Alaouite dynasty

Summary

Alaouite dynasty
Alawite dynasty
سلالة العلويين الفيلاليين
Royal standard of Morocco.svg
CountryMorocco
Founded1631
FounderMoulay Ali Cherif
Current headMohammad VI
ReligionSunni Islam Maliki
Estate(s)Morocco

The Alaouite dynasty, or Alawite dynasty (Arabic: سلالة العلويين الفيلاليين‎, Sulālat al-ʿAlawiyyīn al-Fīlālīyn), is the current Moroccan royal family. Sharif ibn Ali became Prince of Tafilalt in 1631. His son Mulay Al-Rashid (1664–1672) was able to unite and pacify the country.

Centralised state

The organisation of the sultanate developed under Ismail Ibn Sharif (1672–1727), who, against the opposition of local tribes, began to create a unified state. Because the Alaouites had difficult relations with many of the country's Berber and Bedouin-Arab tribes, Isma'īl formed a new army of black slaves, the Black Guard. However, the unity of Morocco did not survive his death—in the ensuing power struggles the tribes became a political and military force once again.

During Muhammad III's reign (1757–1790) the kingdom was once again united and the administration reorganised. A renewed attempt at centralisation was abandoned, and the tribes were allowed to preserve their autonomy. Under Abderrahmane (1822–1859) Morocco fell under the influence of the European powers. After Morocco supported the Algerian independence movement of Emir Abd al-Qadir, it was attacked and defeated by the French in 1844 at the Battle of Isly and made to abandon its support.

European contact and the French protectorate

During the reigns of Muhammad IV (1859–1873) and Hassan I (1873–1894), the Alaouites tried to foster trading links, above all with European countries and the United States. The army and administration were also modernised to improve control over the Berber and Bedouin tribes. With the war against Spain (1859–1860) came direct involvement in European affairs. Although the independence of Morocco was guaranteed at the Treaty of Madrid (1880), the French gained ever greater influence. German attempts to counter this growing influence led to the First Moroccan Crisis of 1905–1906 and the Second Moroccan Crisis of 1911.

Eventually the Moroccans were forced to recognise the French protectorate through the Treaty of Fez, signed on December 3, 1912. At the same time the Rif area of northern Morocco was raised under Spanish control.

List of Alaouite rulers

From 1631 to 1666 the Alaouite dynasty ruled as princes of Tafilalt:

In 1666 Mulay Al-Rashid was proclaimed Sultan of Morocco at Fez:

Under the French protectorate (1912–1956):

From independence (1955 onwards):

Timeline

Mohammed VI of MoroccoHassan II of MoroccoMohammed V of MoroccoMohammed Ben AarafaMohammed V of MoroccoYusef of MoroccoFrench-Spanish ProtectorateAbdelhafid of MoroccoAbdelaziz of MoroccoHassan I of MoroccoMohammed IV of MoroccoAbderrahmane of MoroccoSlimane of MoroccoYazid of MoroccoMohammed ben AbdallahAbdallah of Moroccoal-Mostadi of MoroccoAbdallah of Moroccoal-Mostadi of MoroccoAbdallah of MoroccoZin al-Abidin of MoroccoAbdallah of Moroccoal-Mostadi of MoroccoMuhammad II ben Arbia of MoroccoAbdallah of MoroccoAli of MoroccoAbdallah of MoroccoAbu'l Abbas Ahmad II of MoroccoAbdalmalik of MoroccoAbu'l Abbas Ahmad II of MoroccoAlaouite Succession CrisisIsmail Ibn Sharifal-Rashid of MoroccoMuhammad ibn SharifMoulay Ali CherifKings of MoroccoSultans of MoroccoTafilalt

Family tree

Monarch Moulay Ali Cherif
Monarch Mohammed IMonarch IsmailMonarch Rachid
Monarch AhmadMonarch Abdul MalekMonarch Abdallah IIMonarch Mohammed IIMonarch AliMonarch Al-Mustadi'Monarch Zin al-Abidin
Monarch Mohammed III
Monarch Al-YazidHishamMonarch Sulayman
Monarch Abd al-Rahman
ibn Hicham
Monarch Mohammed IV
Monarch Hassan IAarafa
Monarch Abd al-AzizMonarch Abd al-HafidMonarch YoussefTaharMonarch Mohammed
Ben Aarafa
Monarch Mohammed V
3° spouse
Lalla Bahia
2° spouse
Lalla Abla bint Tahar
Lalla
Fatima Zohra
Lalla
Amina
Monarch Hassan II
2° spouse
Lalla Latifa Hammou
Lalla
Malika
Lalla
Nuzha
Lalla
Aicha
Abdellah
Lalla
Meryem
Lalla
Asma
Monarch Mohammed VI
spouse
Lalla Salma
Lalla
Hasna
RachidHichamIsmail
Crown Prince
Hassan
Lalla
Khadija

See also

References

Further reading

External links

  • Morocco Alaoui dynasty
Royal house
House of Alaoui
Preceded by
Saadi Dynasty
Ruling house of Morocco
1666 – present
Incumbent