions>22 m (largest axis)[5]
Mean diameter
~12–25 m (est.)[6]
0.004389 h (15.80 s)[7][8]
S/q[5][8]
28 (Nov/Dec 2014)
26.8[3][4]

2014 RC is a sub-kilometer near-Earth object and Apollo asteroid. The exceptionally fast rotator passed within 0.000267 AU (39,900 km; 24,800 mi) (0.1 lunar distances) of Earth on 7 September 2014. The asteroid is approximately the diameter of the Chelyabinsk meteor,[5] and passed almost as close to Earth as 367943 Duende (2012 DA14) did in 2013.

With an absolute magnitude of 26.8,[4] the asteroid is about 11–25 meters (36–82 ft) in diameter depending on the albedo.[6] Observations by the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility conclude the asteroid is a fairly bright Sq-class asteroid which have an average albedo of around 0.24, and would give the asteroid a spherical equivalent diameter of 12 meters (39 ft).[5] Measurements by multiple telescopes indicate that the asteroid rotates in 15.8 seconds making it one of the fastest rotating asteroids so far discovered.[5][8] Using the 15.8 second rotation period, more accurate radar observations by Goldstone shows the asteroid has a largest axis of at least 22 meters (72 ft).[5] Due to the asteroid's fast rotation, it is a monolith and not a rubble pile.

On 8 September 2115 the asteroid will pass about 0.0053 AU (790,000 km; 490,000 mi) from the moon.[4] On 5 September 1973, the asteroid passed between 0.01052 AU (1,574,000 km; 978,000 mi) and 0.01207 AU (1,806,000 km; 1,122,000 mi) from Earth.[4] 2014 RC was removed from the JPL Sentry Risk Table on 5 September 2014 and there are no known possible impact dates in the next 100 years.[9]

2014 approach

It made a close approach to Earth of 0.000267 AU (39,900 km; 24,800 mi) (0.1 LD) around 18:02 UTC on 7 September 2014.[4][10][11] The asteroid briefly brightened to about apparent magnitude 11.5,[12] but it was still not visible to the naked eye or common binoculars. At the peak brightness the asteroid had a declination of –47,[12] and was most easily visible over New Zealand. During 2014, asteroids 2014 AA and 2014 LY21 have come closer to Earth.

Asteroid 2014 RC[11]
Path around the Sun – 3 September 2014.
Path near the Earth – 7 September 2014.

The Managua explosion on 6 September 2014 may or may not have been created by a bolide that was missed by millions of people, but either way it was not caused by the close approach of 2014 RC.[5]

Orbital shift

During the 2014 Earth close approach the orbital period of 2014 RC was reduced from 600 days to 549 days.[13] The orbital eccentricity decreased while the orbital inclination increased.

Parameter Epoch Aphelion
(Q)
Perihelion
(q)
Semi-major axis
(a)
Eccentricity
(e)
Period
(p)
Inclination
(i)
Longitude ascending node
(Ω)
Mean anomaly
(M)
Argument of perihelion
(ω)
Units AU (days) (°)
Pre-flyby 2014-09-01 1.9488 0.8344 1.3916 0.4004 599.62 1.4395° 345.48° 326.12° 65.879°
flyby 2014-09-07 18:02 UTC 2.0284 0.8150 1.4217 0.4267 619.17 1.4217° 345.09° 330.91° 68.602°
Post-flyby 2014-10-01 1.8042 0.8207 1.3124 0.3747 549.18 4.5744° 345.01° 340.41° 71.187°

Close-approach table

Object Date (UTC) Date
error
(hours)
Nominal
distance
(AU)
Nominal
distance
(LD)
Minimum
distance
(AU)
Minimum
distance
(LD)
Apparent
magnitude
(V)
Earth 1945-09-06 05:53 47.16 0.00442 1.72 0.00101 0.39 17.3
Moon 1945-09-06 14:33 52.48 0.00508 1.98 0.00103 0.40
Mars 1957-10-09 13:55 5.40 0.06371 24.78 0.05267 20.49
Earth 1973-09-05 21:42 0.62 0.01169 4.55 0.01089 4.24 19.3
Earth 1987-01-17 01:02 0.30 0.03724 14.49 0.03686 14.34 22.4
Earth 1991-09-27 05:38 1.03 0.09911 38.55 0.09878 38.43 27.0
Mars 1999-09-22 14:00 <0.01 0.03739 14.54 0.03712 14.44
Earth 2009-12-30 13:10 0.28 0.08634 33.59 0.08622 33.54 26.0
Moon 2014-09-07 08:47 <0.01 0.000845 0.329 0.000845 0.329
Earth 2014-09-07 18:02 <0.01 0.000267 0.104 0.000267 0.104 15.9
Earth 2017-09-11 13:50 0.15 0.03864 15.03 0.03850 14.98 23.3
Earth 2020-09-22 21:24 0.35 0.09908 38.54 0.09893 38.48 26.1
Earth 2039-01-21 23:38 0.13 0.06224 24.21 0.06215 24.18 24.0
Earth 2042-01-27 18:19 0.10 0.06322 24.59 0.06313 24.56 23.6
Earth 2109-09-01 16:27 0.07 0.09959 38.74 0.09945 38.69 24.7
Earth 2112-09-06 21:13 0.08 0.02253 8.76 0.02241 8.72 21.1
Moon 2115-09-08 19:11 0.15 0.00558 2.17 0.005350 2.08
Earth 2115-09-08 22:50 0.17 0.00785 3.05 0.00763 2.97 18.5
Mars 2140-10-13 22:42 2.85 0.07152 27.82 0.05471 21.28
Earth 2159-02-02 22:17 16.90 0.08084 31.45 0.05563 21.64 24.2
Earth 2162-01-19 14:04 38.85 0.09376 36.47 0.07273 28.29 25.2
Earth 2170-09-19 02:08 9.12 0.07413 28.84 0.06707 26.09 25.1
Earth 2173-09-04 16:52 1.38 0.06123 23.82 0.05950 23.15 23.5

See also

References

  1. ^ "MPEC 2014-R23 : 2014 RC". IAU Minor Planet Center. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014. (K14R00C)
  2. ^ "MPEC 2014-R26 : 2014 RC". IAU Minor Planet Center. 3 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d "2014 RC". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: (2014 RC)" (2014-09-07 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g "Reports of Meteorite Strike in Nicaragua and Update on Asteroid 2014 RC". NASA/JPL Near-Earth Object Program Office. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2014.
  6. ^ a b "Asteroid Size Estimator". CNEOS NASA/JPL. Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  7. ^ "LCDB Data for (2014+RC)". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 7 September 2021.
  8. ^ a b c Devogèle, Maxime; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Thirouin, Audrey; Gustaffson, Annika; Magnuson, Mitchell; Thomas, Cristina; et al. (November 2019). "Visible Spectroscopy from the Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS): Taxonomic Dependence on Asteroid Size". The Astronomical Journal. 158 (5): 196. arXiv:1909.04788. Bibcode:2019AJ....158..196D. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/ab43dd. ISSN 0004-6256.
  9. ^ "Date/Time Removed". NASA/JPL Near-Earth Object Program Office. Archived from the original on 2 June 2002. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  10. ^ "NASA reports asteroid to pass close, but safely past Earth". clarksvilleonline.com. Clarksville Online. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014.
  11. ^ a b Agle, DC; Brown, Dwayne (3 September 2014). "Small Asteroid to Safely Pass Close to Earth Sunday". NASA. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
  12. ^ a b "2014RC Ephemerides for 7 September 2014". NEODyS (Near Earth Objects – Dynamic Site). Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  13. ^ Horizons output. "Horizon Online Ephemeris System". Retrieved 7 September 2014. ("Ephemeris Type: Elements" PR value)

External links

  • ASTEROID 2014 RC Tracking
  • Close Approach of Asteroid 2014 RC (Remanzacco Observatory)
  • Small Asteroid Will Pass Earth Closely but Safely on Sunday (Phil Plait)
  • 2014 RC at NeoDyS-2, Near Earth Objects—Dynamic Site
    • Ephemeris · Obs prediction · Orbital info · MOID · Proper elements · Obs info · Close · Physical info · NEOCC
  • 2014 RC at ESA–space situational awareness
    • Ephemerides · Observations · Orbit · Physical Properties · Summary
  • 2014 RC at the JPL Small-Body Database
    • Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters