A northern Greek dialect related to, or a version of, Aeolic Greek suggested by August Fick (1874), Otto Hoffmann (1906), N.G.L Hammond (1997) and Ian Worthington (2012).
A Greek dialect with a non-Indo-European substratal influence, suggested by M. Sakellariou (1983) and M. Hatzopoulos (2011).
A sibling language of Greek within Indo-European, according to a scheme in which Macedonian and Greek are the two branches of a Greco-Macedonian subgroup (sometimes called "Hellenic") suggested by Joseph (2001), Georgiev (1966), and Hamp & Adams (2013).
Because of the fragmentary nature of Ancient Macedonian, only a little is understood about the special features of the language. A notable sound-law is that the Proto-Indo-Europeanvoicedaspirates (/bʰ, dʰ, gʰ/) sometimes appear as voiced stops /b, d, g/, (written β, δ, γ), whereas they were generally unvoiced as /pʰ, tʰ, kʰ/ (φ, θ, χ) elsewhere in Ancient Greek.
Macedonian δάνοςdánοs ('death', from PIE*dhenh2- 'to leave'), compared to Atticθάνατοςthánatos
Macedonian ἀβροῦτεςabroûtes or ἀβροῦϝεςabroûwes, compared to Attic ὀφρῦςophrûs for 'eyebrows'
Macedonian ΒερενίκηBereníkē, compared to Attic ΦερενίκηPhereníkē, 'bearing victory' (Personal name)
Macedonian ἄδραιαadraia ('bright weather'), compared to Attic αἰθρίαaithría, from PIE *h2aidh-
Macedonian βάσκιοιbáskioi ('fasces'), compared to Attic φάσκωλοςpháskōlos 'leather sack', from PIE *bhasko
According to Herodotus 7.73 (c. 440 BC), the Macedonians claimed that the Phryges were called Bryges before they migrated from Thrace to Anatolia (around 8th–7th century BC).
Macedonian μάγειροςmágeiros ('butcher') was a loan from Doric into Attic. Vittore Pisani has suggested an ultimately Macedonian origin for the word, which could then be cognate to μάχαιραmákhaira ('knife', < PIE *magh-, 'to fight')
If γοτάνgotán ('pig') is related to *gwou ('cattle'), this would indicate that the labiovelars were either intact, or merged with the velars, unlike the usual Greek treatment (Attic βοῦςboûs). Such deviations, however, are not unknown in Greek dialects; compare Laconian Doric (the dialect of Sparta) γλεπ-glep- for common Greek βλεπ-blep-, as well as Doric γλάχωνgláchōn and Ionicγλήχωνglēchōn for common Greek βλήχωνblēchōn.
A number of examples suggest that voiced velar stops were devoiced, especially word-initially: κάναδοιkánadoi, 'jaws' (< PIE *genu-); κόμβουςkómbous, 'molars' (< PIE *gombh-); within words: ἀρκόνarkón (Attic ἀργόςargós); the Macedonian toponymAkesamenai, from the Pierian name Akesamenos (if Akesa- is cognate to Greek agassomai, agamai, "to astonish"; cf. the Thracian name Agassamenos).
In Aristophanes' The Birds, the form κεβλήπυριςkeblēpyris ('red head', the name of a bird, perhaps the goldfinch or redpoll) is found, showing a Macedonian-style voiced stop in place of a standard Greek unvoiced aspirate: κεβ(α)λήkeb(a)lē versus κεφαλήkephalē ('head').
E. Crespo wrote that "the voicing of voiceless stops and the development of aspirates into voiced fricatives turns out to be the outcome of an internal development of Macedonian as a dialect of Greek" without excluding "the presence of interference from other languages or of any linguistic substrate or adstrate", as argued also by M. Hatzopoulos.
A number of the Macedonian words, particularly in Hesychius of Alexandria' lexicon, are disputed (i.e., some do not consider them actual Macedonian words) and some may have been corrupted in the transmission. Thus abroutes, may be read as abrouwes (αβρουϝες), with tau (Τ) replacing a digamma. If so, this word would perhaps be encompassable within a Greek dialect; however, others (e.g. A. Meillet) see the dental as authentic and think that this specific word would perhaps belong to an Indo-European language different from Greek.
A. Panayotou summarizes some features generally identified through ancient texts and epigraphy:
Occasional development of voiced aspirates (*bh, *dh, *gh) into voiced stops (b, d, g) (e.g. Βερενίκα, Attic Φερενίκη)
Retention of */a:/ (e.g. Μαχάτας), also present in Epirotic
[a:] as a result of contraction between [a:] and [ɔ:]
Apocope of short vowels in prepositions in synthesis (παρκαττίθεμαι, Attic παρακατατίθεμαι)
Syncope (hyphairesis) and diphthongization are used to avoid hiatus (e.g. Θετίμα, Attic Θεοτίμη; compare with Epirotic Λαγέτα, Doric Λαογἐτα).
Occasional retention of the pronunciation [u] οf /u(:)/ in local cult epithets or nicknames (Κουναγίδας = Κυναγίδας)
Raising of /ɔ:/ to /u:/ in proximity to nasal (e.g. Κάνουν, Attic Κανών)
Simplification of the sequence /ign/ to /i:n/ (γίνομαι, Attic γίγνομαι)
Loss of aspiration of the consonant cluster /sth/ (> /st/) (γενέσται, Attic γενέσθαι)
Ancient Macedonian morphology is shared with ancient Epirus, including some of the oldest inscriptions from Dodona. The morphology of the first declension nouns with an -ας ending is also shared with Thessalian (e.g. Epitaph for Pyrrhiadas, Kierion).
First-declension masculine and feminine in -ας and -α respectively (e.g. Πεύκεστας, Λαομάγα)
First-declension masculine genitive singular in -α (e.g. Μαχάτα)
First-declension genitive plural in -ᾶν
First person personal pronoun dative singular ἐμίν
Temporal conjunction ὁπόκα
Possibly, a non-sigmatic nominative masculine singular in the first declension (ἱππότα, Attic ἱππότης)
M. Hatzopoulos summarizes the Macedonian anthroponymy (that is names borne by people from Macedonia before the expansion beyond the Axios or people undoubtedly hailing from this area after the expansion) as follows:
Epichoric (local) Greek names that either differ from the phonology of the introduced Attic or that remained almost confined to Macedonians throughout antiquity
Panhellenic (common) Greek names
Identifiable non-Greek (Thracian and Illyrian) names
Names without a clear Greek etymology that can't however be ascribed to any identifiable non-Greek linguistic group.
Common in the creation of ethnics is the use of -έστης, -εστός especially when derived from sigmatic nouns (ὄρος > Ὀρέστης but also Δῖον > Διασταί).
The toponyms of Macedonia proper are generally Greek, though some of them show a particular phonology and a few others are non-Greek.
The Macedonian calendar's origins go back to Greek prehistory. The names of the Macedonian months, just like most of the names of Greek months, are derived from feasts and related celebrations in honor of the Greek gods. Most of them combine a Macedonian dialectal form with a clear Greek etymology (e.g Δῐός from Zeus; Περίτιος from Heracles Peritas (“Guardian”) ; Ξανδικός/Ξανθικός from Xanthos, “the blond” (probably a reference to Heracles); Άρτεμίσιος from Artemis etc.) with the possible exception of one, which is attested in other Greek calendars as well. According to Martin P. Nilsson, the Macedonian calendar is formed like a regular Greek one and the names of the months attest the Greek nationality of the Macedonians.
Macedonian onomastics: the earliest epigraphical documents attesting substantial numbers of Macedonian proper names are the second Athenian alliance decree with Perdiccas II (~417–413 BC), the decree of Kalindoia (~335–300 BC) and seven curse tablets of the 4th century BC bearing mostly names.
Funerary stele, with an epigram on the top, mid 4th century B.C., Vergina
About 99% of the roughly 6,300 Macedonian-period inscriptions discovered by archaeologists were written in the Greek language, using the Greek alphabet. The Pella curse tablet, a text written in a distinct Doric Greek dialect, found in 1986 and dated to between mid to early 4th century BC, has been forwarded as an argument that the ancient Macedonian language was a dialect of North-Western Greek, part of the Doric dialect group.
A body of idiomatic words has been assembled from ancient sources, mainly from coin inscriptions, and from the 5th century lexicon of Hesychius of Alexandria, amounting to about 150 words and 200 proper names, though the number of considered words sometimes differs from scholar to scholar. The majority of these words can be confidently assigned to Greek albeit some words would appear to reflect a dialectal form of Greek. There are, however, a number of words that are not easily identifiable as Greek and reveal, for example, voiced stops where Greek shows voiceless aspirates.
⟨†⟩ marked words which have been corrupted.
ἄβαγναabagna 'roses amaranta (unwithered)' (Atticῥόδαrhoda, Aeolicβρόδαbroda roses). (LSJ: amarantos unfading. Amaranth flower. (Aeolicἄβαaba 'youthful prime' + ἁγνόςhagnos 'pure, chaste, unsullied) or epithet aphagna from aphagnizo 'purify'. If abagnon is the proper name for rhodon rose, then it is cognate to Persianباغbāġ, 'garden', Gothic𐌱𐌰𐌲𐌼𐍃bagms 'tree' and Greek bakanon 'cabbage-seed'. Finally, a Phrygian borrowing is highly possible if we think of the famous Gardens of Midas, where roses grow of themselves (see Herodotus 8.138.2, Athenaeus 15.683)
ἀγκαλίςankalis Attic 'weight, burden, load' Macedonian 'sickle' (Hes. Attic ἄχθοςákhthos, δρέπανονdrépanon, LSJ Attic ἀγκαλίςankalís 'bundle', or in pl. ἀγκάλαιankálai 'arms' (body parts), ἄγκαλοςánkalos 'armful, bundle', ἀγκάληankálē 'the bent arm' or 'anything closely enfolding', as the arms of the sea, PIE *ank 'to bend') (ἀγκυλίςankylis 'barb' Oppianus.C.1.155.)
ἄδδαιaddai poles of a chariot or car, logs (Attic ῥυμοὶ rhumoi) (Aeolic usdoi, Attic ozoi, branches, twigs) PIE*H₂ó-sd-o- , branch
ἀδῆadē 'clear sky' or 'the upper air' (Hes. οὐρανόςouranós 'sky', LSJ and Pokorny Attic αἰθήρaithēr 'ether, the upper, purer air', hence 'clear sky, heaven')
ἄδισκονadiskon potion, cocktail (Attic kykeôn)
ἄδραιαadraia 'fine weather, open sky' (Hes. Attic αἰθρίαaithría, Epirotan ἀδρία, PIE *aidh-)
ἈέροπεςAeropes tribe (wind-faced) (aero- +opsis(aerops opos, Boeotian name for the bird merops)
ἀκόντιονakontion spine or backbone, anything ridged like the backbone: ridge of a hill or mountain (Attic rhachis) (Attic akontion spear, javelin) (Aeolic akontion part of troops)
ἀκρέαakrea girl (Attic κόρη korê, Ionic kourê, Doric/Aeolic kora, Arcadian korwa, Laconian kyrsanis (Ἀκρέα, epithet of Aphrodite in Cyprus, instead of Akraia, of the heights). Epithet of a goddess from an archaic Corcyraic inscription (ορϝος hιαρος τας Ακριας).
ἀκρουνοίakrounoi 'boundary stones' nom. pl. (Hes. ὃροιhóroi, LSJ Attic ἄκρονákron 'at the end or extremity', from ἀκήakē 'point, edge', PIE *ak 'summit, point' or 'sharp')
ἀλίηalíē 'boar or boarfish' (Attic kapros) (PIE *ol-/*el- "red, brown" (in animal and tree names) (Homeric ellos fawn, Attic elaphos 'deer', alkê elk)
ἀορτήςaortês, 'swordsman' (Hes. ξιφιστής; Homerἄορáor 'sword'; Attic ἀορτήρaortēr 'swordstrap', Modern Greekαορτήρaortír 'riflestrap'; hence aorta) (According to Suidas: Many now say the knapsack ἀβερτὴ abertê instead of aortê. Both the object and the word [are] Macedonian.
Ἀράντιδες Αrantides Erinyes (in dativeἀράντισινἐρινύσι) (Arae name for Erinyes, arasimos accursed, araomai invoke, curse, pray or rhantizô sprinkle, purify.
ἄργελλαargella 'bathing hut'. Cimmerianἄργιλλα or argila 'subterranean dwelling' (Ephorus in Strb. 5.4.5) PIE *areg-; borrowed into Balkan Latin and gave Romanianargea (pl. argele), "wooden hut", dialectal (Banat) arghela "stud farm"); cf. Sanskritargalā 'latch, bolt', Old Englishreced "building, house", Albanianargësh "harrow, crude bridge of crossbars, crude raft supported by skin bladders"
ἀργι(ό)πουςargiopous 'eagle' (LSJ Attic ἀργίπουςargípous 'swift- or white-footed', PIE *hrg'i-pods < PIE *arg + PIE *ped)
ΖειρηνίςZeirênis epithet or alternative for Aphrodite (Seirênis Siren-like)
ἨμαθίαÊmathia ex-name of Macedonia, region of Emathia from mythological Emathus (Homeric amathos êmathoessa, river-sandy land, PIE *samadh. Generally the coastal Lower Macedonia in contrast to mountainous Upper Macedonia. For meadow land (mē-2, m-e-t- to reap), see Pokorny.
ΘαῦλοςThaulos epithet or alternative of Ares (ΘαύλιαThaulia 'festival in DoricTarentum, θαυλίζεινthaulizein 'to celebrate like Dorians', ThessalianΖεὺς ΘαύλιοςZeus Thaulios, the only attested in epigraphy ten times, AthenianΖεὺς ΘαύλωνZeus Thaulôn, Athenian family ΘαυλωνίδαιThaulônidai
λακεδάμαlakedámaὕδωρ ἁλμυρὸν ἄλικι ἐπικεχυμένον salty water with alix, rice-wheat or fish-sauce.(Cf.skorodalmê 'sauce or pickle composed of brine and garlic'). According to Albrecht von Blumenthal,-ama corresponds to Attic ἁλμυρόςhalmurós 'salty'; CretanDoric hauma for Attic halmē; laked- is cognate to Proto-Germanic*laukaleek, possibly related is ΛακεδαίμωνLaked-aímōn, the name of the Spartan land.
λείβηθρονleíbēthron 'stream' (Hes. Attic ῥεῖθρονrheîthron, also λιβάδιονlibádion, 'a small stream', dim. of λιβάςlibás; PIE *lei, 'to flow'); typical Greek productive suffix -θρον (-thron) (Macedonian toponym, Pierian Leibethra place/tomb of Orpheus)
ματτύηςmattuês kind of bird (ματτύηmattuê a meat-dessert of Macedonian or Thessalian origin) (verb mattuazo to prepare the mattue) (Athenaeus)
παραόςparaos eagle or kind of eagle (Attic aetos, Pamphylian aibetos) (PIE *por- 'going, passage' + *awi- 'bird') (Greek para- 'beside' + Hes. aos wind) (It may exist as food in Lopado...pterygon)
περιπέτειαperipeteia or περίτιαperitia Macedonian festival in month Peritios. (Hesychius text περί[πε]τ[ε]ια)
καυσίαkausiafelt hat used by Macedonians, forming part of the regalia of the kings.
κοῖοςkoios number (Athenaeus when talking about Koios, the Titan of intelligence; and the Macedonians use koios as synonymous with arithmos (LSJ: koeô mark, perceive, hear koiazô pledge, Hes. compose s.v. κοίασον, σύνθες) (Laocoön, thyoskoos observer of sacrifices, akouô hear) (All from PIE root *keu to notice, observe, feel; to hear).
πεζέταιροιpezetairoi (wiki Pezhetairoi), Hetairidia, Macedonian religious festival (Attic πεζοί,πεζομάχοι) (Aeolic πέσδοι)
Among the references that have been discussed as possibly bearing some witness to the linguistic situation in Macedonia, there is a sentence from a fragmentary dialogue, apparently between an Athenian and a Macedonian, in an extant fragment of the 5th century BC comedy 'Macedonians' by the Athenian poet Strattis (fr. 28), where a stranger is portrayed as speaking in a rural Greek dialect. His language contains expressions such as ὕμμες ὡττικοί for ὑμεὶς ἀττικοί "you Athenians", ὕμμες being also attested in Homer, Sappho (Lesbian) and Theocritus (Doric), while ὡττικοί appears only in "funny country bumpkin" contexts of Attic comedy.
Another text that has been quoted as evidence is a passage from Livy (lived 59 BC-14 AD) in his Ab urbe condita (31.29). Describing political negotiations between Macedonians and Aetolians in the late 3rd century BC, Livy has a Macedonian ambassador argue that Aetolians, Acarnanians and Macedonians were "men of the same language". This has been interpreted as referring to a shared North-West Greek speech (as opposed to Attic Koiné). In another passage, Livy states that an announcement was translated from Latin to Greek for Macedonians to understand.
Over time, "Macedonian" (μακεδονικός), when referring to language (and related expressions such as μακεδονίζειν; to speak in the Macedonian fashion) acquired the meaning of Koine Greek.
Contributions to the Koine
As a consequence of the Macedonians' role in the formation of the Koine, Macedonian contributed considerable elements, unsurprisingly including some military terminology (διμοιρίτης, ταξίαρχος, ὑπασπισταί, etc.). Among the many contributions were the general use of the first declension grammar for male and female nouns with an -as ending, attested in the genitive of Macedonian coinage from the early 4th century BC of Amyntas III (ΑΜΥΝΤΑ in the genitive; the Attic form that fell into disuse would be ΑΜΥΝΤΟΥ). There were changes in verb conjugation such as in the Imperative δέξα attested in Macedonian sling stones found in Asiatic battlefields, that became adopted in place of the Attic forms. Koine Greek established a spirantisation of beta, gamma and delta, which has been attributed to the Macedonian influence.
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^Eugene N. Borza (1992) In the Shadow of Olympus: The Emergence of Macedon, p. 94 (citing Hammond); G. Horrocks, Greek: A History of the Language and its Speakers (1993), ch.4.1.
^Joseph Roisman; Ian Worthington (7 July 2011). A Companion to Ancient Macedonia. John Wiley & Sons. p. 94. ISBN 978-1-4443-5163-7. Many surviving public and private inscriptions indicate that in the Macedonian kingdom there was no dominant written language but standard Attic and later on koine Greek.
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^Sarah B. Pomeroy, Stanley M. Burstein, Walter Donlan, Jennifer Tolbert Roberts, A Brief History of Ancient Greece: Politics, Society, and Culture, Oxford University Press, 2008, p.289
^ abCrespo, Emilio (2017). "The Softening of Obstruent Consonants in the Macedonian Dialect". In Giannakis, Georgios K.; Crespo, Emilio; Filos, Panagiotis (eds.). Studies in Ancient Greek Dialects: From Central Greece to the Black Sea. Walter de Gruyter. p. 329. ISBN 978-3-11-053081-0.
^Hornblower, Simon (2002). "Macedon, Thessaly and Boiotia". The Greek World, 479-323 BC (Third ed.). Routledge. p. 90. ISBN 0-415-16326-9.
^ abVladimir Georgiev, "The Genesis of the Balkan Peoples", The Slavonic and East European Review44:103:285-297 (July 1966) "Ancient Macedonian is closely related to Greek, and Macedonian and Greek are descended from a common Greek-Macedonian idiom that was spoken till about the second half of the 3rd millennium BC. From the 4th century BC on began the Hellenization of ancient Macedonian."
^B. Joseph (2001): "Ancient Greek". In: J. Garry et al. (eds.) Facts about the world's major languages: an encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. Online paper
^J. P. Mallory & D.Q Adams – Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, Chicago-London: Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. 361. ISBN 1-884964-98-2
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^Brixhe, Claude (2018). "Macedonian". In Klein, Jared; Joseph, Brian; Fritz, Matthias (eds.). Handbook of Comparative and Historical Indo-European Linguistics. Walter de Gruyter. p. 1862-1866. ISBN 978-3-11-054036-9.
^Hatzopoulos, Miltiades B. (2020). Ancient Macedonia. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 3. ISBN 978-3-11-071876-8.
^ abMasson, Olivier (2003) . "[Ancient] Macedonian language". In Hornblower, S.; Spawforth A. (eds.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (revised 3rd ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 905–906. ISBN 0-19-860641-9.
^Hammond, N.G.L (1993) . The Macedonian State. Origins, Institutions and History (reprint ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814927-1.
^Michael Meier-Brügger, Indo-European linguistics, Walter de Gruyter, 2003, p.28,on Google books
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^Hatzopoulos, M. B. (2011). "Macedonia and Macedonians". In Lane Fox, Robin J. (ed.). Brill's Companion to Ancient Macedon: Studies in the Archaeology and History of Macedon, 650 BC – 300 AD. Leiden: Brill. p. 44. ISBN 978-90-04-20650-2.
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^Hammond, N.G.L (1997). Collected Studies: Further studies on various topics. A.M. Hakkert. p. 79.
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^Greek Questions 292e – Question 9 – Why do Delphians call one of their months Bysios .
^Česko-jihoslovenská revue, Volume 4, 1934, p. 187.
^ abAlbrecht von Blumenthal, Hesychstudien, Stuttgart, 1930, 21.
^Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, κεβλήπυρις. Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
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^Olivier Masson, "Sur la notation occasionnelle du digamma grec par d'autres consonnes et la glose macédonienne abroutes", Bulletin de la Société de linguistique de Paris, 90 (1995) 231–239. Also proposed by O. Hoffmann and J. Kalleris.
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^ abPackard Institute epigraphic database http://epigraphy.packhum.org/inscriptions//main Archived 2007-11-21 at the Wayback Machine
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^Roberts, E.S., An Introduction to Greek Epigraphy vol. 1 no. 237
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^J. P. Mallory & D.Q Adams – Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture, Chicago-London: Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. 361. ISBN 1-884964-98-2
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