Sir Richard Tottenham, ICS had once expressed "In my opinion there is, or should be, no distinction of function, but only of pay between a joint and an additional secretary. Additional and joint secretaries should not be either chief secretaries or deputy secretaries."
Powers, responsibilities and postings
The organizational structure of a department of the Government of India.
Additional secretary is the overall in charge with the necessary measure of independent functioning and responsibility of the wing of the department allocated and entrusted to him. An additional secretary in charge of administration also exercises all administrative powers as head of the department wing of the ministry/department.
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Maheshwari, S.R. (2000). Indian Administration (6th ed.). New Delhi: Orient Blackswan Private Ltd. ISBN 9788125019886.