|Headquarters||Santa Clara, California, U.S.|
Number of locations
|Stephen Fodor, Frank Witney (CEO)|
|Revenue||US$327 Million (FY 2009)|
|US$-30.6 Million (FY 2009)|
|US$-23.9 Million (FY 2009)|
|Total assets||US$612 Million (FY 2009)|
|Total equity||US$288 Million (FY 2009)|
Number of employees
|Parent||Thermo Fisher Scientific|
Affymetrix is a brand of DNA microarray products sold by Thermo Fisher Scientific that originated with an American biotechnology research and development and manufacturing company of the same name. The Santa Clara, California-based Affymetrix, Inc. was founded by Stephen Fodor and his group, based on their earlier development of methods to fabricate DNA microarrays using semiconductor manufacturing techniques.[not verified in body]
After incorporation, Affymetrix grew in part by acquiring technologies from other companies, including Genetic MicroSystems (slide-based microarrays and scanners) and Neomorphic (for bioinformatics) in 2000, ParAllele Bioscience (custom SNP genotyping),[when?] USB/Anatrace (biochemical reagents) in 2008, Panomics (low to mid-plex applications) in 2008, and eBioscience (flow cytometry) in 2012.[verification needed] Affymetrix spun off Perlegen Sciences,[when?] as a discrete business focussing on wafer-scale genomics to characterize population-variance of genomic markers.[not verified in body]
In January 2014, the Food and Drug Administration approved Affymetrix's postnatal blood test, CytoScan Dx Assay, looking at whole-genome correlates of congenital abnormalities and other causes of childhood developmental delay.[verification needed]
Affymetrix, Inc. was founded by Stephen Fodor in 1992, and was based in Santa Clara, California, United States. It began as a unit in Affymax N.V. in 1991 under Fodor and his group. In the late 1980s, that group had developed methods for fabricating DNA microarrays, under the "GeneChip" Affymetrix trademark, using semiconductor manufacturing techniques. The company's first product, an HIV genotyping GeneChip, was introduced in 1994 and the company went public in 1996.
Affymetrix, Inc. made quartz chips for analysis of DNA Microarrays called GeneChip arrays, and sold mass-produced GeneChip arrays intended to match scientifically important parts of human and other animal genomes. Manufactured using photolithography, Affymetrix's GeneChip arrays assisted researchers in quickly scanning for the presence of particular genes in a biological sample. In this area, Affymetrix was focused on oligonucleotide microarrays, which could be used to address the presence of genes through detection of specific corresponding segments of mRNA. The single-use chips could be used to analyze thousands of genes in a single assay. The company also manufactured machinery for high speed analysis of biological samples, and its GeneChip Operating Software as a system for managing Affymetrix microarray data.
Prior to its acquisition by Thermo Fisher, and its becoming a line of its products, Affymetrix, Inc. had acquired the technologies of a number of companies. It acquired Genetic MicroSystems for slide-based microarrays and scanners and Neomorphic for bioinformatics, both in 2000, ParAllele Bioscience for custom SNP genotyping,[when?] USB/Anatrace for biochemical reagents in 2008,[verification needed] eBioscience for flow cytometry in 2012,[verification needed] and Panomics in 2008[verification needed] and True Materials[when?] to expand its offering of low to mid-plex applications. In 2000, Perlegen Sciences spun out from Affymetrix to focus on wafer-scale genomics for massive data creation and collection required for characterizing population variance of genomic markers and expression for the drug discovery process.
In January 2014, the Food and Drug Administration cleared a first-of-a-kind whole-genome postnatal blood test that can aid physicians in identifying the underlying genetic cause of developmental delay, intellectual disability, congenital anomalies, or dysmorphic features in children, where it was noted that "[a]bout 2 to 3 percent of U.S. children have some sort of intellectual disability, according to the National Institutes of Health." The test, known as CytoScan Dx Assay, was designed to diagnose these disabilities earlier to expedite appropriate care and support.