3M made $35.4 billion in total sales in 2021, and ranked number 102 in the Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. As of 2021[update], the company had approximately 95,000 employees, and had operations in more than 70 countries.
Five businessmen founded the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company as a mining venture in Two Harbors, Minnesota, making their first sale on June 13, 1902. The goal was to mine corundum, but this failed because the mine's mineral holdings were anorthosite, which had no commercial value. Co-founder John Dwan solicited funds in exchange for stock and Edgar Ober and Lucius Ordway took over the company in 1905. The company moved to Duluth and began researching and producing sandpaper products.William L. McKnight, later a key executive, joined the company in 1907, and A. G. Bush joined in 1909. 3M finally became financially stable in 1916 and was able to pay dividends.
The company moved to St. Paul in 1910, where it remained for 52 years before outgrowing the campus and moving to its current headquarters at 3M Center in Maplewood, Minnesota, in 1962.
In 1951, DuPont purchased PFOA from then-Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company for use in the manufacturing of teflon, a product that brought DuPont a billion-dollar-a-year profit by the 1990s. DuPont referred to PFOA as C8. The original formula for Scotchgard, a water repellent applied to fabrics, was discovered accidentally in 1952 by 3M chemists Patsy Sherman and Samuel Smith. Sales began in 1956, and in 1973 the two chemists received a patent for the formula.
In the late 1950s, 3M produced the first asthma inhaler, but the company did not enter the pharmaceutical industry until the mid-1960s with the acquisition of Riker Laboratories, moving it from California to Minnesota. 3M retained the Riker Laboratories name for the subsidiary until at least 1985. In the mid-1990s, 3M Pharmaceuticals, as the division came to be called, produced the first CFC-free asthma inhaler in response to adoption of the Montreal Protocol by the United States. In the 1980s and 1990s, the company spent fifteen years developing a topical cream delivery technology which led in 1997 to health authority approval and marketing of a symptomatic treatment for genital warts, Aldara. 3M divested its pharmaceutical unit through three deals in 2006, netting more than US$2 billion. At the time, 3M Pharmaceuticals comprised about 20% of 3M's health care business and employed just over a thousand people.
3M traffic signals installed in Shelton, Washington. Standing off-axis from the intended viewing area, these signals are invisible to adjacent lanes of traffic in daylight. (A faint glow is visible at night.)
The same two signals above, taken in the signal's intended viewing area (a single lane of northbound traffic). Special light-diffusing optics and a colored fresnel lens create the indication.
3M Mincom was involved in some of the first digital audio recordings of the late 1970s to see commercial release when a prototype machine was brought to the Sound 80 studios in Minneapolis. In 1979 3M introduced a digital audio recording system called "3M Digital Audio Mastering System".
3M launched "Press 'n Peel" in stores in four cities in 1977, but results were disappointing. A year later 3M instead issued free samples directly to consumers in Boise, Idaho, with 95% of those who tried them indicating they would buy the product. The product was sold as "Post-its" in 1979 when the rollout introduction began, and was sold across the United States from April 6, 1980. The following year they were launched in Canada and Europe.
On its 100th anniversary, 3M changed its legal name to "3M Company" on April 8, 2002. On September 8, 2008, 3M announced an agreement to acquire Meguiar's, a car-care products company that was family-owned for over a century. In August 2010, 3M acquired Cogent Systems for $943 million and on October 13, 2010, 3M completed acquisition of Arizant Inc. In December 2011, 3M completed the acquisition of the Winterthur Technology Group, a bonded abrasives company.
As of 2012, 3M was one of the 30 companies included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average, added on August 9, 1976, and was 97 on the 2011 Fortune 500 list. On January 3, 2012, it was announced that the Office and Consumer Products Division of Avery Dennison was being bought by 3M for $550 million. The transaction was canceled by 3M in September 2012 amid antitrust concerns.
In March 2017, 3M purchased Johnson Controls International Plc's safety gear business, Scott Safety, for $2 billion.
In 2017, 3M had net sales for the year of $31.657 billion, up from $30.109 billion the year before. In 2018, it was reported that the company would pay $850 million to end the Minnesota water pollution case concerning perfluorochemicals.
On May 25, 2018, Michael F. Roman was appointed CEO by the board of directors. There are a few international subsidiaries such as 3M India, 3M Japan, and 3M Canada.
On December 19, 2018, 3M announced it had entered into a definitive agreement to acquire the technology business of M*Modal, for a total enterprise value of $1.0 billion.
In October 2019, 3M purchased Acelity and its KCI subsidiaries for $6.7 billion, including assumption of debt and other adjustments.
On May 1, 2020, 3M divested substantially all of its drug delivery business to an affiliate of Altaris Capital Partners, LLC., for approximately $650 million including a 17% interest in the new operating company, Kindeva Drug Delivery.
Products and patentsEdit
3M produces approximately 60,000 products, as of 2019, and has four business groups focused on safety and industrial, transportation and electronics, health care, and consumer products. 3M obtained its first patent in 1924, and acquires approximately 3,000 new patents annually. The company surpassed the 100,000-patent threshold in 2014.
3M's Pollution Prevention Pays (3P) program was established in 1975. The program initially focused on pollution reduction at the plant level and was expanded to promote recycling and reduce waste across all divisions in 1989. By the early 1990s, approximately 2,500 3P projects decreased the company's total global pollutant generation by 50 percent and saved 3M $500–600 million by eliminating the production of waste requiring subsequent treatment.
During the 1990s and 2000s, 3M reduced releases of toxic pollutants by 99 percent and greenhouse gas emissions by 72 percent. The company earned the United States Environmental Protection Agency's Energy Star Award each year the honor was presented, as of 2012.
In 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency began investigating perfluorinated chemicals after receiving data on the global distribution and toxicity of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). These materials are part of a broad group of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances often referred to as PFAS, each of which has different chemical properties. 3M, the former primary producer of PFOS from the U.S., announced the phase-out of PFOS, perfluorooctanoic acid, and PFOS-related product production in May 2000. Perfluorinated
compounds produced by 3M have been used in non-stick cookware, stain-resistant fabrics, and other products.
The Cottage Grove facility manufactured PFAS from the 1940s to 2002. In response to PFAS contamination of the Mississippi River and surrounding area, 3M stated the area will be "cleaned through a combination of groundwater pump-out wells and soil sediment excavation". The restoration plan was based on an analysis of the company property and surrounding lands. The on-site water treatment facility that handled the plant's post-production water was not capable of removing PFAS, which were released into the nearby Mississippi River. The clean-up cost estimate, which included a granular activated carbon system to remove PFAS from the ground water was $50 to $56 million, funded from a $147 million environmental reserve set aside in 2006.
In 2008, 3M created the Renewable Energy Division within 3M's Industrial and Transportation Business to focus on Energy Generation and Energy Management.
In late 2010, the state of Minnesota sued 3M for $5 billion in punitive damages, claiming they released PFCs—classified a toxic chemical by the EPA—into local waterways. A settlement for $850 million was reached in February 2018, although in 2019, 3M, along with the Chemours Company and DuPont, appeared before lawmakers to deny responsibility, with company Senior VP of Corporate Affairs Denise Rutherford arguing that the chemicals pose no human health threats at current levels and have no victims.
3M reported Total CO2e emissions (Direct + Indirect) for the twelve months ending 31 December 2020 at 5,280 Kt (-550 /-9.4% y-o-y) and plans to reduce emissions 50% by 2030 from a 2019 base year. The company also aims achieve carbon neutrality by 2050. 
3M's annual Total CO2e Emissions - Location-Based Scope 1 + Scope 2 (in kilotonnes)
The Combat Arms Earplugs, Version 2 (CAEv2), was developed by Aearo Technologies for U.S. military and civilian use. The CAEv2 was a double ended earplug that 3M claimed would offer users different levels of protection. Between 2003 and 2015, these earplugs were standard issue to members of the U.S. military. 3M acquired Aearo Technologies in 2008.
In May 2016, Moldex-Metric, Inc., a 3M competitor, filed a whistleblower complaint against 3M under the False Claims Act. Moldex-Metric claimed that 3M made false claims to the U.S. government about the safety of its earplugs, and that it knew the earplugs had an inherently defective design. In 2018, 3M agreed to pay $9.1 million to the U.S government to resolve the allegations, without admitting liability.
Since 2018, more than 140,000 former users of the earplugs (primarily U.S. military veterans) have filed suit against 3M claiming they suffer from hearing loss, tinnitus, and other damage as a consequence of the defective design.
Internal emails showed that 3M officials boasted about charging $7.63 per piece for the earplugs which cost 85 cents to produce. The company's official response indicated that the cost to the government includes R&D costs.
N95 respirators and the COVID-19 pandemicEdit
The N95 respirator mask was developed by 3M and approved in 1972. Being able to filter viral particulates, its use was recommended during the COVID-19 pandemic but supply soon became short. Much of the company's supply had already been sold prior to the outbreak.
The shortages led to the U.S. government asking 3M to stop exporting US-made N95 respirator masks to Canada and to Latin American countries, and President Donald Trump invoked the Defense Production Act to require 3M to prioritize orders from the federal government. The dispute was resolved when 3M agreed to import more respirators, mostly from its factories in China.
3M later struck a CA$70M deal with the federal government of Canada and the Ontario provincial government to produce N95 masks at their plant in Brockville, Ontario.
3M facility in St. Paul, Minnesota
3M's general offices, corporate research laboratories, and some division laboratories in the U.S. are in St. Paul, Minnesota. In the United States, 3M operates 80 manufacturing facilities in 29 states, and 125 manufacturing and converting facilities in 37 countries outside the U.S. (in 2017).
In March 2016, 3M completed a 400,000-square-foot (37,000 m2) research-and-development building that cost $150 million on its Maplewood campus. Seven hundred scientists from various divisions occupy the building. They were previously scattered across the campus. 3M hopes concentrating its research and development in this manner will improve collaboration. 3M received $9.6 million in local tax increment financing and relief from state sales taxes in order to assist with development of the building.
Newton Aycliffe, County Durham, UK factory producing respirators for workers safety, using laser technology. It has 370 employees and recently there was an investment of £4.5 million ($7 million).
In Minnesota, 3M's Hutchinson facility produces products for more than half of the company's 23 divisions, as of 2019. The "super hub" has manufactured adhesive bandages for Nexcare, furnace filters, and Scotch Tape, among other products. The Cottage Grove plant is one of three operated by 3M for the production of pad conditioners, as of 2011.
3M has operated a manufacturing plant in Columbia, Missouri since 1970. The plant has been used for the production of products including electronic components, solar and touchscreen films, and stethoscopes. The facility received a $20 million expansion in 2012 and has approximately 400 employees.
3M's Springfield, Missouri plant opened in 1967 and makes industrial adhesives and tapes for aerospace manufacturers. In 2017, 3M had approximately 330 employees in the metropolitan area, and announced a $40 million expansion project to upgrade the facility and redevelop another building.
In Iowa, the Ames plant makes sandpaper products and received funding from the Iowa Economic Development Authority (IEDA) for expansions in 2013 and 2018. The Knoxville plant is among 3M's largest and produces approximately 12,000 different products, including adhesives and tapes.
3M's Southeast Asian operations are based in Singapore, where the company has invested $1 billion over 50 years. 3M has a facility in Tuas, a manufacturing plant and Smart Urban Solutions lab in Woodlands, and a customer technical center in Yishun. 3M expanded a factory in Woodlands in 2011, announced a major expansion of the Tuas plant in 2016, and opened new headquarters in Singapore featuring a Customer Technical Centre in 2018.
The company has operated in China since 1984, and was Shanghai's first Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprise. 3M's seventh plant, and the first dedicated to health care product production, opened in Shanghai in 2007. By October 2007, the company had opened an eighth manufacturing plant and technology center in Guangzhou. 3M broke ground on its ninth manufacturing facility, for the production of photovoltaics and other renewable energy products, in Hefei in 2011. 3M announced plans to construct a technology innovation center in Chengdu in 2015, and opened a fifth design center in Shanghai in 2019.
3M's CEOs have included: Cross (1966–1970), Heltzer (1970–1975), Herzog (1975–1979), Lehr (1979–1986), Jacobson (1986–1991), DeSimone (1991–2001), McNerney (2001–2005), Robert S. Morrison (2005, interim), Buckley (2005–2012), Thulin (2012–2018), and Roman (2018–present).
3M's presidents have included: Edgar B. Ober (1905–1929), McKnight (1929–1949), Richard P. Carlton (1949–1953),Herbert P. Buetow (1953–1963), Cross (1963–1966), Heltzer (1966–1970), and Herzog (1970–1975). In the late 1970s, the position was separated into roles for U.S. and international operations. The position overseeing domestic operations was first held by Lehr, followed by John Pitblado from 1979 to 1981, then Jacobson from 1984 to 1991. James A. Thwaits led international operations starting in 1979. Buckley and Thulin were president during 2005–2012, and 2012–2018, respectively.
V. Huck, Brand of the Tartan: The 3M Story, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1955. Early history of 3M and challenges, includes employee profiles.
C. Rimington, From Minnesota mining and manufacturing to 3M Australia Pty Ltd (3M Australia: the Story of an Innovative Company), Sid Harta Publishers, 2013. Recollections from 3M Australia employees in context of broader organisational history.
United States Companies
^ ab"3M Birthplace Museum", Lake County Historical Society
^"It all started with a rock". 3M Australia. June 11, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2022.
^"3M appoints Michael Roman as CEO; Inge Thulin will take new position as executive chairman of the board". CNBC. March 5, 2018.
^"3M Company Profile". Vault.com. Vault.com. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
^Chamaria, Neha (October 24, 2018). "Why 3M Company Finds It Hard to Keep Up With Investor Expectations". The Motley Fool. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
^"3M U.S.: Health Care". Solutions.3m.com. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
^"Who We Are – 3M US Company Information". Solutions.3m.com. Archived from the original on September 13, 2008. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
^"3M Center, Maplewood 55144 – Google Maps". Google Maps. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
^"3M | 2021 Fortune 500". Fortune. Retrieved May 18, 2022.
^ abcdef"3M". Company Profiles for Students. Gale. 1999. Archived from the original on May 18, 2013. Retrieved October 4, 2012.
^"900 Bush Avenue: The House that Research Built: Early Years in Saint Paul". Saint Paul Historical. Historic Saint Paul. Archived from the original on March 1, 2017. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
^Prevedouros, Konstaninos; Cousins, Ian T.; Buck, Robert C.; Korzeniowski, Stephen H. (January 2006). "Sources, Fate and Transport of Perfluorocarboxylates". Environmental Science & Technology. 40 (1): 32–44. Bibcode:2006EnST...40...32P. doi:10.1021/es0512475. PMID16433330.
^Rich, Nathaniel (January 6, 2016). "The Lawyer Who Became DuPont's Worst Nightmare". The New York Times. Retrieved January 8, 2016.
^Emmett, Edward; Shofer, Frances; Zhang, Hong; Freeman, David; Desai, Chintan; Shaw, Leslie (August 2006). "Community exposure to Perfluorooctanoate: Relationships Between Serum Concentrations and Exposure Sources". Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 48 (8): 759–70. doi:10.1097/01.jom.0000232486.07658.74. PMC3038253. PMID16902368.
^"The Invention of Scotchgard". About.com. Retrieved August 21, 2006.
^"Inhalers become environmentally friendly". The StarPhoenix. Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Canadian Press. February 3, 1998. p. D3 – via Newspapers.com.
^Rainsford, K. D. (2005). "The discovery, development and novel actions of nimesulide". In Rainsford, K. D. (ed.). Nimesulide: Actions and Uses. Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag. p. 4. ISBN 978-3-7643-7068-8 – via Google Books (Preview).
^Slovut, Gordon (November 19, 1985). "Space Drug". Minneapolis Star and Tribune. pp. 1A, 11A – via Newspapers.com.
^Staff (October 12, 1996). "3M urges closer look at inhalers". Kenosha News. p. C6 – via Newspapers.com.
^Anderson, Jack; Moller, Jan (January 12, 1998). "Airing out the EPA, 3M inhaler scam". The Daily Chronicle (Opinion). DeKalb, Illinois. p. 4 – via Newspapers.com.
^"3M gets approval for warts treatment". La Crosse Tribune. Associated Press. March 4, 1997. p. B3 – via Newspapers.com.
^Hill, Charles W. L.; Jones, Gareth R.; Schilling, Melissa A. (2015). Strategic Management: Theory & Cases: An Integrated Approach (11th ed.). Stamford, Connecticut: Cengage Learning. p. C-322. ISBN 978-1-285-18448-7 – via Google Books (Preview).
^ ab"Drug units to fetch 3M $2.1 billion". The Philadelphia Inquirer (City ed.). Associated Press. November 10, 2006. p. D2 – via Newspapers.com.
^"Graceway Inc. acquires 3M's branded pharmaceuticals in $875 million deal". Johnson City Press. NET News Service. November 10, 2006. p. 7C – via Newspapers.com.
^ abTheatre Crafts, Volume 23, Issues 1-5. Rodale Press. 1989. p. 12. Retrieved September 15, 2020. Schaefer Applied Technology of Norwood, Massachusetts, has put Nextel Brand Simulated Blood back on the market. This stage blood developed by 3M, is based on colorfast red microbeads suspended in a carrier liquid, and contains no dyes, detergents, or sugar syrup, and will not cause staining or damage to existing dyes.
^ ab@3M (May 31, 2019). "Hi there – Thank you for reaching out! Unfortunately, Nextel simulated blood has pulled a permanent vanishing act. We're sorry to disappoint; hope there's no bad blood between us" (Tweet). Retrieved September 15, 2020 – via Twitter.
^Savini, Tom (1983). Grande Illusions: A Learn-By-Example Guide to the Art and Technique of Special Make-Up Effects from the Films of Tom Savini. Imagine, Inc. p. 43. ISBN 0-911137-00-9.
^"1978 3M Digital Audio Mastering System-Mix Inducts 3M Mastering System Into 2007 TECnology Hall of Fame". Mixonline.com. September 1, 2007. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
^Barnfather, Maurice (March 1, 1982). "Can 3M Find Happiness in the 1980s?". Forbes: 113–116 – via Google Books.
^ abFry, Art; Silver, Spencer. "First Person: 'We invented the Post-It Note'". FT Magazine. Retrieved December 20, 2010.
^ abStelter, Brian (December 24, 2010). "Right on the $800,000 Question, They Lost Anyway". The New York Times. Retrieved September 21, 2015.
^Szycher, Michael (September 4, 2018). Szycher's Practical Handbook of Entrepreneurship and Innovation. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-351-73636-7.
^"The Evolution of the Post-it Note". 3M. Retrieved February 13, 2010.
^"Timeline of 3M History". 3M. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
^"3M raises 1Q estimates". CNN Money. April 4, 2002. Archived from the original on June 12, 2002. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
^"3M to Acquire Meguiar's, Inc". Meguiar's Online. September 8, 2008. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
^Sayer, Peter (August 30, 2010). "3M Offers $943M for Biometric Security Vendor Cogent Systems". PC World. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
^"3M Completes Acquisition of Arizant Inc". 3M. Archived from the original on March 9, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
^"Fortune 500 2011: Fortune 1,000 Companies 1–100". Fortune Magazine. Archived from the original on January 2, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2020.
^"3M buys office supply unit of Avery Dennison for $550M". Minnesota Public Radio News. January 3, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
^Robinson, Will (September 5, 2012). "3M Drops Avery Dennison Unit Buyout Amid Antitrust Worry". Bloomberg News. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
^Anderson, Dennis (May 2, 2013). "3M to sell two fly-fishing businesses to Orvis". StarTribune. Minneapolis.
^"3M to buy Johnson Controls' safety gear business for $2 billion". Reuters. March 16, 2017. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
^"Why Is 3M Company (MMM) Down 6.1% Since its Last Earnings Report?". Yahoo. February 26, 2018.
^"3M will pay $850 million in Minnesota to end water pollution case". CNN. February 21, 2018.
^"3M COMPANY (NYSE:MMM) Files An 8-K Departure of Directors or Certain Officers; Election of Directors; Appointment of Certain Officers; Compensatory Arrangements of Certain Officers". Market Exclusive.com. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
^"3M Company and Consolidated Subsidiaries (Parent and Subsidiaries) as of December 31, 2016". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
^"3M to Acquire M*Modal's Technology Business". businesswire.com. December 19, 2018. Retrieved October 28, 2019.
^"3M Completes Acquisition of Acelity, Inc". 3M News | United States. Retrieved October 19, 2019.
^"3M Completes Sale of Substantially All of Its Drug Delivery Business". investors.3m.com. Retrieved April 26, 2022.
^Hufford, Austen (April 11, 2019). "3M Sticks Together, as Rivals Break Apart". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 21, 2020. But St. Paul, Minn.,-based 3M continues adding to its stable of 60,000 products and increasing its research budget...
^"3M to restructure business into four units". CNBC. March 18, 2019. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
^Alexander, Steve (May 9, 2014). "3M, the corporate inventor, surpasses 100,000 patents worldwide". Star Tribune. Retrieved January 21, 2020.
^"Target Lights Create Evolving Minneapolis Landmark". Minneapolis/St. Paul Business Journal. April 11, 2003.
^Holusha, John (February 3, 1991). "Hutchinson No Longer Holds Its Nose". The New York Times. Retrieved January 8, 2020.
^Oster, Patrick (January 23, 1993). "Going 'Green' and the Bottom Line". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 8, 2020.
^"Superfund Site: Oakdale Dump Oakdale, MN". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved July 18, 2017.
^Winston, Andrew (May 15, 2012). "3M's Sustainability Innovation Machine". Harvard Business Review. Retrieved January 8, 2020.
^Ullah, Aziz (October 2006). "The Fluorochemical Dilemma: What the PFOS/PFOA Fuss Is All About" (PDF). Cleaning & Restoration. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
^"PFOS-PFOA Information: What is 3M Doing?". 3M. Archived from the original on September 22, 2008. Retrieved October 25, 2008.
^ abFellner, Carrie (June 16, 2018). "Toxic Secrets: Professor 'bragged about burying bad science' on 3M chemicals". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
^ ab"Perfluorochemicals and the 3M Cottage Grove Facility". Minnesota Dept. of Health. December 15, 2011. Archived from the original on April 29, 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
^"Health Consultation: 3M Chemolite: Perfluorochemicals Releases at the 3M – Cottage Grove Facility Minnesota Department of Health, Jan. 2005" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2016. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
^"State's lawsuit against 3M over PFCs at crossroads". StarTribune. Minneapolis. January 13, 2014. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
^"Sustainability at 3M". 3M. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
^"3M Forms Renewable Energy Division". Renewable Energy World.com. February 4, 2009. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
^"Minnesota sues 3M over pollution claims". Reuters. December 30, 2010.
^Dunbar, Elzabeth; Marohn, Kirsti (February 20, 2018). "Minnesota settles water pollution suit against 3M for $850 million". MPR News. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
^Fellner, Carrie (June 15, 2018). "Toxic Secrets: The town that 3M built - where kids are dying of cancer". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved June 25, 2018.
^Holden, Emily (September 11, 2019). "Companies deny responsibility for toxic 'forever chemicals' contamination". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved October 10, 2019.
^van den Buijs, Dennis. "Schepen leefmilieu Zwijndrecht: "Verbod op het eten van eieren van eigen kippen staat zo goed als vast"" [Alderman for the environment of Zwijndrecht: "Ban on eating eggs from our own chickens is almost fixed"]. VRT (in Dutch). Retrieved June 10, 2021.
^"New guidelines to mitigate health risks for people living near Antwerp factory". The Brussels Times. June 15, 2021.
^van den Buijs, Dennis (June 15, 2021). "Burgeractivist in PFOS-dossier Thomas Goorden: "3M chanteerde Vlaamse regering met vertrek in 2017"" [Civilian activist in PFOS file Thomas Goorden: "3M blackmailed the Flemish government with departure in 2017"]. VRT (in Dutch).
^ ab"3M's Sustainability Report for 2020Q4" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 20, 2021. Alt URL
^"3M's Sustainability Report for 2020Q4" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 20, 2021. [Climate%20Goal,Total%20CO2e%20emissions%20(Scope%201%20%2b%20Scope%202)/2020Q4 Alt URL]
^"3M to Invest $1 Billion to Achieve Carbon Neutrality, Reduce Water Use, and Improve Water Quality". 3M News Center. February 16, 2021.
^"3M's Sustainability Report for 2018Q4" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 31, 2020. Alt URL
^"3M's Sustainability Report for 2019Q4" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2020. Alt URL
^"3M's Sustainability Report for 2020Q4" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 20, 2021. Alt URL
^"3M's Sustainability Report for 2020Q4" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 20, 2021. Alt URL
^"3M's Sustainability Report for 2020Q4" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 20, 2021. Alt URL
^"3M's Sustainability Report for 2020Q4" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 20, 2021. Alt URL
^Hinds, Haley (October 29, 2019). "Veterans sue 3M, claim faulty ear plugs caused hearing damage". FOX 13 News. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
^"Vets Tormented by Hearing Loss Face 3M in Earplug Mass Lawsuit". Bloomberg Government. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
^"3M to Acquire Aearo Technologies Inc., Global Leader in Personal Protection Equipment". 3M News | United States. Archived from the original on May 19, 2017. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
^"Contractor settles for $9.1 million after providing defective earplugs for servicemembers". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
^"3M Company Agrees to Pay $9.1 Million to Resolve Allegations That it Supplied the United States With Defective Dual-Ended Combat Arms Earplugs". www.justice.gov. July 26, 2018. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
^Cummings, Judith (March 5, 1978). "William L. McKnight, Who Built A Sandpaper Company Into 3M". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2019. He had retired as chairman of the board of 3M in 1966, but had continued to serve on the board and received the title of director emeritus in 1973.
^ abLukas, Paul; Overfelt, Maggie (April 1, 2003). "3M A Mining Company Built on a Mistake Stick It Out Until a Young Man Came Along with Ideas About How to Tape Those Blunders Together as Innovations--Leading to Decades of Growth". CNN Money. Retrieved August 28, 2019. When he became general manager in 1914, 3M was a $264,000 company; by the time he was made president in 1929, annual revenues were $5.5 million; in 1943, 3M generated $47.2 million, and by the time of McKnight's retirement as chairman in 1966, he had grown 3M into a $1.15 billion operation.
^ ab"Heltzer and Herzog Move to Top at 3M". Commercial West. 140: 17. August 22, 1970. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
^Berry, John F.; Jones, William H. (May 18, 1977). "Boxes of SEC Documents Reveal Secret Dealings". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
^ abMartin, Douglas (September 28, 2005). "Harry Heltzer, 94, Inventor of Reflective Signs, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2019. Nearly a third of that increase came after he rose from president to chairman and chief executive in October 1970.
^"3M Says Reputation Is Still Strong One". The New York Times. May 14, 1975. Retrieved August 28, 2019. Mr. Herzog was elected chairman at a board meeting after the stockholder session, succeeding Harry Heltzer. Mr. Herzog will continue as president and chief executive officer.
^ abSchmitt, Eric (February 11, 1986). "Business People; 2 Top 3M Posts Go to Domestic Head". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2019. The Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company announced yesterday that Allen F. Jacobson, president of the concern's domestic operations, had been named chairman and chief executive, effective March 1.
^ abHagerty, James R. (January 18, 2017). "Livio DeSimone, a Former 3M CEO, Dies at 80". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 28, 2019. He served as chairman and CEO from 1991 to 2001.
^ abLublin, Joann; Murray, Matthew; Hallinan, Joe (December 5, 2000). "General Electric's McNerney Will Become 3M Chairman". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
^ abDash, Eric (December 8, 2005). "3M Finds Chief Without Reaching for a Star". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2019. And yesterday, 3M named George W. Buckley, the low-profile leader of the Brunswick Corporation, as its new chairman and chief executive.
^ ab"3M CEO Buckley to retire; Thulin to succeed him". Reuters. February 8, 2012. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
^ abc"3M appoints Michael Roman as CEO; Inge Thulin will take new position as executive chairman of the board". CNBC. March 5, 2018. Retrieved August 28, 2019. Thulin has served as 3M's chairman of the board, president and chief executive officer since 2012.
^ abJensen, Michael C. (March 9, 1975). "How 3M Got Tangled Up in Politics". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2019. Bert S. Cross, who was chairman and chief executive of 3M from 1966 to 1970, and a board member thereafter, will not seek re‐election to the board where he serves as chairman of the finance committee.
^ ab"Herzog Shifts His Role at 3M". The New York Times. February 13, 1979. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
^Eccher, Marino (August 3, 2016). "For former 3M CEO Lew Lehr, mistakes were stepping stones". St. Paul Pioneer Press. Retrieved August 28, 2019. Lehr was chief executive of 3M from 1979 to 1986.
^Schmeltzer, John (July 1, 2005). "Quaker Oats ex-chief takes control at 3M". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
^Bustin, Greg (2019). How Leaders Decide: A Timeless Guide to Making Tough Choices. Naperville, Illinois: Sourcebooks. p. 41. ISBN 9781492667599. Retrieved August 28, 2019. At the May 1905 annual meeting, Over was named 3M's new president. Apart from one three-year break, Over served as president until 1929—the first eleven years without compensation.
^Byrne, Harlan S. (July 3, 2000). "A Changed Giant". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 28, 2019. The patient approach may have originated with W. L. McKnight, a legendary CEO who joined the company in 1907 and became president in 1929.
^Betz, Frederick (2011). 3M Diversifies Through Innovation. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p. 154. ISBN 9780470927571. Retrieved August 28, 2019. The award was named after Richard Carlton, president of 3M from 1949 to 1953.
^"Herbert Buetow, Manufacturer, 73". The New York Times. January 11, 1972. Retrieved August 28, 2019. He was president of 3‐M from 1953 to 1963 and retired from its board in 1968.
^"3M Names Heltzer President and Cross as New Chairman; 2 High Positions Are Filled by 3M". The New York Times. August 11, 1966. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
^"Raymond Herzog, Helped Start 3M Copier Business". Sun-Sentinel. July 23, 1997. Retrieved August 28, 2019. He was president of the company from 1970 until 1975, when he became chairman and chief executive.
^ abSloane, Leonard (August 17, 1981). "Business People". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
^Gilpin, Kenneth (November 5, 1984). "Business People; 3M Fills Top Post at Major Division". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2019. Mr. Jacobson... fills a post that has been vacant since the end of 1981, when John Pitblado retired.
^Dash, Eric (December 7, 2005). "3M Names Chief, Ending 5-Month Search". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to 3M.
Business data for 3M:
Google Local's satellite image of 3M head office campus
3M Global Company Profile from Transnationale.org
The historical records of the 3M Company are available for research use at the Minnesota Historical Society