Amateur radio satellite

Summary

An amateur radio satellite is an artificial satellite built and used by amateur radio operators. It forms part of the Amateur-satellite service.[1] These satellites use amateur radio frequency allocations to facilitate communication between amateur radio stations.

Many amateur satellites receive an OSCAR designation, which is an acronym for Orbiting Satellite Carrying Amateur Radio. The designation is assigned by AMSAT, an organization which promotes the development and launch of amateur radio satellites. Because of the prevalence of this designation, amateur radio satellites are often referred to as OSCARs.

These satellites can be used free of charge by licensed amateur radio operators for voice (FM, SSB) and data (AX.25, packet radio, APRS) communications. Currently, over 18 fully operational amateur radio satellites are in orbit.[2] They may be designed to act as repeaters, as linear transponders, and as store and forward digital relays.

Amateur radio satellites have helped advance the science of satellite communications. Contributions include the launch of the first satellite voice transponder (OSCAR 3) and the development of highly advanced digital "store-and-forward" messaging transponder techniques.

The Amateur Radio Satellite community is very active in building satellites and in finding launch opportunities. Lists of functioning satellites need updating regularly, as new satellites are launched and older ones fail. Current information is published by AMSAT.

History

OSCAR 1

First amateur radio satellite OSCAR 1, launched in 1961
Simple OSCAR beacon signal, 1962

The first amateur satellite, simply named OSCAR 1, was launched on December 12, 1961, barely four years after the launch of the world's first satellite, Sputnik I. The beginning of this project was very humble. The satellite had to be built in a very specific shape and weight, so it could be used in place of one of the weights necessary for balancing the payload in the rocket stage. OSCAR 1 was the first satellite to be ejected as a secondary payload (the primary payload was Discoverer 36) and to subsequently enter a separate orbit. It carried no on-board propulsion and its orbit decayed quickly. Despite orbiting for only 22 days, OSCAR 1 was an immediate success. Over 570 amateur radio operators in 28 countries forwarded observations to Project OSCAR.

OSCAR 10

Most of the components for OSCAR 10 were "off the shelf". Jan King led the project. Solar cells were bought in batches of 10 or 20 from Radio Shack, and tested for efficiency by group members. The most efficient cells were kept for the project; the rest were returned to RadioShack. Once ready, OSCAR 10 was mounted aboard a private plane, and flown a couple of times to evaluate its performance and reliability. Special QSL cards were issued to those who participated in the airplane-based tests. Once it was found to be operative and reliable, the satellite was shipped to Kennedy Space Center, where it was mounted in the launch vehicle's third stage. OSCAR 10's dimensions were: Height: 1.35 m (53 in) Width: 2.0 m (78.75 in) Weight: 140 kg at launch; 90 kg after engine firings.[3]

Other satellites

USSR postal stamp depicting amateur radio satellites, RS-1 and RS-2

Other programs besides OSCAR have included Iskra (Soviet Union) circa 1982, JAS-1 (Fuji-OSCAR 12) (Japan) in 1986, RS (Soviet Union and Russia), and CubeSats. (There is a list of major amateur satellites in Japanese Wikipedia).

Es’hail 2 / QO-100 [4] Launched November 15, 2018.In geostationary orbit covering Brazil to Thailand.

Narrowband Linear transponder

2400.050 - 2400.300 MHz Uplink

10489.550 - 10489.800 MHz Downlink

Wideband digital transponder

2401.500 - 2409.500 MHz Uplink

10491.000 - 10499.000 MHz Downlink

Hardware

The first amateur satellites contained telemetry beacons. Since 1965, most OSCARs carry a linear transponder for two-way communications in real time. Some satellites have a bulletin board for store-and-forward digital communications, or a digipeater for direct packet radio connections.

Orbits

Amateur satellites have been launched into low Earth orbits and into highly elliptical orbits.

Operations

Satellite communications

Currently, amateur satellites support many different types of operation, including FM voice and SSB voice, as well as digital communications of AX.25 FSK (Packet radio) and PSK-31.

Mode designators

Uplink and downlink designations use sets of paired letters following the structure X/Y where X is the uplink band and Y is the downlink band. Occasionally, the downlink letter is rendered in lower case (i.e., X/y). With a few exceptions, the letters correspond to IEEE's standard for radar frequency letter bands...[5]

Designator
H
A
V
U
L
S
S2
C
X
K
R
Band 15 m 10 m 2 m 70 cm 23 cm 13 cm 9 cm 5 cm 3 cm 1.2 cm 6 mm
Frequency
(General)
21 MHz 29 MHz 145 MHz 435 MHz 1.2 GHz 2.4 GHz 3.4 GHz 5 GHz 10 GHz 24 GHz 47 GHz

Prior to the launch of OSCAR 40, operating modes were designated using single letters to indicate both uplink and downlink bands. While deprecated, these older mode designations are still widely used in casual conversation.

  • Mode A: 2 m uplink / 10 m downlink
  • Mode B: 70 cm uplink / 2 m downlink
  • Mode J: 2 m uplink / 70 cm downlink

Doppler shift

Due to the high orbital speed of the amateur satellites, the uplink and downlink frequencies will vary during the course of a satellite pass. This phenomenon is known as the Doppler effect. While the satellite is moving towards the ground station, the downlink frequency will appear to be higher than normal. Hence, the receiver frequency at the ground station must be adjusted higher to continue receiving the satellite. The satellite in turn, will be receiving the uplink signal at a higher frequency than normal so the ground station's transmitted uplink frequency must be lower to be received by the satellite. After the satellite passes overhead and begins to move away, this process is reversed. The downlink frequency will appear lower and the uplink frequency will need to be adjusted higher. The following mathematical formulas relate the Doppler shift to the velocity of the satellite.

Where:
= doppler corrected downlink frequency
= doppler corrected uplink frequency
= original frequency
= velocity of the satellite relative to ground station in m/s.
Positive when moving towards, negative when moving away.
= the speed of light in a vacuum (  m/s).
Change in frequency Downlink Correction Uplink Correction

Due to the complexity of finding the relative velocity of the satellite and the speed with which these corrections must be made, these calculations are normally accomplished using satellite tracking software. Many modern transceivers include a computer interface that allows for automatic doppler effect correction. Manual frequency-shift correction is possible, but it is difficult to remain precisely near the frequency. Frequency modulation is more tolerant of doppler shifts than single-sideband, and therefore FM is much easier to tune manually.

FM satellites

Yagi antenna being used to communicate through an FM satellite.

A number of low earth orbit (LEO) OSCAR satellites use frequency modulation (FM).[6] These are also commonly referred to as "FM LEOs" or the "FM Birds". Such satellites act as FM amateur radio repeaters that can be communicated through using commonly available amateur radio equipment. Communication can be achieved with handheld transceivers using manual doppler correction.[7] Satellite passes are typically less than 15 minutes long.[8]

Launches

Past launches

The names of the satellites below are sorted in chronological order by launch date, ascending. The status column denotes the current operational status of the satellite. Green signifies that the satellite is currently operational, orange indicates that the satellite is partially operational or failing. Red indicates that the satellite is non operational and black indicates that the satellite has re-entered the Earth's atmosphere. The country listing denotes the country that constructed the satellite and not the launching country.

Launches (Past & Current)
Name Status Launched Country
OSCAR (OSCAR 1) Decayed 1961-12-12  United States
OSCAR II (OSCAR 2) Decayed 1962-06-02  United States
OSCAR III (OSCAR 3, EGRS-3) Non-Operational 1965-03-09  United States
OSCAR IV (OSCAR 4) Decayed 1965-12-21  United States
Australis-OSCAR 5 (OSCAR 5, AO-5, AO-A) Non-Operational 1970-01-23  Australia
AMSAT-OSCAR 6 (OSCAR 6, AO-6, AO-C, P2A) Non-Operational 1972-10-15  United States
AMSAT-OSCAR 7 (OSCAR 7, AO-7, AO-B, P2B) Semi-Operational 1974-11-15  United States
AMSAT-OSCAR 8 (OSCAR 8, AO-8, AO-D, P2D) Non-Operational 1978-03-05  United States
Radio Sputnik 1 (RadioSkaf-1, RS-1) Non-Operational 1978-10-26  Soviet Union
Radio Sputnik 2 (RadioSkaf-2, RS-2) Non-Operational 1978-10-26  Soviet Union
UoSat-OSCAR 9 (UOSAT 1, UO-9) Decayed 1981-10-06  United Kingdom
Radio Sputniks RS3 through RS8 Non-Operational 1981-12-17  Soviet Union
AMSAT-OSCAR 10 (Phase 3B, AO-10, P3B) Non-Operational 1983-06-16  United States
 West Germany
UoSat-OSCAR 11 (UoSat-2, UO-11, UoSAT-B) Semi-Operational 1984-03-01  United Kingdom
Fuji-OSCAR 12 (JAS 1, FO-12) Non-Operational 1986-08-12  Japan
Radio Sputnik 10/11 (RadioSkaf-10/11, RS-10/11, COSMOS 1861) Non-Operational 1987-06-23  Soviet Union
AMSAT-OSCAR 13 (Phase 3C, AO-13, P3C) Decayed 1988-06-15  West Germany
UOSAT-OSCAR 14 (UoSAT-3, UO-14 UoSAT-D) Non-Operational 1990-01-22  United Kingdom
UOSAT-OSCAR 15 (UoSAT-4, UO-15, UoSAT-E) Non-Operational 1990-01-22  United Kingdom
AMSAT-OSCAR 16 (Pacsat, AO-16, Microsat-1) Semi-Operational 1990-01-22  United States
Dove-OSCAR 17 (Dove, DO-17, Microsat-2) Non-Operational 1990-01-22  Brazil
Weber-OSCAR 18 (WeberSAT, WO-18, Microsat-3) Non-Operational 1990-01-22  United States
LUSAT-OSCAR 19 (LUSAT, LO-19, Microsat-4) Non-Operational 1990-01-22  Argentina
Fuji-OSCAR 20 (JAS 1B, FO-20, Fuji-1B) Non-Operational 1990-02-07  Japan
AMSAT-OSCAR 21 (RS-14, AO-21, Informator-1) Non-Operational 1991-01-29  Soviet Union
Radio Sputnik 12/13 (RadioSkaf-12/13, RS-12/13, COSMOS 2123) Non-Operational 1991-02-05  Soviet Union
UoSat-OSCAR 22 (UOSAT 5, UO-22 UoSAT-F) Non-Operational 1991-07-17  United Kingdom
KitSAT-OSCAR 23 (KITSAT 1, KO-23, Uribyol-1) Non-Operational 1992-08-10  South Korea
Arsene-OSCAR 24 (Arsene, AO-24) Non-Operational 1993-05-12  France
KitSAT-OSCAR 25 (KITSAT B, KO-25, Kitsat-2, Uribyol-2) Non-Operational 1993-09-26  South Korea
Italy-OSCAR 26 (ITAMSAT, IO-26) Non-Operational 1993-09-26  Italy
AMRAD-OSCAR 27 (EYESAT-1, AO-27) Non-Operational 1993-09-26  United States
POSAT-OSCAR 28 (POSAT, PO-28, Posat-1) Non-Operational 1993-09-26  Portugal
Radio Sputnik 15 (RadioSkaf-15, RS-15, Radio-ROSTO) Semi-Operational 1994-12-26  Russia
Fuji-OSCAR 29 (JAS 2, FO-29, Fuji-2) Semi-Operational 1996-08-17  Japan
Mexico-OSCAR 30 (UNAMSAT-2, MO-30, Unamsat-B, Kosmos-2334) Non-Operational 1996-09-05  Mexico
 Russia
Thai-Microsatellite-OSCAR 31 (TMSAT-1, TO-31) Non-Operational 1998-07-10  Thailand
Gurwin-OSCAR 32 (GO-32, Gurwin-1b, Techsat-1b) Non-Operational 1998-07-10  Israel
SEDSat-OSCAR 33 (SEDSat, SO-33, SEDsat-1) Semi-Operational 1998-10-24  United States
Pansat-OSCAR 34 (PAN SAT, PO-34) Non-Operational 1998-10-29  United States
ARISS (ARISS) Operational International
Sunsat-OSCAR 35 (SUNSAT, SO-35) Non-Operational 1999-02-23  South Africa
UoSat-OSCAR 36 (UOSAT 12, UO-36) Non-Operational 1999-04-21  United Kingdom
ASU-OSCAR 37 (AO-37, ASUsat-1, ASUSAT) Non-Operational 2000-01-27  United States
OPAL-OSCAR 38 (OO-38, StenSat, OPAL) Non-Operational 2000-01-27  United States
Weber-OSCAR 39 (WO-39, JAWSAT) Non-Operational 2000-01-27  United States
Saudi-OSCAR 41 (SO-41, Saudisat 1A) Non-Operational 2000-09-26  Saudi Arabia
Saudi-OSCAR 42 (SO-42, Saudisat 1B) Non-Operational 2000-09-26  Saudi Arabia
Malaysian-OSCAR 46 (MO-46, TIUNGSAT-1) Non-Operational 2000-09-26  Malaysia
AMSAT-OSCAR 40 (AO-40, Phase 3D, P3D) Non-Operational 2000-11-16  United States
Starshine-OSCAR 43 (SO-43, Starshine 3) Decayed 2001-09-30  United States
Navy-OSCAR 44 (NO-44, PCSat) Semi-Operational 2001-09-30  United States
Navy-OSCAR 45 (NO-45, Sapphire) Non-Operational 2001-09-30  United States
BreizhSAT-OSCAR 47 (BO-47, IDEFIX CU1) Non-Operational 2002-05-04  France
BreizhSAT-OSCAR 48 (BO-48, IDEFIX CU2) Non-Operational 2002-05-04  France
AATiS-OSCAR 49 (AO-49, Safir-M, RUBIN 2) Non-Operational 2002-12-20  Germany
Saudi-OSCAR 50 (SO-50, Saudisat-1C) Operational 2002-12-20  Saudi Arabia
CubeSat-OSCAR 55 (Cute-1) Operational 2003-06-30  Japan
CubeSat-OSCAR 57 (CubeSat-XI-IV) Operational 2003-06-30  Japan
CanX-1 Non-Operational 2003-06-30  Canada
DTUSat Decayed 2003-06-30  Denmark
AAU Cubesat Non-Operational 2003-06-30  Denmark
RS-22 (Mozhayets 4) Operational 2003-09-27  Russia
AMSAT-OSCAR 51 (Echo, AO-51) Non-Operational 2004-06-28  United States
VUSat-OSCAR 52 (HAMSAT, VO-52, VUSat) Semi-Operational [9] 2005-05-05  India
 Netherlands
PCSat2 (PCSAT2) Decayed 2005-08-03  United States
AMSAT-OSCAR 54 (AO-54, SuitSat, Radioskaf) Decayed 2005-09-08 International
eXpress-OSCAR 53 (XO-53, SSETI Express) Non-Operational 2005-10-27 European Space Agency
CubeSat-OSCAR 58 (CO-58, Cubesat XI-V) Operational 2005-10-27  Japan
UWE-1 Non-Operational 2005-10-27  Germany
NCube-2 Non-Operational 2005-10-27  Norway
CubeSat-OSCAR 56 (CO-56, Cute-1.7) Non-Operational 2006-02-21  Japan
K7RR-Sat Non-Operational 2006-07-26  United States
CP2 Non-Operational 2006-07-26  United States
HAUSAT 1 Non-Operational 2006-07-26  South Korea
ICE Cube 1 Non-Operational 2006-07-26  United States
ICE Cube 2 Non-Operational 2006-07-26  United States
ION Non-Operational 2006-07-26  United States
KUTESat Non-Operational 2006-07-26  United States
MEROPE Non-Operational 2006-07-26  United States
nCUBE 1 Non-Operational 2006-07-26  Norway
RINCON Non-Operational 2006-07-26  United States
SACRED Non-Operational 2006-07-26  United States
SEEDS Non-Operational 2006-07-26  Japan
Voyager Non-Operational 2006-07-26  United States
PicPot Non-Operational 2006-07-26  Italy
HITSat-OSCAR 59 (HITSat, HO-59) Non-Operational 2006-09-22  Japan
GeneSat-1 Operational 2006-12-16  United States
Navy-OSCAR 60 (RAFT, NO-60) Decayed 2006-12-21  United States
Navy-OSCAR 61 (ANDE, NO-61) Decayed 2006-12-21  United States
Navy-OSCAR 62 (FCAL, NO-62) Decayed 2006-12-21  United States
Libertad-1 Non-Operational 2007-04-17  Colombia
CAPE-1 Semi-Operational 2007-04-17  United States
CP3 Non-Operational 2007-04-17  United States
CP4 Non-Operational 2007-04-17  United States
Pehuensat-OSCAR 63 (PEHUENSAT-1, PO-63) Decayed 2007-10-01  Argentina
Delfi-OSCAR 64 (Delfi-C3, DO-64) Semi-Operational 2008-04-28  Netherlands
Cubesat-OSCAR 65 (Cute-1.7+APD II, CO-65) Operational 2008-04-28  Japan
Cubesat-OSCAR 66 (SEED II, CO-66) Operational 2008-04-28  Japan
COMPASS-1 Semi-Operational 2008-04-28  Germany
RS-30 (Yubileiny) Operational 2008-05-23  Russia
PRISM (HITOMI) Operational 2009-01-23  Japan
KKS-1 (KISEKI) Operational 2009-01-23  Japan
STARS (KUKAI) Unknown 2009-01-23  Japan
Castor Unknown 2009-07-30  United States
Pollux Non-Operational 2009-07-30  United States
Aggiesat2 Decayed 2009-07-30  United States
PARADIGM (BEVO-1) Decayed 2009-07-30  United States
Sumbandila-OSCAR 67 (SumbandilaSat, SO-67) Non-Operational 2009-09-17  South Africa
SwissCube Operational 2009-09-23   Switzerland
ITUpSAT1 Operational 2009-09-23  Turkey
UWE-2 Operational 2009-09-23  Germany
BEESAT Operational 2009-09-23  Germany
Hope Oscar 68 (XW-1, HO-68) Beacon-Operational 2009-12-15  China
AubieSat-1 (AO-71) Operational 2011-10-28  United States
ESTCube-1 Operational 2013-05-07  Estonia
FUNcube-1 (AO-73) [1] Operational 2013-11-21  United Kingdom
 Netherlands
CubeBug-2 (LUSAT-OSCAR 74) Operational 2013-11-21  Argentina
CAPE 2 Operational 2013-11-20  United States
$50SAT Operational 2013-11-21  United States
INVADER Operational 2014-02-27  Japan
Lituanica SAT-1 Operational 2014-02-27  Lithuania
QB50P1 Operational 2014-07-19  Belgium
QB50P2 Operational 2014-07-19  Belgium
ARTSAT2-DESPATCH Operational 2014-12-03  Japan
Shin’en-2 Operational 2014-12-03  Japan
BRICSat-P (OSCAR 83) Operational 2015-05-20  United States
ParkinsonSAT (OSCAR 84) Operational 2015-05-20  United States
Fox-1A (OSCAR 85) Operational 2015-10-08  United States
Lapan-A2 Operational 2015-09-28  Indonesia
ÑuSat-1 (LUSEX OSCAR 87) Operational 2016-05-30  Argentina
Nayif 1 Operational 2017-02-15  United Arab Emirates
ITF 2 Operational 2016-12-09  Japan
LilacSat-1 Operational 2017-04-18  China
Fox-1B (OSCAR 91) Operational 2017-11-18  United States
Fox-1D (OSCAR 92) Operational 2017-01-12  United States
DSLWP-A (OSCAR 93, LO-93) Non-Operational 2018-05-20  China
DSLWP-B (OSCAR 94, LO-94) Operational 2018-05-20  China
Fox-1Cliff (OSCAR 95, AO-95) Operational 2018-12-03  United States
ExseedSat-1 (VUsat-OSCAR 96, VO-96) Operational 2018-12-03  India
JY1Sat (Jordan-OSCAR 97, JO-97) Operational 2018-12-03  Jordan
OrigamiSat (Fuji-OSCAR 98, FO-98) Operational 2019-01-18  Japan
NEXUS (Fuji-OSCAR 99, FO-99) Operational 2019-01-18  Japan
Es'hail 2 (Qatar-OSCAR 100, QO-100) Operational 2018-11-15  Qatar
Diwata-2 (Philippines-OSCAR 101, PO-101) Operational 2018-10-29  Philippines
CAS-7B (BIT Progress-OSCAR 102, BO-102) Decayed 2019-07-25  China
BricSat-2 (Navy-OSCAR 103, NO-103) Operational 2019-06-25  United States
PSAT-2 (Navy-OSCAR 104, NO-104) Operational 2019-06-25  United States
SMOG-P (Magyar-OSCAR 105, MO-105) Operational 2019-12-06  Hungary
ATL-1 (Magyar-OSCAR 106, MO-106) Operational 2019-12-06  Hungary

In development

Facts

Multinational effort

Currently, 30 countries have launched an OSCAR satellite. These countries, in chronological order by date of launch, include:

Related names

SuitSat, an obsolete Russian space suit with a transmitter aboard, was officially known as "AMSAT-OSCAR 54". Coincidentally, "Oscar" was the name given to an obsolete space suit by its young owner in the book Have Space Suit—Will Travel, by Robert A. Heinlein. This book was first published a year after the launch of Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite.

International regulation

First amateur-satellite station OSCAR 1, 1961
Amateur-satellite station OSCAR 10, 1983
Doug Wheelock, KF5BOC, flight engineer of the Expedition 24, uses a ham radio system in the Zvezda Service Module of the ISS, 2010
FASTRAC-A and FASTRAC-B amateur satellite, University of Texas at Austin

Amateur-satellite service (also: amateur-satellite radiocommunication service) is – according to Article 1.57 of the International Telecommunication Union's (ITU) Radio Regulations (RR)[11] – defined as «A radiocommunication service using space stations on earth satellites for the same purposes as those of the amateur service

Classification

This radiocommunication service is classified in accordance with ITU Radio Regulations (article 1) as follows:
Radiocommunication service (article 1.19)

Frequency allocation

The allocation of radio frequencies is provided according to Article 5 of the ITU Radio Regulations (edition 2012).[12]

In order to improve harmonisation in spectrum utilisation, the majority of service-allocations stipulated in this document were incorporated in national Tables of Frequency Allocations and Utilisations which is within the responsibility of the appropriate national administration. The allocation might be primary, secondary, exclusive, and shared.

  • primary allocation: is indicated by writing in capital letters (see example below)
  • secondary allocation: is indicated by small letters (see example below)
  • exclusive or shared utilization: is within the responsibility of national administrations
Example of frequency allocation
Allocation to services
     Region 1             Region 2             Region 3       
135.7–137.8 kHz
FIXED
MARITIME MOBILE
Amateur
135.7–137.8
FIXED
MARITIME MOBILE
Amateur
135.7–137.8
FIXED
MARITIME MOBILE
RADIO NAVIGATION
Amateur
7 000–7 100   AMATEUR
AMATEUR-SATELLITE
14 000–14 250    AMATEUR
AMATEUR-SATELLITE
18 068–18 168    AMATEUR
AMATEUR-SATELLITE
21 000–21 450    AMATEUR
AMATEUR-SATELLITE
24 890–24 990    AMATEUR
AMATEUR-SATELLITE
28–29.7 MHz       AMATEUR
AMATEUR-SATELLITE
144–146              AMATEUR
AMATEUR-SATELLITE
5 830–5 850
FIXED-SATELLITE
(space-to-Earth)
RADIOLOCATION
Amateur
Amateur-satellite
(space-to-Earth)
5 830–5 850
RADIOLOCATION
Amateur
Amateur-satellite
(space-to-Earth)
10.5–10.6 GHz    AMATEUR
AMATEUR-SATELLITE
24–24.05             AMATEUR
AMATEUR-SATELLITE
47–47.2              AMATEUR
AMATEUR-SATELLITE
76–77.5               RADIO ASTRONOMY
RADIOLOCATIONY
Amateur
Amateur-satellite
Space research (space-to-Earth)
77.5–78               AMATEUR
AMATEUR-SATELLITE
Radio astronomy
Space research (space-to-Earth)
78–79                  RADIOLOCATION
Amateur
Amateur-satellite
Radio astronomy
Space research (space-to-Earth)
79–81                 RADIOLOCATION
RADIO ASTRONOMY
Amateur
Amateur-satellite
Space research (space-to-Earth)
134–136              AMATEUR
AMATEUR-SATELLITE
Radio astronomy
136–141              RADIO ASTRONOMY
RADIOLOCATION
Amateur
Amateur-satellite
241–248              RADIO ASTRONOMY
RADIOLOCATION
Amateur
Amateur-satellite
248–250              AMATEUR
AMATEUR-SATELLITE
Radio astronomy

Additional allocations

In addition to the formal allocations in the main table such as above, there is also a key ITU-R footnote RR 5.282 that provides for additional allocations:-

5.282 In the bands 435-438 MHz, 1 260-1 270 MHz, 2 400-2 450 MHz, 3 400-3 410 MHz (in Regions 2 and 3 only)
and 5 650-5 670 MHz, the amateur-satellite service may operate subject to not causing harmful interference to other
services operating in accordance with the Table (see No. 5.43). Administrations authorizing such use shall ensure that
any harmful interference caused by emissions from a station in the amateur-satellite service is immediately eliminated
in accordance with the provisions of No. 25.11. The use of the bands 1 260-1 270 MHz and 5 650-5 670 MHz by the
amateur-satellite service is limited to the Earth-to-space direction.

Of these, the 435-438 MHz band is particularly popular for amateur/educational small satellites such as Cubesats.

References

  1. ^ ITU Radio Regulations, Section IV. Radio Stations and Systems – Article 1.57, definition: amateur-satellite service / amateur-satellite radiocommunication service
  2. ^ http://www.amsat.org/status/
  3. ^ John A. Magliacane, KD2BD. "AMSAT Spotlight". Archived from the original on 1996-10-28.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  4. ^ "Es'hail 2 / QO-100". AMSAT-UK. 2015-06-05. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  5. ^ Standard Radar Frequency Letter-Band Nomenclature (IEEE Standard 521-1984, IEEE Std 521-2002(R2009))
  6. ^ "FM Satellite Frequency Summary". AMSAT.
  7. ^ "Fox-1 Operating Guide" (PDF). AMSAT.
  8. ^ "FM Satellites: Good Operating Practices for Beginning and Experienced Operators" (PDF). AMSAT.
  9. ^ "VO-52 "Hamsat" end of mission". AMSAT.
  10. ^ "KiwiSAT, Status". Retrieved 2019-12-11.
  11. ^ ITU Radio Regulations, Section IV. Radio Stations and Systems – Article 1.57, definition: amateur-satellite service / amateur-satellite radiocommunication service
  12. ^ ITU Radio Regulations, CHAPTER II – Frequencies, ARTICLE 5 Frequency allocations, Section IV – Table of Frequency Allocations
  • Martin Davidoff: The Radio Amateur's Satellite Handbook. The American Radio Relay League, Newington, ISBN 978-0-87259-658-0.

Notes

  • "Space Satellites from the World's Garage -- The Story of AMSAT". The Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation. Archived from the original on 2006-10-05. Retrieved 2006-09-05.
  • "The Extraordinary History of Amateur Radio Satellites". Space Today Online. Retrieved 2006-09-05.
  • "A Brief History of Amateur Satellites". N7HPR. Archived from the original on August 23, 2006. Retrieved 2006-09-05.
  • "Satellite Development Programs". The Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation. Retrieved 2006-09-05.
  • "Amateur (ham) Radio Satellites". Colorado State University. Archived from the original on 2006-08-31. Retrieved 2006-09-07.

External links

  • AMSAT Corporation - a nonprofit corporation that coordinates construction and launch of amateur radio satellites
  • Project OSCAR - club commemorating the original Project OSCAR group
  • Work-Sat - Private site with instructions for using amateur radio satellites