Andrei Grechko

Summary

Andrei Antonovich Grechko (Russian: Андре́й Анто́нович Гре́чко; 17 October [O.S. 4 October] 1903 – 26 April 1976) was a Soviet general, Marshal of the Soviet Union and Minister of Defense.

Andrei Grechko
Андре́й Гре́чко
Andrei Grechko 3 cropped (a).jpg
Grechko in 1944
Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union
In office
12 April 1967 – 26 April 1976
PremierAlexei Kosygin
Preceded byRodion Malinovsky
Succeeded byDmitriy Ustinov
Full member of the 24th Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
In office
27 April 1973 – 26 April 1976
Personal details
Born
Andrei Antonovich Greczhko

(1903-10-04)4 October 1903
Golodaevka, Don Host Oblast, Russian Empire
Died26 April 1976(1976-04-26) (aged 72)
Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Resting placeKremlin Wall Necropolis, Moscow
Nationality Soviet Union
Political partyCommunist Party of the Soviet Union (1928–1976)
ProfessionSoldier
AwardsHero of the Soviet Union (twice)
Signature
Military service
Allegiance Soviet Russia (1919–1922)
 Soviet Union (1922–1976)
Branch/serviceSoviet Army
Years of service1919–1976
RankRank insignia of маршал Советского Союза.svg Marshal of the Soviet Union (1955–1976)
Commands18th Army
1st Guards Army
Kiev Military District
Battles/warsRussian Civil War
Second World War

BiographyEdit

Born in a small town near Rostov-on-Don on 17 October 1903,[1] the son of Ukrainian[2] peasants, he joined the Red Army in 1919, where he was a part of the "Budyonny Cavalry". After the Russian Civil War, Grechko was enrolled into the 6th Cavalry College in the city of Taganrog, which he graduated in 1926. He joined the Communist Party in 1928, and graduated from the Frunze Military Academy in 1936. He next attended the Soviet General Staff Academy, graduating in 1941, just a few weeks before the beginning of Operation Barbarossa.

Grechko's first command during World War II was of the 34th Cavalry Division, which put up a valiant fight around Kremenchug (near Kyiv) in Ukraine. On 15 January 1942, Grechko was put in command of the 5th Cavalry Corps. Starting 15 April 1942 and lasting until 16 October 1943, Grechko was placed in command of 12th Army, 47th Army, 18th Army, and 56th Army. All of these units were part of the North Caucasus Front, and Grechko led them all with distinction.

In October 1943, Grechko was promoted to Deputy Commander-in-Chief of 1st Ukrainian Front. Then, on 14 December 1943, he was made the Commanding General of 1st Guards Army, a position he held until the end of the war. The First Guards Army was a part of the 4th Ukrainian Front, which was led by Col.-Gen. Ivan Yefimovich Petrov. Grechko led the 1st Guards in a number of offensive operations, predominantly in Hungary and into Austria.

After the war, Grechko was the Commanding General of the Kyiv Military District, until 1953. Between 1953 and 1957, Grechko was the Commander-in-Chief of Soviet Forces in East Germany. On 11 March 1955, Grechko, along with five other high-ranking colleagues, all of whom had gained recognition during World War II, was promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union. From 1957-1960, Grechko was the Commander-in-Chief of the Ground Forces, and from 1960–1967, he was the Commander-in-Chief of the Warsaw Pact Forces[3]). On 12 April 1967, Grechko was made the Minister of Defense, taking over shortly after Marshal Rodion Malinovsky died. Grechko served in this capacity until his death in 1976. During the 1970s, Grechko served as the chairman of the editorial commission that produced the official Soviet history of the Second World War.[4]

Grechko was an active member in the Communist Party, and was a member of the Politburo. As Minister of Defense, Grechko helped modernize the Soviet Army, and was greatly responsible for maintaining the military strength of the Soviet state. As Defense minister, Grechko's most notable idea was his assumption that a Third World War would always go nuclear at some point, and as such he planned that if World War III did begin, to launch all-out nuclear strikes against the NATO nations the moment that the war began.[5] For Grechko, nuclear weapons would be weapons of first resort in a world war, not weapons of last resort.[5] The urn containing his ashes is buried by the Kremlin Wall Necropolis.

Honours and awardsEdit

External linksEdit

  • The Armed Forces of the Soviet Union, book by Grechko published in 1975 and translated into English in 1977
  • Liberation Mission of the Soviet Armed Forces in the Second World War, book edited by Grechko and published (with English translation) in 1975

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Dennis Kavanagh (1998). "Andrei Grechko". A Dictionary of Political Biography. Oxford: OUP. p. 196. Archived from the original on 2019-05-20. Retrieved 2017-08-24.[ISBN missing]
  2. ^ "Герои страны". Archived from the original on 2004-09-07. Retrieved 2019-07-28.
  3. ^ Газета «Северная Осетия» // Гость «СО».
  4. ^ Годы войны. 1941—1943 Archived 2009-03-05 at the Wayback Machine. 1976
  5. ^ a b Cant, James "The SS-20 Missile-Why Were You Pointing at Me?" pages 240-253 from Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy edited by Ljubica and Mark Erickson, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2004 page 245
  6. ^ Дважды Герой Советского Союза Гречко Андрей Антонович на сайте «Герои страны» Archived 2016-08-03 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ Сайт «Молодая Гвардия». А. А. Гречко Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine.
Political offices
Preceded by Minister of Defence of Soviet Union
1967–1976
Succeeded by
Military offices
Preceded by Supreme Commander of the Unified Armed Forces of the Warsaw Treaty Organization
1960–1967
Succeeded by