31 (number)

Summary

31 (thirty-one) is the natural number following 30 and preceding 32. It is a prime number.

← 30 31 32 →
Cardinalthirty-one
Ordinal31st
(thirty-first)
Factorizationprime
Prime11th
Divisors1, 31
Greek numeralΛΑ´
Roman numeralXXXI
Binary111112
Ternary10113
Octal378
Duodecimal2712
Hexadecimal1F16

In mathematicsEdit

31 is the number of regular polygons with an odd number of sides that are known to be constructible with compass and straightedge.

31 is the third Mersenne prime (25 − 1)[1] and the eighth Mersenne prime exponent, as well as the fourth primorial prime, and together with twenty-nine, a primorial prime, it comprises a twin prime. As a Mersenne prime, 31 is related to the perfect number 496, since 496 = 2(5 − 1)(25 − 1). 31 is also the 4th lucky prime[2] and the 11th supersingular prime.[3]

31 is a centered triangular number,[4] the first prime centered pentagonal number[5] and a centered decagonal number.[6]

31 is the eighth happy number.[7]

For the Steiner tree problem, 31 is the number of possible Steiner topologies for Steiner trees with 4 terminals.[8]

At 31, the Mertens function sets a new low of −4, a value which is not subceded until 110.

No integer added up to its base 10 digits results in 31, making 31 a self number.[9]

31 is a repdigit in base 5 (111), and base 2 (11111).

The cube root of 31 is the value of pi correct to four significant figures.

The numbers 31, 331, 3331, 33331, 333331, 3333331, and 33333331 are all prime. For a time it was thought that every number of the form 3w1 would be prime. However, the next nine numbers of the sequence are composite; their factorisations are:

  • 333333331 = 17 × 19607843
  • 3333333331 = 673 × 4952947
  • 33333333331 = 307 × 108577633
  • 333333333331 = 19 × 83 × 211371803
  • 3333333333331 = 523 × 3049 × 2090353
  • 33333333333331 = 607 × 1511 × 1997 × 18199
  • 333333333333331 = 181 × 1841620626151
  • 3333333333333331 = 199 × 16750418760469 and
  • 33333333333333331 = 31 × 1499 × 717324094199.

The recurrence of the factor 31 in the last number above can be used to prove that no sequence of the type RwE or ERw can consist only of primes because every prime in the sequence will periodically divide further numbers.[citation needed] Here, 31 divides every fifteenth number in 3w1 (and 331 every 110th).

In scienceEdit

AstronomyEdit

In sportsEdit

  • Ice hockey goaltenders often wear the number 31.[citation needed]

In other fieldsEdit

Thirty-one is also:

  • The number of days in the months January, March, May, July, August, October and December
  • The number of the date that Halloween and New Year's Eve are celebrated
  • The code for international direct-dial phone calls to the Netherlands
  • Thirty-one, a card game
  • The number of kings defeated by the incoming Israelite settlers in Canaan according to Joshua 12:24: "all the kings, one and thirty" (Wycliffe Bible translation)
  • A type of game played on a backgammon board
  • The number of flavors of Baskin-Robbins ice cream; the shops are called 31 Ice Cream in Japan
  • ISO 31 is the ISO's standard for quantities and units
  • In the title of the anime Ulysses 31
  • In the title of Nick Hornby's book 31 Songs
  • A women's honorary at The University of Alabama (XXXI)
  • The number of the French department Haute-Garonne
  • In music, 31-tone equal temperament is a historically significant tuning system (31 equal temperament), first theorized by Christiaan Huygens and promulgated in the 20th century by Adriaan Fokker
  • Number of letters in Macedonian alphabet
  • Number of letters in Ottoman alphabet
  • The number of years approximately equal to 1 billion seconds

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Sloane's A000668 : Mersenne primes". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
  2. ^ "Sloane's A031157 : Numbers that are both lucky and prime". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
  3. ^ "Sloane's A002267 : The 15 supersingular primes". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
  4. ^ "Sloane's A005448 : Centered triangular numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
  5. ^ "Sloane's A005891 : Centered pentagonal numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
  6. ^ "Sloane's A062786 : Centered 10-gonal numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
  7. ^ "Sloane's A007770 : Happy numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
  8. ^ Hwang, Frank. (1992). The Steiner tree problem. Richards, Dana, 1955-, Winter, Pawel, 1952-. Amsterdam: North-Holland. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-444-89098-6. OCLC 316565524.
  9. ^ "Sloane's A003052 : Self numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-05-31.

External linksEdit