2S25 Sprut-SD


The 2S25 Sprut-SD (Russian: 2С25 «Спрут-СД»; 2S25 "Kraken-SD") is a self-propelled tank destroyer or light tank developed and manufactured by the Volgograd Tractor Plant to meet the requirements of the VDV.[2] In mid-2001, the Volgograd tractor plant revealed that the development of the 2S25 had lasted several years.[3]

2S25 Sprut-SD
2008 Moscow Victory Day Parade (59-18).jpg
2S25 Sprut-SD at the 2008 Moscow Victory Day parade
TypeLight tank
Self-propelled amphibious tank destroyer
Place of originRussia
Service history
In service2005−present[1]
Used byRussia
Wars2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Production history
ManufacturerVolgograd Tractor Plant
Produced2001-2010, 2018-present
Mass18 t (20 short tons; 18 long tons)
Length9.77 m (32 ftin) (gun forward)
7.08 m (23 ft 3 in) (chassis)
Width3.15 m (10 ft 4 in)
Height2.72 m (8 ft 11 in)

ArmorTurret – Welded steel
Hull – Aluminium alloy with composite skin
125 mm 2A75 smoothbore gun
7.62 mm PKT coaxial machine gun
Engine2V-06-2S water cooled diesel engine
510 hp (380 kW)
Power/weight28.3 hp/tonne (21.1 kW/tonne)
SuspensionHydropneumatic suspension with variable height control (190 mm−590 mm)
500 km (310 mi)
Maximum speed 70 km/h (43 mph) (road)
45 km/h (28 mph) (off-road)
10 km/h (6.2 mph) (water)

The Sprut-SD is designed to defeat tanks, hard-skinned material and enemy manpower by airborne and amphibious landing forces, as well as by specially designated units of ground forces. Its main armament, the 2A75, is capable of firing APFSDS, HE-Frag, HEAT and ATGM ammunition.[4] This allows the 2S25 firepower to be as powerful as a main battle tank and as maneuverable and amphibious as airborne infantry combat vehicles. The 2S25 can be used by units of ground forces and naval infantry as a light amphibious tank. As of 2011 the only operators of the 2S25 are the Russian airborne troops with 24 of these vehicles in service.[2] The South Korean and Indian militaries have expressed interest in acquiring the 2S25 Sprut-SD.[5]


In the early 1990s, the Volgograd tractor plant created a new self-propelled tank destroyer based on a modified prototype light tank classified as Object 934.[1] The plant was also the designer and manufacturer of the BMD-1, BMD-2, BMD-3 and latest BMD-4 airborne combat vehicles that are used by the Russian Air Assault Divisions. After the completion of the chassis modification, it received the index "Object 952". The turret was developed in Yekaterinburg artillery plant number 9.[6] In mid-2001, it was stated that the Volgograd tractor plant had been working on the 2S25 for about seven years. Recent information has indicated that production of the BMD-4 airborne combat vehicle has been transferred to the Kurgan Machine Construction Plant, where production of the BMP-3 armored fighting vehicle and its variants are currently undertaken for the local and export markets. As far as it is known, production of the 2S25 self-propelled anti-tank gun is still being carried out at the Volgograd tractor plant. One of its first trials took place on May 8, 2001 on the "Prudboy" tank firing range located North Caucasian military district for the representatives of the power ministries of Russia and foreign military and diplomatic corps from 14 other countries of Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Africa and South America.[5]

According to Russian information, the Russian Army placed an initial contract for 15 2S25 SPATG in three batches of five vehicles each in 2005. This was followed by a second batch of 45 units with the total requirement being for up to 85–110 units.[3] However, there were only four batteries (24 vehicles) in service with the airborne forces as of 2009.[2] In 2010, the cancellation of further procurement was announced as well as the termination of release due to a fire caused by a fuel leakage on one of the vehicles after a military parade on Red Square.[7] The cancellation of further purchases was later denied by VDV commander Vladimir Shamarov in an interview with RIA Novosti military commentator Ilya Kramnik.[8] Serial production started in 2018.[9]


The 2S25 is based on the chassis of the BMD-3 Infantry fighting vehicle, which is also produced by the Volgograd tractor factory and is in service with the Russian airborne troops. Notable distinctions from the BMD-3 are the armament, the fire control system and the addition of two wheels to each side of the vehicle; which increases the number to seven on each side.[3] The crew is located at the front of the chassis. The turret and ammunition occupies the middle of the vehicle, while the engine-transmission compartment is towards the rear. The driver has a hatch on the front deck; the commander and gunner have hatches on the turret deck. In the stowed position, the commander sits to the right of the driver, while the gunner sits to the left.[10] Each crew member has available built-in roof observant instruments with the day and night channels.[10] Standard equipment includes an electronic NBC protection system to ensure survivability of the crew in case of nuclear fallout.[5]


The main armament of the 2S25 is capable of firing the same ammunition used by the T-72, the T-80 and the T-90.[11]

The 2S25 Sprut-SD is equipped with a two-man turret armed with a 125 mm anti-tank gun. The gun is fitted with an autoloader, which ensures the high rate of fire of 6−8 rounds per minute with both conventional projectiles and rounds with guided missiles.[4] It is completely stabilized in the vertical and horizontal planes and conducts fire with the same 125 mm separate case ammunition loadings that are used for the 2A46 smoothbore tank gun. With the fire control system featuring this stabilization of the elevation and azimuth, it also includes a laser rangefinder and a ballistic computer that provides ever-changing data about the target. The two-plane stabilization of the commander's sight is aligned with the laser sight for aiming the 125 mm shells onto the laser rangefinder.[3][5]

The main armament of the 2S25 is a 125 mm smoothbore 2A75 tank gun, which is a derivative of the 125 mm 2A46 tank gun installed on Russian main battle tanks.[12] The angles of elevation and depression for the anti-tank gun are +15° and −5° respectively. When aimed towards the stern of the vehicle, the elevation and depression of the gun changes to +17° and −3° respectively.[4] Given the need to install a gun to a substantially lighter chassis, designers created a new recoil device with a new ejector and thermal insulation jacket; it lacks a muzzle brake. The 2A75's ammunition includes laser guided missiles like the 9M119 Svir, which have a maximum range of 4 km, for defeating armored targets. Reloading the main gun is completed by means of a horizontal autoloader mounted behind the turret. It can carry 40 rounds for the main armament, with 22 ready to use in the autoloader. In case the autoloader is no longer intact, manual loading is possible at the cost of a substantially longer reload time.[10] A coaxial 7.62 mm PKT machine gun mounted to the left side of the main armament serves as the secondary armament of the 2S25; equipped with one tape of 2000 rounds.[11]


As of September 2013, the only operators of the 2S25 are the Russian airborne troops.

The weight of the 2S25 is 18 tonnes, which is comparable to that of infantry fighting vehicles. Like the BMD-3, the 2S25 features hydropneumatic suspension with a variable height clearance of 190–590 mm, which can be altered within 6–7 seconds to reduce visibility.[6] Hydropneumatic suspension provides high smoothness while driving and dampens recoil of the main gun. Suspension on each side consists of seven single rollers, four support rollers, rear wheel drive and a front-mounted steering wheel. There are hydraulic track adjusters in assistance for greater mobility. In the engine-transmission compartment, multi-fuel diesel engine 2V-06-2S installed, which develops a power of 510 hp (380 kW). It features an automatic transmission that has five gears forward and five gears reverse.[6]

While driving, the 2S25 can reach a top speed of 71 kilometres per hour (44 mph) on an even road; the average speed being 45−50 km/h (28-31 mph) when driving off-road. The vehicle exerts a ground pressure of 0.36 to 0.53 kg/cm² depending on the type of tracks.[6] It can overcome vertical obstacles as tall as 0.8 metres (2.6 ft) and cross 2.8 metres (9.2 ft) trenches. Like many other Russian armored fighting vehicles, the Sprut-SD is completely amphibious and moves with the help of two water jets that allow it to reach a speed of 8–10 km/h depending on the state of the currents. To increase the buoyancy, wheels are equipped with airtight chambers and powerful water pumps; extracting water from the lower chassis. The vehicle is sea worthy and can cross water obstacles without preparation in a sea state of up to 3. While waterborne, the 2S25 retains the capability of firing the gun within a ±35° sector towards the front of the chassis.[5]


The hull of the 2S25 self-propelled anti-tank gun is composed of welded aluminium armor with a composite skin to maintain a light weight.[3] Through the frontal arc, 40° left and right of the frontal armor provides protection against attack from 23 mm weapons at 500 m (550 yd) and against small arms fire and shell splinters through the remainder of the vehicle.[6] Two banks of three smoke-grenade dischargers are mounted towards the rear on each side of the turret as countermeasures to infrared weapons.[3]


"Sprut-SD" for airborne forces (equipped with parachutes)


Possessing a high power-to-weight ratio of 28.3 hp/tonne, the 2S25 can operate in high altitudes of up to 4000 m, while the installed rubber-clad shoes or snow-riding tracks expand the vehicle's capabilities in various climates.[4] According to the manufacturer, the 2S25 can also be employed as a light amphibious tank by rapid deployment forces, airborne, marine and special purpose units. With its low weight, it can become essential in mountains and swamps regions, where heavy equipment cannot travel. The 2S25 is designed to be parachuted from aircraft such as the Il-76 with the crew inside, allowing nearly immediate combat readiness upon landing to provide high firepower alongside paratroopers.[6]

The tank destroyer Sprut-SD is tasked specifically with seeking out and destroying enemy tanks and armoured fighting vehicles, whether from an entrenched position or actively hunting. The relatively large gun provided with such a mobile, airborne chassis allows paratroopers both significant fire support and sustained contact when engaging hard targets, such as entrenchments, fortifications and concrete structures (an often difficult task for airborne or light infantry). While amphibious, it can climb onto ships under its own power during a combat mission.[10]



  • Russian airborne troops – 24 vehicles were in service during 2009[2] with further orders being cancelled in 2010.[14] In 2013, the Russian airborne troops ordered a new 125 mm self-propelled gun to the replace 2S25, based on the BMD-4 chassis with a 2A46M-5 125 mm gun.[7]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c Авторский коллектив под руководством Панова В. В. [A team of authors under the leadership of V. V. Panov] (2007). "Противотанковая артиллерия [Anti-tank artillery]". Исторический очерк. 3 апреля 1947—2007 [Historical sketch. April 3, 1947-2007] (in Russian). Moscow: 3rd Central Scientific Research Institute, Ministry of Defence (Russia). p. 52.
  2. ^ a b c d "ВДВ планируют получить в ближайшие годы до 200 новейших боевых машин БМД-4М" [VDV plan to get 200 new BMD-4M combat vehicles in the coming years]. ARMS TASS (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "2S25 Sprut-SD Self-propelled anti-tank gun description & specifications". Army Recognition.
  4. ^ a b c d "Самоходная противотанковая пушка 2С25 «Спрут-СД»" [Self-propelled anti-tank gun 2S25 "Sprut-SD"]. Concern Tractor Plants (in Russian). Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  5. ^ a b c d e ""Спрут-СД" 2С25, 125-мм самоходная противотанковая пушка" [2S25 "Sprut-SD" 125-mm self-propelled anti-tank gun]. Arms Expo (in Russian). Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Tarasenko, Andrey. "2С25 «Спрут-СД»" [2S25 "Sprut-SD"]. btvt.narod.ru (in Russian).
  7. ^ a b "Russian army airborne troops ordered new 125mm self-propelled gun to replace 2S25 Sprut-SD". Army Recognition. 26 May 2013.
  8. ^ "Shamanov: Russian Airborne Troops ready to tackle combat missions". RIA Novosti. 2 August 2010.
  9. ^ "Первый серийный «Спрут-СДМ-1» будет выпущен в 2018 году" [The first "Sprut-SDM-1" will be produced in 2018]. TVZvezda (in Russian). 10 February 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
  10. ^ a b c d "2S25 Sprut-SD Self-Propelled Anti-tank Gun". Global Security.
  11. ^ a b "2S25 Sprut-SD Self-Propelled Anti-tank Gun Specifications". Global Security.
  12. ^ "Особое конструкторское бюро №9" [Special Design Bureau No.9]. Zavod9 (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 December 2012.
  13. ^ "Airborne to Receive Upgraded 'Sprut' Guns in 2017". Warmy. 20 January 2016. Archived from the original on 14 September 2020. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
  14. ^ ""Перспективная" бронетехника устарела раньше, чем стала в строй" ["Promising" armored vehicles are outdated before they became operational]. Kommersant (in Russian). No. 61. 4 August 2010. p. 3.

External linksEdit

  • "Russia pushes airdrop anti-tank gun". IHS Jane's 360.
  • "Self-propelled antitank gun SPTP 2S25 «Sprut-SD»". Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation.
  • "2S25 Sprut-SD". REDSTARS (in French). Archived from the original on 13 June 2010.