Annual Reviews (publisher)

Summary

Annual Reviews
Annual Reviews logo.png
The Logo of Annual Reviews
Founded1932 (1932)
FounderJ. Murray Luck
Country of originUnited States
Headquarters location1875 S Grant St., Suite 700, San Mateo, California[1]
Key peopleRichard B. Gallagher, president and editor-in-chief
Publication typesAcademic journals, online magazine
Nonfiction topicsLife, biomedical, physical, and social sciences
Official websiteannualreviews.org

Annual Reviews is an independent, non-profit academic publishing company based in San Mateo, California. It publishes 51 journals of review articles in the life, biomedical, physical, and social sciences.[2] Review articles are usually “peer-invited” solicited submissions, often planned years in advance, which go through a peer-review process.[3] The organizational structure has three levels: a volunteer board of directors, editorial committees of experts for each journal, and paid employees.[4]

Annual Reviews' stated mission is to synthesize and integrate knowledge "for the progress of science and the benefit of society".[5][6] The first Annual Reviews journal, the Annual Review of Biochemistry, was published in 1932 under the editorship of Stanford University chemist J. Murray Luck, who wanted to create a resource that provided critical reviews on contemporary research. The second journal was added in 1939. By 1982, Annual Reviews published 24 titles, and by 2021 it published 51. In 2016, the company piloted the "Subscribe to Open" publishing model, under which a journal's newest volume is published as open access content as long as enough subscriptions are sold.

History

Annual Review of Biochemistry

The Annual Review of Biochemistry was the creation of Stanford University chemist and professor J. Murray Luck.[6][7] In designing a course for graduate students in 1930, he saw the need for a resource that condensed the large volume of biochemistry research into review articles. Luck asked about 50 biochemists in the US, United Kingdom, and Canada if an annual volume of critical reviews on biochemistry research would be useful. Response was positive.[7][8][9]

Luck formed an initial advisory ccmmittee which included Carl L. Alsberg at Stanford,[10] and Dennis Robert Hoagland[11][12] and Carl Louis August Schmidt from the University of California, Berkeley.[13][14][15][7] Stanford University Press agreed to publish the journal on a three-year contract, with financial assistance from the Chemical Foundation headed by Francis Garvan.[7][8][16] Stanford University gave the journal rent-free office space in the Physiology building (Outer Quad) beginning in 1931.[9][17]: 6  The first volume of the Annual Review of Biochemistry was published as of May 3, 1932.[18]

Legal identity

At the completion of the contract with Stanford University Press, the advisory committee of the journal decided to assume a legal identity as the journal's publisher, though keeping Stanford University Press as the printer. On December 12, 1934, they submitted articles of incorporation with the California Secretary of State to create Annual Review of Biochemistry, Ltd., which was organized as a nonprofit.[17]: 3  In February 1938, the name was changed to Annual Reviews, Inc.[8] On March 28, 2008, the California Secretary of State approved an amendment to the Articles of Incorporation to change the name officially to Annual Reviews.[19]

Leadership

J. Murray Luck worked for Annual Reviews from 1932 to 1968 and was the founding editor-in-chief of its first two journals: the Annual Review of Biochemistry (1932-1965) and the Annual Review of Physiology (1939-1946).[20] As further journals were added, each one had its own Editorial Committee, whose editors-in-chief took the title "Editor" or "Co-editor".[21] Luck retired from the Editor-in-chief position as of 1969. He continued to serve on the Board of Directors as an emeritus member, as well as on the Editorial Committee of the Annual Review of Biochemistry.[22]

Robert R. Schultz was the organization's official Editor-in-chief from 1970 to 1972.[23][24] William Kaufmann became Editor-in-chief of the organization from 1973 to 1981,[25][26][27]: 35  followed by Alister Brass from 1981 to 1983.[28][29] Kaufmann returned from 1983 to 1992. Robert Hall Haynes served as Editor-in-chief of the organization from 1992[30] to 1995.[27]: 35  He was succeeded by Samuel Gubins, who held the positions of President and Editor-in-chief from 1995 to 2015.[31] The current President and Editor-in-chief, Richard B. Gallagher, succeeded Gubins in 2015.[32]

Expansion

Line chart showing the number of Annual Reviews journals over time

In 1938, Annual Reviews and the American Physiological Society agreed to collaborate to create a new journal. The first volume of the Annual Review of Physiology was published in 1939, with the help of Victor E. Hall as assistant editor.[33] Although the original intent was to be international in scope, the first European editors were not included until 1948, following World War II.[34]

A third journal, the Annual Review of Microbiology, was created in 1947 under the editorship of Charles E. Clifton.[35] The increased volume of printing was not feasible for Stanford University Press, so printing of Annual Review of Physiology, Annual Review of Microbiology and later volumes of Annual Review of Biochemistry was contracted out to the George Banta Company of Menasha, Wisconsin.[17]

Annual Reviews journals were recommended to teachers and librarians as well as scientists.[36] In the 1950s, titles in medicine,[37] psychology,[38] plant physiology,[39] physical chemistry,[40] nuclear and particle science,[41] and entomology were added.[42] Stanford University began to have a serious space shortage, which resulted in Annual Reviews constructing a new office building in nearby Palo Alto, California in 1956. After Santa Clara County used eminent domain to take the property at 231 Grant Avenue, Annual Reviews moved again in 1968, to 4139 El Camino Way, Palo Alto.[43][17]

By 1982, 24 titles were being published by Annual Reviews.[8] After becoming editor-in-chief in 1995, Samuel Gubins oversaw both a further expansion of journal titles and the first electronic publishing of Annual Reviews journals. The Annual Review of Sociology and the Annual Review of Medicine were the first to be published electronically, in 1996.[44] In 2002, the publisher's entire publication history, covering 70 years and approximately 475,000 pages and 5,400 images, was digitized.[45][46] The thirtieth journal title was published in 2000. Another 22 titles were added between 2005 and 2019. As of 2021, Annual Reviews has published 52 journals under 64 title variants. Only one, the Annual Review of Computer Science, is no longer in publication.[47]

Annual Reviews has also released some specialty publications: The Excitement and Fascination of Science (1965, 1978, 1990, 1995), consisting of four volumes of autobiographies and reflections by prominent scientists,[48] and Intelligence and Affectivity (1981), a translated volume of lectures given by Jean Piaget in the 1950s.[49]

In 2017, Annual Reviews announced its first online magazine, Knowable Magazine, with support from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. With Knowable Magazine, Annual Reviews made a move from scholarly publishing into science journalism and science communication, explaining and emphasizing the real-world significance of scholarly work.[50]

In 2021, Annual Reviews moved its physical office to 1875 S Grant St., Suite 700, San Mateo, California.[1]

Journal format and metrics

Each journal publishes one volume per year. As of 2021, all 51 of the current journals are published online,[2] including 21 exclusively online, with 30 journals additionally published in print.[51]

As of 2021, researchers at McGill and Stanford University examined the impact of review articles using a corpus of 6,495 individual review papers published in 54 past and current Annual Reviews journal titles in the biological, physical, and social sciences. The authors noted that Annual Review publications often focus on emerging fields that may be undergoing structural transformations. Examining impact on scholarly discourse, they concluded that "formal, invited Annual Review articles provide a distinctly authoritative source". By identifying "distinct clusters of work" and articles that bridge such clusters, review articles can integrate a topic. Research suggests that they can "shift discourse in a manner that simultaneously simplifies and collapses a knowledge community", helping to define and organize emergent research areas.[4]

Subscribe to Open publishing model

Line chart showing the PDF and HTML downloads of the Annual Review of Public Health (purple) after it became open access in 2017. The Annual Review of Medicine (blue) and the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology (red), which are paywalled, are shown for comparison.[52]
External audio
audio icon Episode 76 "Annual Reviews: Evolving to Better Serve the Public Good", The Authority File, 05/04/2019
audio icon Episode 77 "Annual Reviews: Public Health, an Open-Access Test Case for Review Literature", The Authority File, 03/11/2019
audio icon Episode 78 "Annual Reviews: Science for a Functional Democracy", The Authority File, 03/18/2019
audio icon Episode 79 "Annual Reviews: Subscribe to Open", The Authority File, 03/25/2019

In 2016, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation awarded six grants for examining the potential for open science and open access, as part of an initiative for Increasing Openness and Transparency in Research. One of the awardees was Annual Reviews, which was interested in finding ways to remove barriers to access to scientific publications.[53][54] Annual Reviews used the grant to release the Annual Review of Public Health under an open access license in April 2017, and tracked the impact of the change in licensing.[55]

By May 2019, usage of the journal had increased eight-fold relative to 2016 to about 200,000 downloads monthly. For comparison, the titles for clinical psychology and medicine that maintained gated access showed no change in usage. In addition, the audience for the journal increased from 1,100 institutions in 57 countries (2016) to 7,220 institutions in 137 countries (2018).[52]

Annual Reviews has continued to explore the possibilities of open access by developing the "Subscribe to Open" (S2O) publishing model.[54][56] Subscribe-to-open is an example of an assurance contract.[57] In the S20 pilot for 2020, subscribing institutions were asked to maintain their existing subscriptions to the offered journals, less a 5% discount, on the understanding that if enough subscriptions were received, the final content for the journals would be published as open access. If enough subscriptions were not received, the content would remain paywalled.[58][52][59][60] In this way S2O appealed to the individual subscriber's economic self-interest (receiving a discount instead of paying full price), and avoided reliance on collective behavior or altruism.[52] The approach allowed participating publishers to convert content from gated to open access on a year-to-year basis.[59]

As of September 1, 2019, the 2020 pilot program for S2O included two publishers, Annual Reviews and Berghahn Books, both of whom opened part of their content.[54][56] Annual Reviews offered five titles in the S2O pilot, the Annual Review of Cancer Biology, the Annual Review of Environment and Resources, the Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science, the Annual Review of Political Science, and the Annual Review of Public Health. All were published as open access through the subscribe-to-open approach.[52][61]

Additional publishers have since adopted the subscribe-to-open approach, which is seen as benefiting libraries, researchers and publishers alike.[62][63][64] In a survey commissioned by the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers to determine how publishers aligned with Plan S, authors Alicia Wise and Lorraine Estelle called Subscribe to Open "the most promising" transformative agreement for publishers, as it offers a predictable revenue stream.[59] : 2 [65]

Availability

Annual Reviews journals are available in a number of ways, depending in part on the journal. Each journal is available electronically with many also offered as a bound annual volume. Subscriptions are offered for the online version, print version, or both when print is available, and individual articles can be purchased online. Journals are also available as a database consisting of some or all of the journals, with site licenses.[66][67]

Effective January 2008, purchasing a subscription includes online access that entitles the subscriber to permanent access rights to that volume regardless of future subscription status.[67] In 2017 and 2018, the Annual Review of Public Health was available without subscription.[68] The 2019 volume requires a subscription. While previous volumes may be freely available to read, they may not be published under an open license.[69]

The 2020 open access journal volumes are the: Annual Review of Cancer Biology, Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science, Annual Review of Political Science, and Annual Review of Public Health.[52][61] In 2021, the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering and the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics were also published under the subscribe-to-open model.[2][70]

Rankings

As of 2021, Journal Citation Reports has given 18 Annual Reviews journal titles a rank of "1", indicating high quality and importance in their respective categories. The top five Annual Reviews titles by impact factor are:[71]

Organization structure

Richard Gallagher, president and editor-in-chief since 2015

There are three leadership structures within Annual Reviews: The board of directors and its committees, editors and editorial committees, and a management team. The board of directors consists of experts of various scientific disciplines, philanthropists, and business people, who serve as volunteers. The board is assisted by the business affairs committee and editorial affairs committee. Together, the board and its committees develop and approve fiscal policies and budgets. They also review the organization's financial performance and publishing strategy.[27] The contents of each journal published by Annual Reviews is selected by the lead editor or co-editors and their editorial committees, about ten members total, who are researchers in the discipline. Committee terms are five years.[21] The management team provides expertise in academic publishing, and is led by the president, who is also its editor-in-chief.[72] As of 2018, the board is chaired by Karen S. Cook, professor of sociology at Stanford University.[73] The vice-chairperson is Sandra M. Faber, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at University of California, Santa Cruz.[72][74]

List of journals

Annual Reviews publishes a variety of journals in the biomedical and life sciences, physical sciences, and social sciences, including economics. Years in parentheses indicate the first year of publication. As of 2021, the publications included the following:

A

B

C

D

  • Annual Review of Developmental Psychology (2019)

E

F

G

I

K

  • Knowable Magazine (2017)

L

M

N

O

P

R

S

V

References

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External links

  • Annual Reviews home page