2016 in spaceflight

Summary

Several new rockets and spaceports began operations in 2016.

2016 in spaceflight
A landed Falcon 9 first stage on Of Course I Still Love You
Infrared view of Jupiter's southern aurora
Impact scar of Schiaparelli on the Martian surface
A Cygnus, Soyuz MS, and Progress MS spacecraft docked at the International Space Station
Highlights from spaceflight in 2016.[a]
Orbital launches
First15 January
Last28 December
Total85
Successes82
Failures2
Partial failures1
Catalogued83
Rockets
Maiden flights
Retirements
Crewed flights
Orbital5
Total travellers14
EVAs4

OverviewEdit

Russia inaugurated the far-Eastern Vostochny Cosmodrome on 28 April 2016 with a traditional Soyuz-2.1a flight,[1] before expanding it for the Angara rocket family in the following years. The Chinese Long March 7 flew its maiden flight from the new Wenchang Satellite Launch Center on Hainan Island on 25 June, and the maiden flight of the Long March 5 took place on 3 November. Two years after its 2014 accident, the Antares rocket returned to flight on 17 October with its upgraded 230 version featuring the Russian RD-181 engine.

After many failed attempts, SpaceX began landing its Falcon 9 first stages on autonomous spaceport drone ships, edging closer to their long-stated goal of developing reusable launch vehicles. The company indicated that the recovered engines and structures did not suffer significant damage.[2] One of the landed boosters, B1021, launched in April 2016, was flown again in March 2017;[3] two others were converted to side boosters for the maiden flight of Falcon Heavy.[4]

The ExoMars mission, a collaboration between the European and Russian space agencies, was launched on 14 March and reached Mars on 19 October.[5] Dedicated to astrobiology investigations, this flight carried the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter, which reached Mars orbit, and the Schiaparelli EDM lander, which crashed upon landing. A subsequent flight scheduled for 2020 will carry the ExoMars Rosalind Franklin rover along with four static surface instruments.[6] Meanwhile, the Japanese space probe Akatsuki started its observations of Venus in May[7] after spending five months gradually adjusting its orbit. Planetary exploration activities took center stage with the orbit insertion of NASA's Juno probe at Jupiter on 4 July, followed by the launch of NASA's OSIRIS-REx mission to asteroid 101955 Bennu on 8 September. Finally, on 30 September, the Rosetta probe executed a slow crash-landing on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.[8][9]

Human spaceflights included the return of Scott Kelly and Mikhail Kornienko in March after a yearlong mission on the ISS, the longest-ever continuous stay by astronauts at the station. Kelly also set the record for the longest-duration stay of an American in orbit. Four ISS Expeditions numbered 47 to 50 were launched in 2016, the first one using the last Soyuz TMA-M spacecraft and the next three inaugurating the modernized Soyuz MS. Expedition 50 will continue into 2017. Several EVAs were performed to maintain the exterior of the ISS. The experimental BEAM inflatable habitat was attached to the ISS on 16 April and expanded on 28 May to begin two years of on-orbit tests. Meanwhile, China launched its new Tiangong-2 space laboratory in September, which was first visited by two astronauts for a month between 19 October and 17 November.

Orbital launchesEdit

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

JanuaryEdit

15 January
16:57:04
  Long March 3B/E   Xichang LC-3   CASC
  Belintersat 1 Belarus Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
17 January
18:42:18
  Falcon 9 v1.1 F9-021   Vandenberg SLC-4E   SpaceX
  Jason-3 NOAA / EUMETSAT Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
Final flight of the standard Falcon 9 v1.1, future flights will use the upgraded Falcon 9 Full Thrust. Falcon 9's first stage performed a soft landing on an autonomous spaceport drone ship in the Pacific Ocean, but the failure of one landing leg to lock into position caused it to fall over and break apart.[10]
20 January
04:01:00
  PSLV-XL C31   Satish Dhawan SLP   ISRO
  IRNSS-1E ISRO Geosynchronous Navigation In orbit Operational
27 January
23:20:48
  Ariane 5 ECA VA228   Kourou ELA-3   Arianespace
  Intelsat 29e Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Spacecraft failure in 2019[11]
29 January
22:20:09
  Proton-M / Briz-M   Baikonur Site 200/39     International Launch Services
  Eutelsat 9B Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Carries the first laser communication node for the European Data Relay System

FebruaryEdit

1 February
07:29:04
  Long March 3C/E / YZ-1   Xichang LC-3   CASC
  BeiDou M3-S CNSA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
5 February
13:38:00
  Atlas V 401 AV-057   Cape Canaveral SLC-41   United Launch Alliance
  USA-266 (GPS IIF-12) US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
7 February
00:21:07
  Soyuz-2.1b / Fregat   Plesetsk Site 43/4   RVSN RF
  Kosmos 2514 (GLONASS-M 751) VKS Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
7 February
00:30
  Unha   Sohae   KCST
  Kwangmyŏngsŏng-4[12] KCST Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
10 February
11:40:32
  Delta IV M+ (5,2)   Vandenberg SLC-6   United Launch Alliance
  USA-267 / NROL-45 / Topaz-4[13] NRO Retrograde LEO Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
Spacecraft launched in a retrograde orbit
16 February
17:57:40
  Rokot / Briz-KM   Plesetsk Site 133/3   /   Eurockot
  Sentinel-3A ESA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
17 February
08:45:00
  H-IIA 202 F30   Tanegashima LA-Y1   MHI
    Hitomi (ASTRO-H) JAXA / NASA Low Earth X-ray astronomy In orbit Spacecraft failure
  ChubuSat-2 Nagoya University Low Earth Radiation / Amateur radio In orbit Operational
  ChubuSat-3 MHI Low Earth Remote sensing / Space debris monitor In orbit Operational
  Horyu-4 Kyushu Institute of Technology Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Hitomi malfunctioned after initial checkouts, and is believed to have lost attitude control and snapped off its solar array. 28 April, JAXA has abandoned efforts to recover the spacecraft.[14][15]

MarchEdit

4 March
23:35:00
  Falcon 9 Full Thrust F9-022   Cape Canaveral SLC-40   SpaceX
  SES-9 SES S.A. Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
High-velocity landing test ended with a hard landing on the drone ship Of Course I Still Love You and destruction of the first stage.
9 March
05:20:07
  Ariane 5 ECA VA229   Kourou ELA-3   Arianespace
  Eutelsat 65 West A Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
10 March
10:31:00
  PSLV-XL C32   Satish Dhawan SLP   ISRO
  IRNSS-1F ISRO Geosynchronous Navigation In orbit Operational
13 March
18:56:00
  Soyuz-2.1b   Baikonur Site 31/6   Roscosmos
  Resurs-P No.3 Roscosmos Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
The launch succeeded on its second attempt after a rare pad abort the day before.
14 March
09:31:42[6]
  Proton-M / Briz-M   Baikonur Site 200/39   Khrunichev
  /   ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter ESA Areocentric orbit Mars orbiter In orbit Operational
  Schiaparelli EDM lander ESA TMI to Martian Surface Mars lander 19 October 2016 Landing failure
Briz-M upper stage exploded after separation, apparently without damaging the orbiter or lander.[16]
18 March
21:26:38
  Soyuz-FG   Baikonur Site 1/5   Roscosmos
  Soyuz TMA-20M Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Expedition 47/48 7 September 2016
01:13
Successful
Crewed flight with three cosmonauts. Final flight of the Soyuz TMA-M variant
23 March
03:05:52
  Atlas V 401 AV-064   Cape Canaveral SLC-41   United Launch Alliance
  Cygnus CRS OA-6
S.S. Rick Husband
Orbital ATK / NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 22 June 2016
13:29
Successful
    Diwata-1 DOST / TU Low Earth Earth observation 6 April 2020[18] Successful
  Flock-2e' × 20 Planet Labs Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
  Lemur-2 × 9 Spire Global Low Earth Earth observation In orbit 8 operational, 1 failed to deploy
Anomaly in the mixture ratio control valve assembly, causing the Atlas V booster engine to cut off five seconds early, resulting in a longer-than-usual Centaur orbital insertion burn.[17]
Cubesats deployed from the ISS and the Cygnus spacecraft at a later date.
24 March
09:42:00
  Soyuz-2.1a   Plesetsk Site 43/4   RVSN RF
  Kosmos 2515 (Bars-M 2L) VKS Low Earth (SSO) Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
29 March
20:11:04
  Long March 3A   Xichang LC-2   CASC
  BeiDou IGSO-6 CNSA IGSO Navigation In orbit Operational
31 March
16:23:57
  Soyuz-2.1a   Baikonur Site 31/6   Roscosmos
  Progress MS-02 / 63P Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 14 October 2016
13:39
Successful
  Tomsk-TPU-120 Tomsk Polytechnic University Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Tomsk-TPU-120 is a CubeSat deployed into orbit from ISS by Russian astronauts spacewalk on 17 August 2017.[19]

AprilEdit

5 April
17:38:04
  Long March 2D   Jiuquan LA-4/SLS-2   CASC
  Shijian 10 CAS Low Earth Microgravity Science 18 April 2016
08:30
Successful
8 April
20:43:31
  Falcon 9 Full Thrust F9-023   Cape Canaveral SLC-40   SpaceX
  SpaceX CRS-8 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 11 May 2016
18:31
Successful
  BEAM Bigelow Aerospace / NASA Low Earth (ISS) Technology demonstration / ISS Assembly In orbit Operational
First stage landed successfully on drone ship Of Course I Still Love You for the first time, the second successful landing overall
25 April
21:02:13
  Soyuz-STA / Fregat   Kourou ELS   Arianespace
  Sentinel-1B ESA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  MICROSCOPE CNES Low Earth (SSO) Astrophysics In orbit Operational
  AAUSAT-4 Aalborg Low Earth (SSO) AIS ship tracking In orbit Operational
  e-st@r-II Polytechnic University of Turin Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
  OUFTI-1 Liège Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
28 April
02:01:21
  Soyuz-2.1a / Volga   Vostochny Site 1S   Roscosmos
  Mikhailo Lomonosov MSU Low Earth (SSO) Gamma-ray astronomy 30 June 2018 Satellite malfunction
  Aist-2D SSAU Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
  SamSat 218 SSAU Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration 4 March 2022[20] Spacecraft failure
First orbital flight from Vostochny Cosmodrome.
28 April
07:20:00
  PSLV-XL C33   Satish Dhawan FLP   ISRO
  IRNSS-1G ISRO Geosynchronous Navigation In orbit Operational

MayEdit

6 May
05:21:00
  Falcon 9 Full Thrust F9-024   Cape Canaveral SLC-40   SpaceX
  JCSAT-14 JSAT Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
First stage landed on Of Course I Still Love You drone ship, the third successful landing and the first landing with a payload to geostationary transfer orbit.
15 May
02:43
  Long March 2D   Jiuquan LA-4/SLS-2   CASC
  Yaogan 30 CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
24 May
08:48:43
  Soyuz-STB / Fregat   Kourou ELS   Arianespace
  Galileo FOC 10 ESA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
  Galileo FOC 11 ESA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
27 May
21:39:00
  Falcon 9 Full Thrust F9-025   Cape Canaveral SLC-40   SpaceX
  Thaicom 8 Thaicom Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
First stage landed on Of Course I Still Love You drone ship, the fourth successful landing and the second landing with a payload to geostationary transfer orbit.
29 May
08:44:35
  Soyuz-2.1b / Fregat   Plesetsk Site 43/4   RVSN RF
  Kosmos 2516 (GLONASS-M 753) VKS Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Spacecraft failure
Kosmos 2516 experienced a depressurization event in November 2020, which permanently disabled the satellite after four years in operation. It was replaced by GLONASS-K 705.[21]
30 May
03:17:04
  Long March 4B   Taiyuan LC-9   CASC
  Ziyuan III-02 CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  ÑuSat-1/-2
(Aleph-1 constellation)[22]
Satellogic Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational

JuneEdit

4 June
14:00:13
  Rokot / Briz-KM   Plesetsk Site 133/3   RVSN RF
  Kosmos 2517 (Geo-IK-2 No.12) VKS Low Earth Geodesy In orbit Operational
9 June
07:10:00
  Proton-M / Briz-M   Baikonur Site 81/24     International Launch Services
  Intelsat 31 / DLA-2 Intelsat / DirecTV Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
11 June
17:51:00
  Delta IV Heavy   Cape Canaveral SLC-37B   United Launch Alliance
  USA-268 (Orion NROL-37) NRO Geosynchronous Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
12 June
15:30:04
  Long March 3C/E   Xichang LC-3   CASC
  BeiDou G7 CNSA Geosynchronous Navigation In orbit Operational
15 June
14:29:00
  Falcon 9 Full Thrust F9-026   Cape Canaveral SLC-40   SpaceX
  Eutelsat 117 West B Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
  ABS-2A ABS Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Satellites were successfully delivered to orbit, first stage landing on drone ship failed.
18 June
21:38:39
  Ariane 5 ECA VA230   Kourou ELA-3   Arianespace
  EchoStar 18 EchoStar Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
  BRIsat BRI Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
22 June
03:56:00
  PSLV-XL C34   Satish Dhawan SLP   ISRO
  Cartosat-2C ISRO Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  BIROS DLR Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  BeeSat 4 TU Berlin Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
  GHGSat-D (Claire) GHGSat Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  LAPAN-A3 LAPAN Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  M3MSat CSA Low Earth (SSO) Communications In orbit Operational
  SkySat-C1 Terra Bella Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  Flock-2p × 12 Planet Labs Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  SathyabamaSat Sathyabama University Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  Swayam College of Engineering, Pune Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
24 June
14:30:00
  Atlas V 551 AV-063   Cape Canaveral SLC-41   United Launch Alliance
  MUOS-5 US Navy GSO Communications In orbit Operational in off-nominal but usable orbit[23]
25 June
12:00:07
  Long March 7 / YZ-1A Y1   Wenchang LC-2   CASC
  Next-generation crew capsule scale model CMSA Low Earth Technology demonstration
Flight test
26 June 2016
07:41
Successful
  Star of Aoxiang NPU Low Earth Technology demonstration 29 September 2016 Successful
  Aolong-1 CALT Low Earth Technology demonstration 27 August 2016 Successful
  Tiange-1 Low Earth Technology demonstration 27 August 2016 Successful
  Tiange-2 Low Earth Technology demonstration 24 August 2016 Successful
Maiden flight of the Long March 7 rocket and the first launch from the Wenchang Satellite Launch Center.[24]
29 June
03:21:04
  Long March 4B   Jiuquan LA-4/SLS-2   CASC
  Shijian 16-02 CNSA Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational

JulyEdit

7 July
01:36:40
  Soyuz-FG   Baikonur Site 1/5   Roscosmos
  Soyuz MS-01 Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Expedition 48/49 30 October 2016
03:58
Successful
Crewed flight with three cosmonauts. Maiden flight of the modernized Soyuz MS spacecraft variant.
16 July
21:41:45
  Soyuz-U   Baikonur Site 31/6   Roscosmos
  Progress MS-03 / 64P Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 1 February 2017
18:24
Successful
18 July
04:45:29
  Falcon 9 Full Thrust F9-027   Cape Canaveral SLC-40   SpaceX
  SpaceX CRS-9 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 26 August
15:47
Successful
Delivering the IDA-2 segment of the NASA Docking System. Second successful return to launch site and vertical landing of a first stage, demonstrated as part of a controlled descent test.
28 July
12:37:00
  Atlas V 421 AV-065   Cape Canaveral SLC-41   United Launch Alliance
  USA-269 (Quasar NROL-61) NRO Geosynchronous[25] Communications In orbit Operational

AugustEdit

5 August
16:22:04
  Long March 3B   Xichang LC-3   CASC
  Tiantong-1 01 CAST Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
9 August
22:55:25
  Long March 4C   Taiyuan LC-9   CASC
  Gaofen-3 CAST Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
14 August
05:26:00
  Falcon 9 Full Thrust F9-028   Cape Canaveral SLC-40   SpaceX
  JCSAT-16 JSAT Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
15 August
17:40:04
  Long March 2D   Jiuquan LA-4/SLS-2   CASC
  Quantum Experiments At Space Scale (QUESS)[26] CAS Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
  Lixing-1 CAS Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
  3Cat 2 UPC Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
19 August
04:52:00
  Delta IV M+ (4,2)   Cape Canaveral SLC-37B   United Launch Alliance
  AFSPC 6 / USA-270 / GSSAP #3 US Air Force Geosynchronous Space surveillance In orbit Operational
  AFSPC 6 / USA-271 / GSSAP #4 US Air Force Geosynchronous Space surveillance In orbit Operational
24 August
22:16:01
  Ariane 5 ECA VA232   Kourou ELA-3   Arianespace
  Intelsat 33e Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational[27]
  Intelsat 36 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
31 August
18:50:00
  Long March 4C   Taiyuan LC-9   CASC
  Gaofen-10 CAST Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation 31 August 2016 Launch failure

SeptemberEdit

3 September
07:00–09:00 (scheduled)[29]
  Falcon 9 Full Thrust   Cape Canaveral SLC-40   SpaceX
  AMOS-6 Spacecom Planned: Geosynchronous Communications N/A Destroyed prior to launch[28]
Launch pad explosion destroyed both the rocket and the satellite two days prior to scheduled launch, on 13:07, 1 September 2016 (UTC) (2016-09-01T13:07Z).[28]
8 September
11:20:00
  GSLV Mk II F05   Satish Dhawan SLP   ISRO
  INSAT-3DR ISRO Geosynchronous Meteorology In orbit Operational
8 September
23:05:00
  Atlas V 411 AV-067   Cape Canaveral SLC-41   United Launch Alliance
  OSIRIS-REx NASA Heliocentric Asteroid sample return In orbit Operational
Reached asteroid Bennu in December 2018. Scheduled to return to Earth in September 2023.
13 September
14:38:00
  Shavit-2   Palmachim   Israel Aerospace Industries
  Ofeq 11 Israel Defense Forces Low Earth Reconnaissance In orbit Satellite malfunction[30]
15 September
14:04:12
  Long March 2F/G T2   Jiuquan LA-4/SLS-1   CNSA
  Tiangong-2 CMSA Low Earth Space station 19 July 2019[31]
13:06
Successful
  BanXing 2 SAST Low Earth Technology demonstration 15 July 2019[32] Successful
Second Chinese space laboratory, BanXing 2 deployed 22 October
16 September
01:43:35
  Vega   Kourou ELV   Arianespace
  PeruSat-1 Peruvian Armed Forces Low Earth (SSO) Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
  SkySat x 4 Terra Bella Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
26 September
03:42:00
  PSLV-G C35   Satish Dhawan FLP   ISRO
  ScatSat-1 ISRO Low Earth (SSO) Meteorology In orbit Successful[33]
  Pratham IIT Bombay Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
  PISat PES University Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  Blacksky Pathfinder-1 BlackSky Global Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  Alsat-1N Algerian Space Agency Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  Alsat-1B Algerian Space Agency Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  Alsat-2B Algerian Space Agency Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  CanX-7 UTIAS Space Flight Laboratory Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration 21 April 2022[34] Successful
Final launch of the original Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-G configuration with S9 solid rocket motors.

OctoberEdit

5 October
20:30
  Ariane 5 ECA VA231   Kourou ELA-3   Arianespace
  NBN-Co 1B / Sky Muster II NBN Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
  GSAT-18 ISRO Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
16 October
23:30
  Long March 2F Y11   Jiuquan LA-4 / SLS-1   CASC
  Shenzhou 11 CMSA Low Earth Docking with Tiangong-2 18 November 2016
06:15
Successful
Crewed flight with two astronauts[35]
17 October
23:45
  Antares 230   MARS Pad 0A   Orbital ATK
  Cygnus CRS OA-5 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 27 November 2016
23:36
Successful
  Lemur-2 × 4 Spire Global Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
CubeSats were deployed from the ISS and Cygnus spacecraft at a later date.
19 October
08:05
  Soyuz-FG   Baikonur Site 31/6   Roscosmos
  Soyuz MS-02 Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Expedition 49/50 10 April 2017
11:20
Successful
Crewed flight with three cosmonauts

NovemberEdit

2 November
06:20:00
  H-IIA 202 F31   Tanegashima LA-Y1   MHI
  Himawari 9 JMA Geosynchronous Meteorology In orbit Operational
3 November
12:42
  Long March 5   Wenchang LC-1   CASC
  Shijian 17 CNSA Geosynchronous Technology demonstration / Space rendezvous In orbit Operational
Maiden flight of the Long March 5 rocket. Chinese state media claims Shijian-17 is a test of electric propulsion, though this is disputed by outside analysts tracking the satellite's unusual space rendezvous movements.[36][37]
9 November
23:42[38]
  Long March 11   Jiuquan   CASC
  XPNAV 1[39] CAS Low Earth (SSO) X-ray pulsar-based navigation In orbit Operational
  Xiaoxiang 1[40] Changsha Gaoxinqu Tianyi Research Institute Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
  Lishui 1-01 Zhejiang LiTong Electronic Technology Co. Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  Pina-2 × 2 Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
11 November
18:30
  Atlas V 401 AV-062   Vandenberg SLC-3E   United Launch Alliance
  WorldView-4 DigitalGlobe Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation 30 November 2021
05:20[42]
Spacecraft failure
  CELTEE 1 M42 Technologies Low Earth (SSO) Calibration In orbit Operational
  Prometheus-2 × 2 LANL Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
  AeroCube 8 × 2 Aerospace Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
  OptiCube 4 NASA Orbital Debris Program Office Low Earth (SSO) Calibration In orbit Operational
  RAVAN JHU/APL Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration / Earth observation In orbit Operational
CubeSats deployed after WorldView-4 separation as part of NRO-sponsored ENTERPRISE mission. WorldView-4 experienced a failure in one of its control moment gyroscopes in January 2019, making the spacecraft unrecoverable.[41]
11 November
23:14
  Long March 2D   Jiuquan LA-4/SLS-2   CASC
  Yunhai-1 SAST Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
17 November
13:06:48
  Ariane 5 ES VA233   Kourou ELA-3   Arianespace
  Galileo FOC 7 ESA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
  Galileo FOC 12 ESA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
  Galileo FOC 13 ESA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
  Galileo FOC 14 ESA Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
First Galileo launch with Ariane 5 (8th overall), carrying Antonianna, Lisa, Kimberley, and Tijmen.
17 November
20:20:14
  Soyuz-FG   Baikonur Site 1/5   Roscosmos
  Soyuz MS-03 Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) Expedition 50/51/52 2 June 2017 Successful
Crewed flight with three cosmonauts. Peggy Whitson's mission was prolonged over Expedition 52 until September 2017.
19 November
23:42:00
  Atlas V 541 AV-069   Cape Canaveral SLC-41   United Launch Alliance
  GOES-R (GOES-16) NASA / NOAA Geosynchronous Meteorology In orbit Operational
22 November
15:24:04
  Long March 3C/E   Xichang LC-2   CASC
  Tianlian I-04 CNSA Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational

DecemberEdit

1 December
14:52
  Soyuz-U   Baikonur Site 1/5   Roscosmos
  Progress MS-04 / 65P Roscosmos Planned: Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 1 December Launch failure
5 December
13:51:44
  Vega   Kourou ELV   Arianespace
  Göktürk-1 Turkish Armed Forces Low Earth (SSO) Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
7 December
04:54
  PSLV-XL C36   Satish Dhawan FLP   ISRO
  Resourcesat-2A ISRO Low Earth (SSO) Remote sensing In orbit Operational
7 December
23:53
  Delta IV M+ (5,4)   Cape Canaveral SLC-37B   United Launch Alliance
  USA-272 / WGS-8 US Air Force Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
9 December
13:26:47
  H-IIB F6   Tanegashima LA-Y2   MHI
  HTV-6 JAXA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 5 February 2017
15:06
Successful
  EGG UTokyo Low Earth Technology demonstration / Re-entry Demonstration 15 May 2017[48] Successful
  TuPOD GAUSS Srl Low Earth TubeSat Deployment / Amateur radio 8 September 2017[49] Successful
 /  AOBA-VELOX 3 NTU / Kyutech Low Earth Technology demonstration 1 November 2018[50] Successful
  STARS C Kagawa University Low Earth Technology demonstration 3 March 2018[51] Successful
  FREEDOM Nakashimada Engineering Works / Tohoku University Low Earth Technology demonstration 5 February 2017[52] Successful
  ITF-2 University of Tsukuba Low Earth Technology demonstration 3 January 2019[53] Successful
  Waseda-SAT 3 Waseda University Low Earth Technology demonstration 6 October 2018[54] Successful
  OSNSAT Open Space Network Low Earth Technology demonstration 11 January 2018[55] Successful
  Tancredo-1 Escola Municipal Presidente Tancredo de Almeida Neves/INPE Low Earth Technology demonstration 18 October 2017[56] Successful
  TechEdSat 5 SJSU/UI Low Earth Technology demonstration 29 July 2017[57] Successful
  Lemur-2 × 4 Spire Global Low Earth AIS First: 15 April 2018[58]
Last: 5 December 2018[59]
Successful
CubeSats to be deployed at a later date. Tancredo-1 and OSNSAT are carried inside TuPOD and to be deployed from it. STARS-C was deployed on 19 December 2016. ITF-2, WASEDA-SAT3, FREEDOM, EGG, AOBA-Velox III, and TuPOD were deployed on 16 January 2017.[43] Tancredo-1 and OSNSAT were released from TuPOD on 19 January 2017.[44] Lemur-2 and TechEdSat-5 were deployed on 6–7 March 2017.[45][46][47]
10 December
16:11:00
  Long March 3B   Xichang LC-3   CASC
  Fengyun 4A CMA Geosynchronous Meteorology In orbit Operational
15 December
13:37:21
  Pegasus-XL   Stargazer, Cape Canaveral   Orbital ATK
  CYGNSS x 8 NASA Low Earth Meteorology In orbit Operational
18 December
19:13
  Atlas V 431 AV-071   Cape Canaveral SLC-41   United Launch Alliance
  EchoStar 19 HughesNet Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
20 December
11:00
  Epsilon Epsilon-2[60]   Uchinoura   JAXA
  Arase (ERG) JAXA Medium Earth (elliptical) Magnetospherics In orbit Operational
21 December
19:22
  Long March 2D   Jiuquan LA-4/SLS-2   CASC
  TanSat[61] CAS Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
  Spark x 2 CAS Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
21 December
20:30
  Ariane 5 ECA VA234   Kourou ELA-3   Arianespace
  Star One D1 Star One Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
  JCSAT-15 JSAT Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
28 December
03:23:56
  Long March 2D   Taiyuan   CASC
  SuperView / Gaojing-1 01 Beijing Space View Technology Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Partial launch failure;
Operational
  SuperView / Gaojing-1 02 Beijing Space View Technology Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Partial launch failure;
Operational
  Bayi Kepu 1 China Association for Science and Technology Low Earth (SSO) Technology demonstration 18 February 2017[63] Partial launch failure;
Successful
Launch vehicle problem deployed satellites in a lower than planned orbit. SuperView satellites raising their own orbits, but CubeSats cannot so may have short lifespan.[62]

Suborbital flightsEdit

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks
15 January
03:00:00
  S-310   Uchinoura   JAXA
  TPU / TU / TU / KU / JAXA Suborbital Ionospheric research 15 January Successful
Apogee: 161 kilometres (100 mi)[64]
22 January   New Shepard   Corn Ranch   Blue Origin
  New Shepard crew capsule Blue Origin Suborbital Test flight 22 January Successful
Apogee: 101.7 kilometres (63.2 mi)[65]
23 January
08:30
  VSB-30   Esrange   EuroLaunch
  /   TEXUS-53 DLR / ESA Suborbital Microgravity 23 January Successful
Apogee: 252 kilometres (157 mi)
28 January   SRALT?   C-17, Pacific Ocean   MDA
MDA Suborbital ABM target 28 January Successful
Apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi), CTV-02+ target
28 January   Ground Based Interceptor   Vandenberg LF-23   MDA
MDA Suborbital ABM test 28 January Successful
CTV-02+, successful test flight, the CE-II kill vehicle performed scripted maneuvers to demonstrate performance of alternate divert thrusters. Upon entering terminal phase, the kill vehicle initiated a planned burn sequence to evaluate the alternate divert thrusters until fuel was exhausted, intentionally precluding an intercept.
2 February
21:09
  VS-30   Esrange   SSC
  SPIDER/LEEWAVES SSC Suborbital Technology 2 February Successful
Apogee: 138 kilometres (86 mi)
21 February
07:34
  LGM-30G Minuteman III   Vandenberg LF-09   US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Test flight 21 February Successful
GT217GM, Apogee: ~1,300 kilometres (810 mi) ?
22 February
04:15
  Black Brant IX   White Sands   NASA
  CHESS-2 LASP Suborbital Astronomy 22 February Successful
Apogee: 309 kilometres (192 mi)
26 February
07:01
  LGM-30G Minuteman III   Vandenberg LF-10   US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Test flight 26 February Successful
GT218GM, Apogee: ~1,300 kilometres (810 mi) ?
1 March
14:50
  Terrier Malemute   Wallops Island   NASA
  MUSIC West Virginia University Suborbital Technology experiments 1 March Successful
Apogee: ~185 kilometers (115 mi)[66]
7 March
12:05
  Terrier Orion   Wallops Island   NASA
  SOAREX-9 NASA Ames Suborbital Technology experiment 7 March Successful
  RadPC Montana State University Suborbital Technology experiment 7 March Successful
  VIP Controlled Dynamics Suborbital Technology experiment 7 March Successful
Apogee: ~159 kilometers (99 mi)
7 March   K-4   Visakhapatnam   Indian Navy
Indian Navy Suborbital Missile test 7 March Successful
Apogee: 500 km?
8 March  Shahab-3  Iran  IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test 8 March Successful
Apogee: ~150 kilometres (93 mi)
14 March   Agni-I   Integrated Test Range   IDRDL
IDRDL Suborbital Missile test 14 March Successful
Apogee: ~500 kilometres (310 mi)?
14 March   UGM-133 Trident II D5   Submarine, ETR   US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 14 March Successful
Follow-on Commander's Evaluation Test 52
15 March   UGM-133 Trident II D5   Submarine, ETR   US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 15 March Successful
Follow-on Commander's Evaluation Test 52
16 March   UGM-133 Trident II D5   Submarine, ETR   US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 16 March Successful
Follow-on Commander's Evaluation Test 52
31 March   K-4   INS Arihant   Indian Navy
Indian Navy Suborbital Missile test 31 March Successful
First K-4 launch from a submarine[67]
2 April
15:18
  New Shepard   Corn Ranch   Blue Origin
  New Shepard crew capsule Blue Origin Suborbital Test flight 2 April Successful
  BORE Southwest Research Institute Suborbital Microgravity experiment 2 April Successful
  COLLIDE University of Central Florida Suborbital Microgravity experiment 2 April Successful
Apogee: 103.8 kilometers (64.5 mi). Third successful booster landing of the same rocket.[68]
19 April
06:41
  UR-100NU   Yasniy   RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 19 April Successful
Yu-71 Hypersonic Vehicle Test, Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)?
26 April
17:00
  Tianying 3F   Hainan   CNSA
  Kunpeng-1B CSSAR Suborbital Environment monitoring 26 April Successful
Apogee: 316 kilometres (196 mi)
18 May
00:45
  VS-30/Improved Orion   Woomera Test Range   DSTO
  HiFire-5B DSTO Suborbital Technology 18 May Successful
Apogee: 278 kilometres (173 mi)
18 May
07:02
  MRBM-T3   Kauai   MDA
MDA Suborbital Radar target 18 May Successful
Medium Range Ballistic Missile Target, Aegis radar target FTX-21, apogee: 300 kilometres (190 mi)?
25 May   RIM-161 Standard Missile 3-IB  USS Hopper, Kauai  US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Test flight 25 May Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)?
26 May   RIM-161 Standard Missile 3-IB  USS Hopper, Kauai  US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Test flight 26 May Successful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)?
1 June
19:00
  Black Brant IX   White Sands   NASA
  EVE CU Boulder Suborbital SDO calibration 1 June Successful
Apogee: 290 kilometres (180 mi)
19 June
14:35
  New Shepard   Corn Ranch   Blue Origin
  New Shepard crew capsule Blue Origin Suborbital Test flight 19 June Successful
  Capillary Flow Experiment Purdue University School of Aeronautics and Astronautics Suborbital Microgravity experiment 19 June Successful
  EITIC Louisiana State University Suborbital Microgravity experiment 19 June Successful
  MEDEA Braunschweig University of Technology Suborbital Microgravity experiment 19 June Successful
Apogee: 101 kilometers (62.8 mi). Fourth successful booster landing of the same rocket.
24 June
10:06
  Terrier Improved Orion   Wallops Island   NASA
  RockOn/RockSat-C CU Boulder Suborbital Student experiments 24 June Successful
Apogee: ~119 kilometres (74 mi)
30 June
09:43
  Improved Malemute   Andøya   Andøya
  MaxiDusty 1 Oslo/Andøya Suborbital Atmospheric Science 30 June Successful
Apogee: 115 kilometres (71 mi)
? June  UGM-133 Trident II D5  HMS Vengeance   Royal Navy
Royal Navy Suborbital Missile test ? June Launch failure
1 July
07:18
  M51   Le Triomphant, Audierne Bay   DGA/Marine nationale
DGA/Marine nationale Suborbital Test flight 1 July Successful
Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)?
8 July
13:01
  Improved Malemute   Andøya   Andøya
  MaxiDusty 1b Oslo/Andøya Suborbital Atmospheric Science 8 July Successful
Apogee: 117 kilometres (73 mi)
11 July   Khorramshahr   Semnan   AFIRI
AFIRI Suborbital Missile test 11 July Launch failure
19 July
04:05
  Terrier Improved Orion   Esrange   DLR
  ROTEX-T DLR Suborbital Technology 19 July Successful
Apogee: 182 kilometres (113 mi)
27 July
18:26
  Black Brant IX   White Sands   NASA
  Hi-C NASA/MSFC Suborbital Solar research 27 July Spacecraft failure
Apogee: 250 kilometres (160 mi)
17 August
11:33
  Terrier-Improved Malemute   Wallops Island   NASA
  Rocksat-X University of Colorado Boulder Suborbital Student Research 17 August Successful
Apogee: ~153 kilometres (95 mi)
25 August   RS-24 Yars?   Plesetsk   RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 25 August Launch failure
31 August   UGM-133 Trident II D5  USS Maryland, ETR   US Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 31 August Successful
5 September
09:10
  LGM-30G Minuteman III   Vandenberg LF-04   US Air Force
US Air Force Suborbital Test flight 5 September Successful
GT219GM, Apogee: ~1,300 kilometres (810 mi) ?
9 September   RS-12M Topol   Plesetsk   RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 9 September Successful
27 September   RSM-56 Bulava   K-535 Yury Dolgorukiy, White Sea   VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 27 September Successful
27 September   RSM-56 Bulava   K-535 Yury Dolgorukiy, White Sea   VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 27 September Launch failure?
The second missile self destroyed "after completing the first phase of the flight", maybe intentional. It appears to be a normal practice in salvo launches. The missile probably carried mockups instead of working upper stages and warheads to save money.
5 October
15:37
  New Shepard   Corn Ranch   Blue Origin
  New Shepard crew capsule Blue Origin Suborbital Test flight 5 October Successful
In-flight escape test 45 seconds after launch. Booster unexpectedly survived and reached an apogee of 93.7 kilometres (58.2 mi) before completing its fifth successful landing.
12 October   R-29R Volna   K-433 Svyatoy Georgiy Pobedonosets, Sea of Okhotsk   VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 12 October Successful
12 October   R-29RMU Sineva   K-407 Novomoskovsk, Barents Sea   VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 12 October Successful
12 October   RS-12M Topol   Plesetsk   RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 12 October Successful
25 October
08:58
  UR-100NU   Yasniy   RVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 25 October Successful
Yu-71 Hypersonic Vehicle Test, Apogee: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)?
22 November   Agni-I   Integrated Test Range   IDRDL
IDRDL Suborbital Missile test 22 November Successful
Apogee: ~500 kilometres (310 mi)?
6 December  Shahab-3  Iran  IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test 6 December Successful
Apogee: ~150 kilometres (93 mi)
8 December   B-611?   Shuangchengzi  PLA
PLA Suborbital ABM target 8 December Successful
Target
8 December   SC-19   Korla   PLA
PLA Suborbital ABM test 8 December Successful
Interceptor
15 December   MRBM FTM-27   Kauai   MDA
MDA Suborbital ABM target 15 December Successful
FTM-27 target, successfully intercepted by two SM-6 missiles in low altitude
15 December
16:15
  Zombi (ATACMS)   White Sands   NASA
US Army Suborbital Missile test 15 December Successful
Apogee: 80 kilometres (50 mi)?
26 December
05:35
  Agni V   Integrated Test Range Launch Complex IV   DRDO
DRDO Suborbital Missile test 26 December Successful
Apogee: ~800 kilometres (500 mi)

Deep space rendezvousEdit

Date (UTC) Spacecraft Event Remarks
14 January Mars Express Flyby of Phobos Closest approach: 53 kilometres (33 mi).[69]
15 January[70] Cassini 116th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 3,817 kilometres (2,372 mi).
31 January Cassini 117th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,400 kilometres (870 mi).
16 February Cassini 118th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,018 kilometres (633 mi).
4 April Cassini 119th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 990 kilometres (615 mi).
6 May Cassini 120th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 971 kilometres (603 mi).
7 June Cassini 121st flyby of Titan Closest approach: 975 kilometres (606 mi).
4 July[71] Juno Orbit injection around Jupiter (jovicentric) First solar-powered Jovian probe, second orbiter.
4 July Mars Express Flyby of Phobos Closest approach: 350 kilometres (220 mi).
25 July Cassini 122nd flyby of Titan Closest approach: 976 kilometres (606 mi).
10 August Cassini 123rd flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,599 kilometres (994 mi).
27 August Juno 1st perijove of Jupiter Closest approach: 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi).[72]
26 September Cassini 124th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,737 kilometres (1,079 mi).
30 September Rosetta Landing on 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko Probe was programmed to deactivate its thrusters and radio transmissions after landing.
19 October Trace Gas Orbiter (ExoMars 2016) Orbit injection around Mars (areocentric)
19 October Schiaparelli (ExoMars 2016) Landing on Mars, Meridiani Planum Probe entered Martian atmosphere intact, but contact was lost 50 seconds before expected landing.[73] NASA's MRO later identified the Schiaparelli crash site at coordinates 2°03′S 6°14′W / 2.05°S 6.24°W / -2.05; -6.24, confirming the loss of the lander.[74]
19 October Juno 2nd perijove Period Reduction Maneuver[75] originally planned, but delayed due to valve issues.[76] The maneuver was later cancelled entirely in favor of remaining in a 53-day orbit.[77]
13 November Cassini 125th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,582 kilometres (983 mi).
16 November Mars Express Flyby of Phobos Closest approach: 127 kilometres (79 mi).
29 November Cassini 126th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 3,223 kilometres (2,003 mi).
11 December Juno 3rd perijove

Extra-vehicular activities (EVAs)Edit

Start date/time Duration End time Spacecraft Crew Remarks
15 January
13:48
4 hours 43 minutes 18:31 Expedition 46
ISS Quest
Replaced a failed voltage regulator responsible for shutting down one of the station's eight power channels in November 2015, and routed cables in support of the installation of the International Docking Adaptor. EVA terminated two hours early due to water leakage in Kopra's helmet, but the primary task was accomplished.[78]
3 February
12:55
4 hours 45 minutes 17:40 Expedition 46
ISS Pirs
Deployed a commemorative flash drive, took samples of module exteriors, installed handrails for use in future EVAs, retrieved an astrobiology experiment, deployed a materials science experiment, and tested a tool for applying coatings to module exteriors.[79]
19 August
12:04
5 hours 58 minutes 18:02 Expedition 48
ISS Quest
The astronauts installed the International Docking Adapter (IDA) which was delivered by Dragon CRS-9, allowing future commercial crew spacecraft to dock with the station. This first IDA was attached to Harmony's forward port, over the existing Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA).[80][81] The EVA terminated after completing the primary objective, without completing the secondary objectives, due to a malfunction of the right earphone of Jeff Williams.
1 September
11:53
6 hours 48 minutes 18:41 Expedition 48
ISS Quest
The crew retracted a thermal radiator which is a backup, and then installed the first pair of several high-definition cameras to monitor the traffic around the station. Then they have performed some maintenance operations.[82]

Space debris eventsEdit

Date/Time (UTC) Source object Event type Pieces tracked Remarks
26 March 01:42[83] Hitomi Satellite breakup 10[84] JAXA lost communications with the freshly launched telescope during its early commissioning phase. Meanwhile, JspOC observed 5 then 10 pieces of debris diverging from the satellite, one of them comparably sized to the main spacecraft by radar signature.[85]

Hitomi itself went into a tumble and sent short intermittent communications. The tumble was caused by a failure of the inertial reference unit mistakenly reporting the spacecraft to be spinning. As the attitude control system attempted to correct the non-existent spin, the unnecessary correction itself is believed to have caused the subsuqent failures, ultimately leading to the loss of the spacecraft, 28 April. [86][87][15]

In a twist of fate, one of the secondary payloads traveling with Hitomi was ChubuSat-3, a microsatellite dedicated to monitoring global warming effects and space debris.[88]

1 June 09:20 [89] SL-12 R/B (#33473) Booster breakup 20+ [89] An ullage motor, part of a Russian Proton-M rocket that was launched in December 2008, exploded for unknown reasons.[90]

Orbital launch statisticsEdit

By countryEdit

For the purposes of this section, the yearly tally of orbital launches by country assigns each flight to the country of origin of the rocket, not to the launch services provider or the spaceport. For example, Soyuz launches by Arianespace in Kourou are counted under Russia because Soyuz-2 is a Russian rocket.

China: 22Europe: 9India: 7Israel: 1Japan: 4North Korea: 1Russia: 19USA: 22 
Country Launches Successes Failures Partial
failures
Remarks
  China 22 20 1 1
  Europe 9 9 0 0
  India 7 7 0 0
  Israel 1 1 0 0
  Japan 4 4 0 0
  North Korea 1 1 0 0
  Russia 19 18 1 0 Includes two European Soyuz launches from Kourou, French Guiana by Arianespace
  United States 22 22 0 0 +1 pre-launch failure (AMOS 6 / Falcon 9)
World 85 82 2 1

By rocketEdit

By familyEdit

By typeEdit

By configurationEdit

By spaceportEdit

5
10
15
20
25
30
China
France
India
Israel
Japan
Kazakhstan
North Korea
Russia
United States
Site Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Baikonur   Kazakhstan 11 10 1 0
Cape Canaveral   United States 18 18 0 0 1 Pre-launch failure
Jiuquan   China 9 9 0 0
Kourou   France 11 11 0 0
MARS   United States 1 1 0 0
Palmachim   Israel 1 1 0 0
Plesetsk   Russia 5 5 0 0
Satish Dhawan   India 7 7 0 0
Sohae   North Korea 1 1 0 0
Taiyuan   China 4 2 1 1
Tanegashima   Japan 3 3 0 0
Uchinoura   Japan 1 1 0 0
Vandenberg   United States 3 3 0 0
Vostochny   Russia 1 1 0 0 First launch
Wenchang   China 2 2 0 0 First launch
Xichang   China 7 7 0 0
Total 85 82 2 1

By orbitEdit

  •   Transatmospheric
  •   Low Earth
  •   Low Earth (ISS)
  •   Low Earth (SSO)
  •   Low Earth (retrograde)
  •   Medium Earth
  •   Geosychronous
    (transfer)
  •   Inclined GSO
  •   High Earth
  •   Heliocentric
Orbital regime Launches Achieved Not achieved Accidentally
achieved
Remarks
Transatmospheric 0 0 0 0
Low Earth 43 42 2 0 Including 11 to ISS (+1 failed), 1 to Tiangong-2
Geosynchronous / transfer 32 32 0 0
Medium Earth 8 8 0 0
High Earth 0 0 0 0
Heliocentric orbit 2 2 0 0 Including planetary transfer orbits
Total 85 83 2 0

ReferencesEdit

Generic references:
  Spaceflight portal
  • Bergin, Chris. "NASASpaceFlight.com".
  • Clark, Stephen. "Spaceflight Now".
  • Kelso, T.S. "Satellite Catalog (SATCAT)". CelesTrak.
  • Krebs, Gunter. "Chronology of Space Launches".
  • Kyle, Ed. "Space Launch Report". Archived from the original on 5 October 2009. Retrieved 13 August 2022.
  • McDowell, Jonathan. "Jonathan's Space Report".
  • Pietrobon, Steven. "Steven Pietrobon's Space Archive".
  • Wade, Mark. "Encyclopedia Astronautica".
  • Webb, Brian. "Southwest Space Archive".
  • Zak, Anatoly. "Russian Space Web".
  • "ISS Calendar". Spaceflight 101.
  • "NSSDCA Master Catalog". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • "Space Calendar". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  • "Space Information Center". JAXA.
  • "Хроника освоения космоса" [Chronicle of space exploration]. CosmoWorld (in Russian).

Notes

  1. ^ Clockwise from top:

Citations

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  39. ^<