The antiproton,
, (pronounced p-bar) is the antiparticle of the proton. Antiprotons are stable, but they are typically short-lived, since any collision with a proton will cause both particles to be annihilated in a burst of energy.

The quark content of the antiproton.
Composition2 up antiquarks, 1 down antiquark
InteractionsStrong, weak, electromagnetic, gravity
TheorisedPaul Dirac (1933)
DiscoveredEmilio Segrè & Owen Chamberlain (1955)
Mass1.67262192595(52)×10−27 kg[1]
938.27208943(29) MeV/c2[2]
Electric charge−1 e
Magnetic moment−2.7928473441(42) μN [3]

The existence of the antiproton with electric charge of −1 e, opposite to the electric charge of +1 e of the proton, was predicted by Paul Dirac in his 1933 Nobel Prize lecture.[4] Dirac received the Nobel Prize for his 1928 publication of his Dirac equation that predicted the existence of positive and negative solutions to Einstein's energy equation () and the existence of the positron, the antimatter analog of the electron, with opposite charge and spin.

The antiproton was first experimentally confirmed in 1955 at the Bevatron particle accelerator by University of California, Berkeley, physicists Emilio Segrè and Owen Chamberlain, for which they were awarded the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physics.

In terms of valence quarks, an antiproton consists of two up antiquarks and one down antiquark (


). The properties of the antiproton that have been measured all match the corresponding properties of the proton, with the exception that the antiproton has electric charge and magnetic moment that are the opposites of those in the proton, which is to be expected from the antimatter equivalent of a proton. The questions of how matter is different from antimatter, and the relevance of antimatter in explaining how our universe survived the Big Bang, remain open problems—open, in part, due to the relative scarcity of antimatter in today's universe.

Occurrence in nature edit

Antiprotons have been detected in cosmic rays beginning in 1979, first by balloon-borne experiments and more recently by satellite-based detectors. The standard picture for their presence in cosmic rays is that they are produced in collisions of cosmic ray protons with atomic nuclei in the interstellar medium, via the reaction, where A represents a nucleus:

+ A →
+ A

The secondary antiprotons (
) then propagate through the galaxy, confined by the galactic magnetic fields. Their energy spectrum is modified by collisions with other atoms in the interstellar medium, and antiprotons can also be lost by "leaking out" of the galaxy.[5]

The antiproton cosmic ray energy spectrum is now measured reliably and is consistent with this standard picture of antiproton production by cosmic ray collisions.[5] These experimental measurements set upper limits on the number of antiprotons that could be produced in exotic ways, such as from annihilation of supersymmetric dark matter particles in the galaxy or from the Hawking radiation caused by the evaporation of primordial black holes. This also provides a lower limit on the antiproton lifetime of about 1–10 million years. Since the galactic storage time of antiprotons is about 10 million years, an intrinsic decay lifetime would modify the galactic residence time and distort the spectrum of cosmic ray antiprotons. This is significantly more stringent than the best laboratory measurements of the antiproton lifetime:

The magnitude of properties of the antiproton are predicted by CPT symmetry to be exactly related to those of the proton. In particular, CPT symmetry predicts the mass and lifetime of the antiproton to be the same as those of the proton, and the electric charge and magnetic moment of the antiproton to be opposite in sign and equal in magnitude to those of the proton. CPT symmetry is a basic consequence of quantum field theory and no violations of it have ever been detected.

List of recent cosmic ray detection experiments edit

  • BESS: balloon-borne experiment, flown in 1993, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004 (Polar-I) and 2007 (Polar-II).
  • CAPRICE: balloon-borne experiment, flown in 1994[8] and 1998.
  • HEAT: balloon-borne experiment, flown in 2000.
  • AMS: space-based experiment, prototype flown on the Space Shuttle in 1998, intended for the International Space Station, launched May 2011.
  • PAMELA: satellite experiment to detect cosmic rays and antimatter from space, launched June 2006. Recent report discovered 28 antiprotons in the South Atlantic Anomaly.[9]

Modern experiments and applications edit

BEV-938. Antiproton set-up with work group: Emilio Segre, Clyde Wiegand, Edward J. Lofgren, Owen Chamberlain, Thomas Ypsilantis, 1955

Production edit

Antiprotons were routinely produced at Fermilab for collider physics operations in the Tevatron, where they were collided with protons. The use of antiprotons allows for a higher average energy of collisions between quarks and antiquarks than would be possible in proton–proton collisions. This is because the valence quarks in the proton, and the valence antiquarks in the antiproton, tend to carry the largest fraction of the proton or antiproton's momentum.

Formation of antiprotons requires energy equivalent to a temperature of 10 trillion K (1013 K), and this does not tend to happen naturally. However, at CERN, protons are accelerated in the Proton Synchrotron to an energy of 26 GeV and then smashed into an iridium rod. The protons bounce off the iridium nuclei with enough energy for matter to be created. A range of particles and antiparticles are formed, and the antiprotons are separated off using magnets in vacuum.

Measurements edit

In July 2011, the ASACUSA experiment at CERN determined the mass of the antiproton to be 1836.1526736(23) times that of the electron.[10] This is the same as the mass of a proton, within the level of certainty of the experiment.

In October 2017, scientists working on the BASE experiment at CERN reported a measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment to a precision of 1.5 parts per billion.[11][12] It is consistent with the most precise measurement of the proton magnetic moment (also made by BASE in 2014), which supports the hypothesis of CPT symmetry. This measurement represents the first time that a property of antimatter is known more precisely than the equivalent property in matter.

In January 2022, by comparing the charge-to-mass ratios between antiproton and negatively charged hydrogen ion, the BASE experiment has determined the antiproton's charge-to-mass ratio is identical to the proton's, down to 16 parts per trillion.[13][14]

Possible applications edit

Antiprotons have been shown within laboratory experiments to have the potential to treat certain cancers, in a similar method currently used for ion (proton) therapy.[15] The primary difference between antiproton therapy and proton therapy is that following ion energy deposition the antiproton annihilates, depositing additional energy in the cancerous region.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "2022 CODATA Value: proton mass". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. May 2024. Retrieved 2024-05-18.
  2. ^ "2022 CODATA Value: proton mass energy equivalent in MeV". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST. May 2024. Retrieved 2024-05-18.
  3. ^ Smorra, C.; Sellner, S.; Borchert, M. J.; Harrington, J. A.; Higuchi, T.; Nagahama, H.; Tanaka, T.; Mooser, A.; Schneider, G.; Bohman, M.; Blaum, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Ospelkaus, C.; Quint, W.; Walz, J.; Yamazaki, Y.; Ulmer, S. (2017). "A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment" (PDF). Nature. 550 (7676): 371–374. Bibcode:2017Natur.550..371S. doi:10.1038/nature24048. PMID 29052625. S2CID 205260736.
  4. ^ Dirac, Paul A. M. (1933). "Theory of electrons and positrons".
  5. ^ a b Kennedy, Dallas C. (2000). Ramsey, Brian D.; Parnell, Thomas A. (eds.). "Cosmic Ray Antiprotons". Proceedings of SPIE. Gamma-Ray and Cosmic-Ray Detectors, Techniques, and Missions. 2806: 113–120. arXiv:astro-ph/0003485. doi:10.1117/12.253971. S2CID 16664737.
  6. ^ Caso, C.; et al. (1998). "Particle Data Group" (PDF). European Physical Journal C. 3 (1–4): 1–783. Bibcode:1998EPJC....3....1P. CiteSeerX doi:10.1007/s10052-998-0104-x. S2CID 195314526. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2008-03-16.
  7. ^ Sellner, S.; et al. (2017). "Improved limit on the directly measured antiproton lifetime". New Journal of Physics. 19 (8): 083023. Bibcode:2017NJPh...19h3023S. doi:10.1088/1367-2630/aa7e73.
  8. ^ "Cosmic AntiParticle Ring Imaging Cherenkov Experiment (CAPRICE)". Universität Siegen. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  9. ^ Adriani, O.; Barbarino, G. C.; Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Bellotti, R.; Boezio, M.; Bogomolov, E. A.; Bongi, M.; Bonvicini, V.; Borisov, S.; Bottai, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Carbone, R.; Carlson, P.; Casolino, M.; Castellini, G.; Consiglio, L.; De Pascale, M. P.; De Santis, C.; De Simone, N.; Di Felice, V.; Galper, A. M.; Gillard, W.; Grishantseva, L.; Jerse, G.; Karelin, A. V.; Kheymits, M. D.; Koldashov, S. V.; et al. (2011). "The Discovery of Geomagnetically Trapped Cosmic-Ray Antiprotons". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 737 (2): L29. arXiv:1107.4882. Bibcode:2011ApJ...737L..29A. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/737/2/L29.
  10. ^ Hori, M.; Sótér, Anna; Barna, Daniel; Dax, Andreas; Hayano, Ryugo; Friedreich, Susanne; Juhász, Bertalan; Pask, Thomas; et al. (2011). "Two-photon laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium and the antiproton-to-electron mass ratio". Nature. 475 (7357): 484–8. arXiv:1304.4330. doi:10.1038/nature10260. PMID 21796208. S2CID 4376768.
  11. ^ Adamson, Allan (19 October 2017). "Universe Should Not Actually Exist: Big Bang Produced Equal Amounts Of Matter And Antimatter". Retrieved 26 October 2017.
  12. ^ Smorra C.; et al. (20 October 2017). "A parts-per-billion measurement of the antiproton magnetic moment" (PDF). Nature. 550 (7676): 371–374. Bibcode:2017Natur.550..371S. doi:10.1038/nature24048. PMID 29052625. S2CID 205260736.
  13. ^ "BASE breaks new ground in matter–antimatter comparisons". CERN. Retrieved 2022-01-05.
  14. ^ Borchert, M. J.; Devlin, J. A.; Erlewein, S. R.; Fleck, M.; Harrington, J. A.; Higuchi, T.; Latacz, B. M.; Voelksen, F.; Wursten, E. J.; Abbass, F.; Bohman, M. A. (2022-01-05). "A 16-parts-per-trillion measurement of the antiproton-to-proton charge–mass ratio". Nature. 601 (7891): 53–57. Bibcode:2022Natur.601...53B. doi:10.1038/s41586-021-04203-w. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 34987217. S2CID 245709321.
  15. ^ "Antiproton portable traps and medical applications" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-22.