M-71 - 3MS version
M-73 - 3MP version

The 4MV planetary probe (short for 4th-generation Mars-Venus probe) is a designation for a common design used for Soviet unmanned probes to Mars and Venus. It was an incremental improvement of earlier 3MV probes and was used for Mars missions 4 to 7 and Venera missions 9 to 16. The same base design was used for some earth-orbiting space observatories.[1]


The spacecraft bus has a height of 2.8 meters (9 ft 2 in) and a solar panel span of 6.7 meters (22 ft). The central section of the bus has a diameter of about one meter (3 ft 3 in) and contained propellant. The main engine (KRD-425A) is encircled by a conical instrument compartment with the diameter of 2.35 meters (7 ft 9 in) at the base.[2]


See also


  1. ^ "Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: 1". www.astronautix.com.
  2. ^ "Venera-9 and 10". www.russianspaceweb.com.