Anacardiaceae

Summary

The Anacardiaceae, commonly known as the cashew family[1] or sumac family, are a family of flowering plants, including about 83 genera with about 860 known species.[2] Members of the Anacardiaceae bear fruits that are drupes and in some cases produce urushiol, an irritant. The Anacardiaceae include numerous genera, several of which are economically important, notably cashew (in the type genus Anacardium), mango, Chinese lacquer tree, yellow mombin, Peruvian pepper, poison ivy, poison oak, sumac, smoke tree, marula and cuachalalate. The genus Pistacia (which includes the pistachio and mastic tree) is now included, but was previously placed in its own family, the Pistaciaceae.[3]

Anacardiaceae
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale)
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Anacardiaceae
(R.Br.) Lindl.
Subfamilies

The cashew family is more abundant in warm or tropical regions with only a few species living in the temperate zones.[4] Mostly native to tropical Americas, Africa and India. Pistacia and some species of Rhus can be found in southern Europe, Rhus species can be found in much of North America and Schinus inhabits South America exclusively.[5]

Description

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Lannea coromandelica (Lannea grandis) in Banten, Indonesia

Trees or shrubs, each has inconspicuous flowers and resinous or milky sap that may be highly poisonous, as in black poisonwood and sometimes foul-smelling.[5] Resin canals located in the inner fibrous bark of the fibrovascular system found in the plant's stems, roots, and leaves are characteristic of all members of this family; resin canals located in the pith are characteristic of many of the cashew family species and several species have them located in the primary cortex or the regular bark. Tannin sacs are also widespread among the family.[6]

The wood of the Anacardiaceae has the frequent occurrence of simple small holes in the vessels, occasionally in some species side by side with scalariform holes (in Campnosperma, Micronychia, and Heeria argentea (Anaphrenium argenteum). The simple pits are located along the vessel wall and in contact with the parenchyma.[6]

Leaves are deciduous or evergreen, usually alternate (rarely opposite),[4] estipulate (without stipule) and imparipinnate (rarely paripinnate or bipinnate), usually with opposite leaflets (rarely alternate), while others are trifoliolate or simple or unifoliolate (very rarely simple leaves are palmate). Leaf architecture is very diverse. Primary venation is pinnate (rarely palmate). Secondary venation is eucamptodromous, brochidodromous, craspedodromous or cladodromous (rarely reticulodromous) Cladodromous venation, if present is considered diagnostic for Anacardiaceae.[5][7]

Flowers grow at the end of a branch or stem or at an angle from where the leaf joins the stem and have bracts.[5] Often with this family, bisexual and male flowers occur on some plants, and bisexual and female flowers are on others, or flowers have both stamens and pistils (perfect). A calyx with three to seven cleft sepals and the same number of petals, occasionally no petals, overlap each other in the bud. Stamens are twice as many or equal to the number of petals, inserted at the base of the[4] fleshy ring or cup-shaped disk, and inserted below the pistil(s).[5] Stamen stalks are separate, and anthers are able to move.[4] Flowers have the ovary free, but the petals and stamen are borne on the calyx.[5] In the stamenate flowers, ovaries are single-celled. In the pistillate flowers, ovaries are single or sometimes quadri- or quinticelled. One to three styles and one ovule occur in each cavity.[4]

Fruits rarely open at maturity[5] and are most often drupes.[4]

Seed coats are very thin or are crust-like. Little or no endosperm is present. Cotyledons are fleshy.[4] Seeds are solitary with no albumen around the embryo.[5]

Taxonomy

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History

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In 1759, Bernard de Jussieu arranged the plants in the royal garden of the Trianon at Versailles, according to his own scheme. That classification included a description of an order called the Terebintaceæ, which contained a suborder that included Cassuvium (Anacardium), Anacardium (Semecarpus), Mangifera, Connarus, Rhus, and Rourea. In 1789, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, nephew of Bernard de Jussieu, published that classification scheme.[8]

Robert Brown described a subset of the Terebintaceae called Cassuvlæ or Anacardeæ in 1818, using the herbarium that was collected by Christen Smith during a fated expedition headed by James Hingston Tuckey to explore the River Congo. The name and genera were based on the order with the same name that had been described by de Jussieu in 1759. The herbarium from that expedition contained only one genus from the family, Rhus.[9]

Augustin Pyramus de Candolle in 1824, used Robert Brown's name Cassuvlæ or Anacardeæ, wrote another description of the group, and filled it with the genera Anacardium, Semecarpus, Holigarna, Mangifera, Buchanania, Pistacia, Astronium, Comocladia, and Picramnia.[10]

John Lindley described the "essential character" of the Anacardiaceæ, the "Cashew Tribe" in 1831, adopting the order that was described by de Jussieu, but abandoning the name Terebintaceæ. He includes the genera that were found in de Candolle's Anacardieæ and Sumachineæ: Anacardium, Holigarna, Mangifera, Rhus, and Mauria.[5]

Phylogeny

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The genus Pistacia has sometimes been separated into its own family, the Pistaciaceae, based on the reduced flower structure, differences in pollen, and the feathery style of the flowers.[3]The nature of its ovary, though, does suggest it belongs in the Anacardiaceae, a position supported by morphological and molecular studies, and recent classifications have included Pistacia in the Anacardiaceae.[3][11][12] The genus Abrahamia was separated from Protorhus in 2004.(Pell 2004)

Subdivision

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The family has been treated as a series of five tribes by Engler, and later into subfamilies by Takhtajan, as Anacardioideae (including tribes Anacardieae, Dobineae, Rhoideae, and Semecarpeae) and Spondiadoideae (including tribe Spondiadeae). Pell's (2008) molecular analysis reinstated the two subfamilies without further division into tribes (Pell 2004). Later, Min and Barfod, in the Flora of China (2008) reinstated the five tribes (four in Anacardioideae), and the single tribe Spondiadeae as Spondiadoideae.

Genera

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79 genera are accepted:[13]

Uses

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Members of this family produce cashew and pistachio nuts, and mango and marula fruits.[5]

Some members[which?] produce a viscous or adhesive fluid which turns black and is used as a varnish or for tanning and even as a mordant for red dyes.[5] The sap of Toxicodendron vernicifluum is used to make lacquer for lacquerware and similar products.

Etymology

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The name Anacardium, originally from the Greek, refers to the nut, core or heart of the fruit, which is outwardly located: ana means "upward" and -cardium means "heart").

References

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  1. ^ English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 351. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2016 – via Korea Forest Service.
  2. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M. & Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. 261 (3). Magnolia Press: 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1. Archived from the original on 29 July 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  3. ^ a b c Tingshuang Yi; Jun Wen; Avi Golan-Goldhirsh; Dan E. Parfitt (2008). "Phylogenetics and reticulate evolution in Pistacia (Anacardiaceae)". American Journal of Botany. 95 (2): 241–251. doi:10.3732/ajb.95.2.241. PMID 21632348.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Northern United States (1897), page 25 Archived 21 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Natural System of Botany (1831), pages 125-127
  6. ^ a b Systematic Anatomy, (1908), page 244-248
  7. ^ Pell et al 2011.
  8. ^ Genera plantarum (1789) pages 368-369 Archived 18 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Expedition... (1818) Appendix V, pages 430-431 Archived 13 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Prodromus Systematis Naturalis (1824), pages 62-66 Archived 21 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ Pistaciaceae Martinov Archived 29 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine, GRIN Taxonomy for Plants, accessed 28 March 2010
  12. ^ James L. Reveal, USDA - APHIS -- Concordance of Family Names Archived 6 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine, last revised 25 October 2006
  13. ^ Anacardiaceae R.Br. Plants of the World Online. Retrieved 1 January 2023.

Bibliography

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  • Aguilar-Ortigoza, Carlos; Sosa, Victoria; Angeles, Guillermo (April 2004). "Phylogenetic relationships of three genera in Anacardiaceae: Bonetiella, Pseudosmodingium, and Smodingium". Brittonia. 56 (2): 169–184. doi:10.1663/0007-196X(2004)056[0169:PROTGI]2.0.CO;2. S2CID 25623042.
  • Andrés-Hernández, A. R.; Terrazas, Teresa (October 2009). "Leaf architecture of Rhus s.str. (Anacardiaceae)". Feddes Repertorium. 120 (5–6): 293–306. doi:10.1002/fedr.200911109. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  • Britton, Nathaniel Lord; Brown, Hon. Addison (1897). An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the 102D Meridian. Vol. II, Portulacaceae to Menyanthaceae. Charles Scribner's Sons. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2009.
  • Brown, F.R.S., Robert; Tuckey, James Hingston; Christen, Smith (1818). "Observations, Systematical and Geographical, on Professor Christian Smith's Collection of Plants from the Vicinity of the River Congo". Narrative of an Expedition to Explore the River Zaire Usually Called the Congo, in South Africa, in 1816, Under the Direction of Captain J.H. Tuckey, R.N., to Which is Added, the Journals of Professor Smith; Some General Observations on the Country and Its Inhabitants; and an Appendix: Containing the Natural History of That Part of the Kingdom Congo Through Which the Zaire Flows. London: John Murray. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 9 April 2009.
  • Candolle, Augustin Pyramus de; Candolle, Alphonse de (1825). Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis: sive enumeratio contracta ordinum generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi naturalis normas digesta. Pars Secunda (in Latin). Paris: Sumptibus Victoris Masson. Archived from the original on 21 February 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2009.
  • Jussieu, Bernard de (1789). Genera plantarum :secundum ordines naturales disposita, juxta methodum in Horto regio parisiensi exaratam, anno M.DCC.LXXIV (in Latin). Paris: Apud Viduam Herissant et Theophilum Barrois. Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
  • Kubitzki, Klaus, ed. (2011). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants vol. x. Flowering Plants. Eudicots: Sapindales, Cucurbitales, Myrtaceae. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-3-642-14397-7. Archived from the original on 21 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  • Kunth, C. S. (1824). "Terebintacearum Genera: denuo ad examen revocare, characteribus magis accuratis distinguere, inque spetem familias, distribuere conatus est". Annales des Sciences Naturelles (in French). Tome Second. Paris: Chez Bechet Jeune. Archived from the original on 16 April 2009. Retrieved 11 April 2009.
  • Lindley, F.R.S., John; Torrey, M.D., John (1831). An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany: or A Systematic View of the Organization, Natural Affinities, and Geographical Distribution of the Whole Vegetable Kingdom; Together with the Uses of the Most Important Species in Medicine, the Arts and Rural or Domestic Economy (First American ed.). New York: G. & C. & H. Carvill. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
  • Mitchell, John D.; Daly, Douglas C. (5 August 2015). "A revision of Spondias L. (Anacardiaceae) in the Neotropics". PhytoKeys (55): 1–92. doi:10.3897/phytokeys.55.8489. PMC 4547026. PMID 26312044.
  • Moffett, R.O. (2007). "Name changes in the Old World Rhus and recognition of Searsia (Anacardiaceae". Bothalia. 37 (2): 165–175. doi:10.4102/abc.v37i2.311. Archived from the original on 21 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  • Müller, Hermann; Knuth, Dr. Paul; Davis, James Richard Ainsworth (1908). "XXXII. Order Anacardiaceae". Handbook of Flower Pollination Based Upon Hermann Müller's Work 'The Fertilisation of Flowers by Insects'. Vol. II, Ranunculaceae to Stylidieae. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 258–259. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2009.
  • Pell, Susan Katherine (May 2004). Molecular systematics of the cashew family (Anacardiaceae) (PDF). Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University. Archived from the original (PhD thesis) on 21 August 2008. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  • Pell, Susan K.; Mitchell, John D.; Lowry, Porter P.; Randrianasolo, Armand; Urbatsch, Lowell E. (1 April 2008). "Phylogenetic Split of Malagasy and African Taxa of Protorhus and Rhus (Anacardiaceae) Based on cpDNA trnL–trnF and nrDNA ETS and ITS Sequence Data". Systematic Botany. 33 (2): 375–383. doi:10.1600/036364408784571545. S2CID 86329117.
  • Pell, SK; Mitchell, JD; Miller, AJ; Lobova, TA (10 December 2010). Anacardiaceae R.Br. (1818). Springer. pp. 7–50. ISBN 9783642143977. Archived from the original on 21 February 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017., in Kubitzki (2011)
  • Solereder, Hans; Scott, D. H. (1908). Systematic Anatomy of the Dicotyledons, A Handbook for Laboratories of Pure and Applied Botany. Vol. I, Introduction, Polypetalae, Gamopetalae. trans. Leonard A. Boodle, Felix Eugene Fritsch. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Archived from the original on 20 February 2017. Retrieved 11 April 2009.
  • Turpin, Pierre Jean François; Jussieu, Antoine-Laurent de (1828). "Térébintacées". Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles, Dans Lequel on Traite Méthodiquement des Différens Êtres de la Nature, Considérés Soit en Eux-Mêmes, d'Aprés l'État Actuel de nos Connoissances, soit Relativement à l'Utilité Qu'en Peuvent Retirer la Médecine, l'Agriculture, le Commerce et les Arts (in French). Vol. 53. Strasbourg: G. Levrault. pp. 120–126. Retrieved 11 April 2009.
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  • Tree of Life: Anacardiaceae
  • Anacardiaceae and Burseraceae research
  • Anacardiaceae in Topwalks
  • Anacardiaceae in L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz (1992 onwards). The families of flowering plants.
  • Family Anacardiaceae Archived 23 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine - Flowers in Israel
  • Anacardiaceae of Chile, by Chileflora
  • Anacardiaceae in BoDD – Botanical Dermatology Database
  • Anacardiaceae at Flickr
  • Tianlu Min & Anders Barfod. Anacardiaceae at Flora of China, 2008
    • pdf