|Function||Partially reusable orbital medium-lift launch vehicle|
|Country of origin||Russia|
|Project cost||US$900 million|
|Cost per launch||US$22 million (planned)|
|Height||55 m (180 ft)|
|Diameter||4.1 m (13 ft)|
|Mass||360,000 kg (790,000 lb)|
|Payload to Low Earth orbit (LEO)|
|Mass||Reusable: 10,500 kg (23,100 lb)|
Expendable: 13,600 kg (30,000 lb)
|Launch sites||Vostochny Cosmodrome|
Amur (Russian: Аму́р) is a partially-reusable, methane–fueled, orbital launch vehicle currently in the design concept stage of development by the Roscosmos State Corporation in Russia. Design began by 2020, with operational flights planned for no earlier than 2026. Amur is intended to substitute for the existing Soyuz-2, at a much lower per launch cost.
The contract for the preliminary design phase of the Amur was signed on 5 October 2020, to build "the first Russian reusable methane rocket." The design reference goals include high-reliability, operational launch cost target of US$22 million, and a reusable first stage, with an expendable second stage. Roscosmos has budgeted a "not to exceed" program cost of 70 billion rubles (US$880 million) for the development program through the first launch.
Amur is planned to be a 4.1 m (13 ft)-diameter two-stage-to-orbit, medium-lift vehicle of 55 m (180 ft) height, with a gross liftoff mass of 360 t (790,000 lb). It is aimed to deliver a payload to low-Earth orbit of 10.5 t (23,000 lb), but could loft 12.5 t (28,000 lb) if the first stage is expended and not reused, as all traditional launch vehicles of the early space age were. Amur will launch from the Vostochny Cosmodrome in the Russian Far East.
The first stage of the rocket will use grid fins to assist with attitude control during atmospheric reentry and is planned to be powered by five RD-0169A methane-oxygen engines, which are currently being developed at the Chemical Automatics Design Bureau. The long-term target is for most of the engines to fire 100 times, but the center engine, reignited for descent through the atmosphere and again for landing operations which will include extending landing legs, will be aimed to eventually reach a life expectancy of 300 engine firings.