|Discovered by||J.R. Hind|
|Discovery date||18 October 1847|
|Main belt (Flora family)|
|Epoch 26 November 2005 (JD 2453700.5)|
|Aphelion||380.850 Gm (2.546 AU)|
|Perihelion||277.995 Gm (1.858 AU)|
|329.422 Gm (2.202 AU)|
|1193.549 d (3.27 a)|
|Proper orbital elements|
Proper semi-major axis
Proper mean motion
|110.205216 deg / yr|
Proper orbital period
Precession of perihelion
|32.016655 arcsec / yr|
Precession of the ascending node
|−35.510731 arcsec / yr|
|Dimensions||136 km × 136 km × 113 km|
145 km × 145 km × 120 km
|0.533 d (12.799 h)|
|7.9 to 11.6|
|0.21" to 0.053"|
Flora (minor planet designation: 8 Flora) is a large, bright main-belt asteroid. It is the innermost large asteroid: no asteroid closer to the Sun has a diameter above 25 kilometres or two-elevenths that of Flora itself, and not until the tiny 149 Medusa was discovered was a single asteroid orbiting at a closer mean distance known. It is the seventh-brightest asteroid with a mean opposition magnitude of +8.7. Flora can reach a magnitude of +7.9 at a favorable opposition near perihelion, such as occurred in November 2007. Flora may be the residual core of an intensely heated, thermally evolved, and magmatically differentiated planetesimal which was subsequently disrupted.
The name Flora was proposed by John Herschel, from Flora, the Latin goddess of flowers and gardens, wife of Zephyrus (the personification of the West wind), and mother of Spring. The Greek equivalent is Chloris, who has her own asteroid, 410 Chloris, but in Greek Flora is also called Chloris (8 Χλωρίς).
Flora is the parent body of the Flora family of asteroids, and by far the largest member, comprising about 80% of the total mass of this family. Nevertheless, Flora was almost certainly disrupted by the impact(s) that formed the family, and is probably a gravitational aggregate of most of the pieces.
Flora's spectrum indicates that its surface composition is a mixture of silicate rock (including pyroxene and olivine) and nickel-iron metal. Flora, and the whole Flora family generally, are good candidates for being the parent bodies of the L chondrite meteorites. This meteorite type comprises about 38% of all meteorites impacting the Earth.
During an observation on 25 March 1917, 8 Flora was mistaken for the 15th-magnitude star TU Leonis, which led to that star's classification as a U Geminorum cataclysmic variable star. Flora had come to opposition on 1917 February 13, 40 days earlier. This mistake was uncovered only in 1995.
On 26 July 2013, Flora at magnitude 8.8 occulted the star 2UCAC 22807162 over parts of South America, Africa, and Asia.
2008-04-14 last obs