Angeles Tunnel

Summary

The Angeles Tunnel is a 7.2-mile-long (11.6 km), 30-foot-diameter (9.1 m)[1] water tunnel located in the Sierra Pelona Mountains in Los Angeles County, California, about 50 miles (80 km) north of Los Angeles.[2][3][4] It was constructed between 1967 and 1970 as part of the California State Water Project and serves as the final leg of the west branch of the California Aqueduct, which carries Northern California water to Southern California residents.[4][5]

The terminus of the Angeles Tunnel at the Castaic Power Plant

The tunnel also supplies water to the adjacent Castaic Power Plant, a pumped-storage hydroelectricity generation facility.[3][6][7] To facilitate power generation, the tunnel's flow is bidirectional. During on-peak energy-demand hours, water flows downhill through the tunnel, starting at an elevation of 2,572 feet (784 m) in Pyramid Lake, and then falling over 1,000 feet (300 m) to the turbines of the Castaic Power Plant at 1,519 feet (463 m).[6][8][9] The water is then stored in the Elderberry Forebay, adjacent to Castaic Lake. During off-peak hours, water is pumped uphill through the tunnel in the opposite direction from Elderberry Forebay and returned to Pyramid Lake.[6] This operation reduces the energy cost of moving water along the California Aqueduct.[3]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Pyramid Lake 2000, p. 1, and "South SWP Hydropower", Calif. Dept. of Water Resources. At least one source claims the tunnel is 7.1 miles (11.4 km) long and 36 feet (11 m) in diameter (see Roach 2008, p. 235).
  2. ^ "Angeles Tunnel", U.S. Geological Survey.
  3. ^ a b c Pyramid Lake 2000, p. 1.
  4. ^ a b American Society 1970, p. 131.
  5. ^ Roach 2008, p. 235.
  6. ^ a b c Castaic Lake 2007.
  7. ^ "South SWP Hydropower", Calif. Dept. of Water Resources.
  8. ^ "Pyramid Lake", U.S. Geological Survey.
  9. ^ "Castaic Powerplant", U.S. Geological Survey.

ReferencesEdit

  • American Society for Testing and Materials (1970). Determination of the in Situ Modulus of Deformation of Rock. ASTM International. ISBN 978-0803100619.
  • "Angeles Tunnel". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  • Castaic Lake (PDF). California Department of Water Resources. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-03. Retrieved 2013-11-02.
  • "Castaic Powerplant". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  • Pyramid Lake (PDF). California Department of Water Resources. 2000.
  • "Pyramid Lake". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  • Roach, Michael F. (2008). North American Tunneling 2008 Proceedings. SME. ISBN 978-0873352635.
  • "South SWP Hydropower - Project No. 2426". California Department of Water Resources. Archived from the original on November 3, 2013. Retrieved November 1, 2013.

Coordinates: 34°35′09″N 118°39′58″W / 34.5859°N 118.6662°W / 34.5859; -118.6662