Alpes Graiae et Poeninae

Summary

The Alpes Graiae et Poeninae, later known as Alpes Atrectianae et Poeninae (officially Alpes Atrectianae et Vallis Poenina), were a small Alpine province of the Roman Empire created after the merging of the Alpes Poeninae (or Vallis Poenina) and the Alpes Graiae (or Alpes Atrectianae), probably during the reign of Claudius (41–54 AD). Comprising the modern Canton of Valais (Switzerland), the Tarantaise Valley (France), and the Val d'Aosta (Italy), it was one of the three provinces straddling the Alps between modern France and Italy, along with the Alpes Maritimae and Alpes Cottiae.

Provincia Alpes Graiae et vallis Poenina
Provincia Alpes Atrectianae et vallis Poenina
Province of the Roman Empire
41/54 AD–476
Roman Empire - Alpes Poenninae et Graiae (125 AD).svg
The Roman Empire c. 125 AD, with the province of Alpes Graiae et Poeninae highlighted
CapitalForum Claudii Ceutronum (Alpes Graiae/Atrectianae)
Forum Claudii Vallensium (Alpes Poeninae)
History
Historical eraAntiquity
• Created by Claudius
41/54 AD
• Deposition of Romulus Augustulus
476
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Italy (476-493)
Today part ofFrance
Italy
Switzerland

The province had two capitals, most likely since its creation: Forum Claudii Ceutronum (modern-day Aime-la-Plagne) for the Alpes Graiae, and Forum Claudii Vallensium (modern-day Martigny) for the Alpes Poeninae.[1][2] The procurator of the province resided alternatively in one of the two chief towns.[1]

NameEdit

The province was commonly called Alpes Graiae, Alpes Atrectianae, Alpes Graiae et Poeninae, or Alpes Atrectianae et Poeninae, as a shortened form of its full name. In some documents, the province is also named Alpes Poeninae et Graiae, or Alpes Poeninae.[3]

It may have been known as the Alpes Graiae et Vallis Poenina at the time of its creation,[2][4] which could have been the official form of the shortened name Alpes Graiae et Poeninae.[3] From the 2nd century AD until the reign of Diocletian (284–305), it was officially known as Alpes Atrectianae et Vallis Poenina, which is attested on an inscription from the Severian period (193–235).[5][3][6]

According to Livy, the name Alpes Poeninae derives from an indigenous deity named Poeninus,[7][8] who is attested as Poininos on local inscriptions and in the name Jupiter Poeninus.[9] It survives in the modern form Pennine Alps, as does Vallis Poenina in the name Valais.[10] Xavier Delamarre has proposed to similarly see a theonym *Graios (found in Herculi/Herculeio Graio) in the name Alpes Graiae.[11] The name Alpes Atrectianae may derive from a local kinglet called Atrectius, just like the Alpes Cottiae are named after Cottius. While his existence is not attested, the cognomen appears in the name of four governors of the province from the 2nd and 3nd centuries AD.[3]

HistoryEdit

The region of Vallis Poenina, corresponding to the modern Canton of Valais between the Lake Geneva and the Great St. Bernard Pass, was inhabited at the time of the Roman conquest by Celtic tribes known as the Vallenses, namely the Nantuates, Veragri, Seduni, and Uberi. After the Roman invasion led by Augustus in 16–15 BC, the area was initially placed under military control (praefectus Raetis, Vindolicis, vallis Poeninae) and incorporated into the province of Raetia et Vindelicia, which stretched between the central Alps and the Danube.[12][13]

The Vallensian tribes were granted Latin Rights and grouped together into a single civitas Vallensium during the reign of Claudius (41–54 AD). According to most scholars, Vallis Poenina was separated from Raetia et Vindelicia and united with the newly created Alpes Graiae, located west of the Little St Bernard Pass and inhabited by the Ceutrones, during the same period. They formed together the province of Alpes Graiae et Poeninae, with one chief town for each division: Forum Claudii Ceutronum or Axima (modern Aime-la-Plagne) for the Alpes Graiae, and Forum Claudii Vallensium or Octodorus (modern Martigny) for the Alpes Poeninae.[14][12][6]

During the reign of Diocletian (284–305), the province was integrated into the praeses of the Diocese of Gaul.[6][13] Some scholars date the unification of the Alpes Graiae and Alpes Poeninae to this period rather than the reign of Claudius.[1] In 381, the first Bishop of the region, Theodul, was mentioned. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was invaded by the Burgundians and incorporated into their kingdom. After its fall, it was integrated into the Frankish Kingdom in 534, then briefly invaded by the Lombards in 574.[13]

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Wiblé 1998, pp. 186–188.
  2. ^ a b Ossenkop, Christina; Winkelmann, Otto (2018). Manuel des frontières linguistiques dans la Romania. Walter de Gruyter. p. 127. ISBN 978-3-11-039485-6.
  3. ^ a b c d Wiblé 1998, pp. 188–189.
  4. ^ Gottlieb, Gunther (1989). Raumordnung im Römischen Reich: zur regionalen Gliederung in den gallischen Provinzen, in Rätien, Noricum und Pannonien. E. Vögel. p. 75. ISBN 978-3-925355-13-4.
  5. ^ Bérard 1995, p. 348.
  6. ^ a b c Graßl 2006.
  7. ^ Livius, Ab urbe condita, 21:38.
  8. ^ Appolonia, Lorenzo (2008). Alpis Poenina - Grand Saint-Bernard: une voie à travers l'Europe. Projet Interreg IIIA. pp. 24–25.
  9. ^ Wooding, Jonathan (2020). Prophecy, Fate and Memory in the Early Medieval Celtic World. Sydney University Press. pp. 19–25. ISBN 978-1-74332-695-4.
  10. ^ Hunt, Patrick (1998). "Summus Poeninus on the Grand St Bernard Pass". Journal of Roman Archaeology. 11: 265–274. doi:10.1017/S104775940001730X. ISSN 1047-7594.
  11. ^ Delamarre, Xavier (2019). Dictionnaire des thèmes nominaux du gaulois. Ab-/Iχs(o)-. Vol. 1. Les Cents Chemins. p. 370. ISBN 978-1-7980-5040-8.
  12. ^ a b Wiblé 1998, pp. 186–187.
  13. ^ a b c Frei-Stolba 2014.
  14. ^ Frei-Stolba 2014: "Ebenfalls unter Claudius wurde die V. von der Provinz Raetia et Vindolicia getrennt und wohl gleichzeitig unter einem gemeinsamen Statthalter mit den Alpes Graiae (auch Alpes Atrectianae) zu den Alpes Graiae et Poeninae vereint."

Primary sourcesEdit

  • Livy (2019). History of Rome. Loeb Classical Library. Translated by Yardley, J. C. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674992566.
  • Tacitus (1925). Histories. Loeb Classical Library. Translated by Moore, Clifford H. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674991231.

BibliographyEdit

  • Bérard, François (1995). "Un nouveau procurateur à Aime en Tarentaise: Savoie" (PDF). Gallia. 52: 343–358. doi:10.3406/galia.1995.3157. ISSN 0016-4119. JSTOR 43599248.
  • Frei-Stolba, Regula (2014). "Vallis Poenina". Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz.
  • Graßl, Herbert (2006). "Alpes Graiae". Brill's New Pauly. doi:10.1163/1574-9347_bnp_e116380.
  • Wiblé, François (1998). "Deux procurateurs du Valais et l'organisation des districts alpins". Antiquité Tardive. 6: 181–191. doi:10.1484/J.AT.2.300882. ISSN 1250-7334.