Achada Plateau

Summary

The Achada Plateau (Portuguese: Planalto da Achada) is an extensive volcanic mountain range located on Pico Island, Azores. It is a protected area with many valuable features that characterize the Azorean landscape. It is included in two Natura 2000 sites, one of which is classified as an Important Bird Area.[4] Part of the plateau also includes a ramsar wetland. It is one of the three main geomorphological units that comprise Pico Island.[5]

Achada Plateau
Planalto da Achada
View of the plateau (left side) and the Topo Volcano (centered) from Mount Pico
View of the plateau (left side) and the Topo Volcano (centered) from Mount Pico
Coordinates: 38°27′32″N 28°16′34″W / 38.45889°N 28.27611°W / 38.45889; -28.27611Coordinates: 38°27′32″N 28°16′34″W / 38.45889°N 28.27611°W / 38.45889; -28.27611
RangeMid-Atlantic Ridge
Dimensions
 • Length30 km (19 mi)
Highest elevation
(1,072 m (3,517 ft)[1])
Caveiro
Last eruption1720 (Mistério da Silveira)[2]
Official namePlanalto Central do Pico (Achada)
Designated16 June 2008
Reference no.1807[3]

Location and geomorphologyEdit

 
Location of the plateau, east of Mount Pico

The Achada Plateau is located on the highlands of Pico, the highest and second largest island on the archipelago of the Azores. The extensive volcanic mountain range, located in the eastern half of the island at a mean altitude of 750 m (2,460 ft), stretches 30 km (19 mi) from Lagoa do Capitão (northeast of Mount Pico) to the easternmost part of the island. It is characterized by the steep slopes that limit it to the south and north and by the presence in the axial zone of the range of various volcano-tectonic alignments of cinder and spatter cones and eruptive fissures (typical of a basaltic fissural volcanism).[6]

The volcanic cones, totaling around 190, have very varied dimensions and shapes, usually with associated ʻaʻā-type drains, which flowed towards the coast. Some cones show craters (sometimes occupied by small ponds) that are multiple, elongated or have several eruptive mouths, which reflect the associated tectonics.[6]

BiomeEdit

 
Landscape of the plateau

The Achada Plateau is one of the most valuable natural sites on the Azores. It hosts one of the last intact remnants of the original temperate mixed forests that covered the archipelago before the arrival of humans and the following deforestation and introduction of exotic species. It is listed as an Important Bird Area, several birds species make home in the peat bogs, ponds and lakes of the formation.[7]

Part of the central plateau was designated a Ramsar wetland in 2008 due to its ecological importance.[3] Bodies of water include: Lagoa dos Grotões, Lagoa da Rosada, Lagoa do Paul, Lagoa do Landroal, Lagoa do Caiado, Lagoa do Peixinho and Lagoa Negra.[8]

The plateau is part of two Natura 2000 sites: The Special Conservation Zone of Mount Pico, Prainha and Caveiro; and the Special Protection Zone of the Central Zone of Pico.[9]

ClimateEdit

 
Road and cinder cone (Cabeço dos Grotões)

Due to its altitude, the plateau has a significantly different climate when compared to the rest of the island. According to Köppen, Achada has an oceanic climate, with cool to warm summers and chilly to mild winters. In the warmest month – August – temperatures vary between 19–20 °C (66–68 °F) at day to 12–13 °C (54–55 °F) at night and in the coolest month – January – from 10–11 °C (50–52 °F) at day to 6–7 °C (43–45 °F) at night.[10]

The area is subject to intense orographic lift which makes precipitation thoroughly abundant, humidity high (around 90%) and cloudiness persistent. It gets between 3,000 and 5,000 mm (120 and 200 in) of precipitation per year, making it the rainiest area in the Atlantic Ocean (though most of the precipitation is actually from drizzle).[10] There is a noticeably drier season in the summer, influence of its proximity to the Mediterranean Basin.[10]

FloraEdit

 
Native Macaronesian vegetation

The plateau is characterized by two types of landscapes:

BirdsEdit

The plateau is also an important area for many resident and migratory bird species, especially the Azores wood pigeon. Most commonly found are the Azores chaffinch, the common snipe, the Eurasian teal, the American wigeon, the ring-necked duck, the mallard, the American black duck, the snow bunting, the grey heron, the grey wagtail, the common buzzard, the Atlantic gull, the wagtails and the Eurasian woodcock. Less frequent specimens include the Western Azores goldcrest, the Eurasian wigeon, the Eurasian blackcap, the European robin, the Azores blackbird, and the Atlantic canary. Rare specimens include the northern pintail, the American bittern, the blue-winged teal, the American coot, the tufted duck, the Wilson's snipe, among others.[4][7][11][12]

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Pico Caveiro". PeakVisor. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  2. ^ "Sistema Vulcânico Fissural do Pico". www.ivar.azores.gov.pt. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  3. ^ a b "Planalto Central do Pico". Ramsar Sites Information Service. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  4. ^ a b "BirdLife Data Zone". datazone.birdlife.org. BirdLife International. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  5. ^ "Geomorfologia". www.cvarg.azores.gov.pt. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  6. ^ a b www.lavaimagem.net, Lavaimagem-Soluções Digitais. "Geoparque Açores - Planalto da Achada". www.azoresgeopark.com. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  7. ^ a b c Oliveira, Ana (2021-02-02). "As 13 Zonas Húmidas dos Açores - Sítios RAMSAR". Agenda Açores (in European Portuguese). Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  8. ^ "Ilha do Pico, seu próximo destino". TCAZZA (in European Portuguese). Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  9. ^ "Lista das áreas Rede Natura 2000 existentes nos Açores". www.azores.gov.pt. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  10. ^ a b c "Climate atlas of the archipelagos of the Canary Islands, Madeira and the Azores" (PDF). IPMA, AEMET. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  11. ^ "Lagoa do Caiado – Ilha do Pico". byAçores (in European Portuguese). 2020-02-17. Retrieved 18 May 2021.
  12. ^ "Lagoas e Planalto Central". Aves dos Açores (in European Portuguese). 2017-02-02. Retrieved 18 May 2021.