Antonov An-28


The Antonov An-28 (NATO reporting name Cash) is a twin-engined light turboprop transport aircraft, developed from the Antonov An-14M. It was the winner of a competition against the Beriev Be-30, for use by Aeroflot as a short-range airliner.[1] It first flew in 1969. A total of 191 were built and 16 remain in airline service as at August 2015.[2] After a short pre-production series built by Antonov, it was licence-built in Poland by PZL-Mielec. In 1993, PZL-Mielec developed its own improved variant, the PZL M28 Skytruck.

Antonov An-28 in 2008
Role Short-range airliner, utility aircraft
Design group Antonov
Built by WSK PZL Mielec
First flight September 1969
Introduction 1986
Status Operational
Primary user Aeroflot (former)
Produced 1975–1993
Number built 191
Developed from Antonov An-14
Variants PZL M28
Developed into Antonov An-38

Development Edit

The An-28 is similar to the An-14 in many aspects, including its wing structure and twin rudders, but features an expanded fuselage and turboprop engines, in place of the An-14's piston engines. The An-28 first flew as a modified An-14 in 1969. The next preproduction model did not fly until 1975. In passenger carrying configuration, accommodation was provided for up to 15 people, in addition to the two-man crew.[3] Production was transferred to PZL-Mielec in 1978. The first Polish-built aircraft did not fly until 1984. The An-28 finally received its Soviet type certificate in 1986.

Variants Edit

The original Antonov designation for an enlarged, twin-turboprop version of the An-14.
Twin-engined short-range utility transport aircraft, three built.
An-28RM Bryza 1RM
Search and rescue, air ambulance aircraft.
An-28TD Bryza 1TD
Transport version.
Variant made in Poland with Pratt & Whitney PT6 engines first flown 22 July 1993.

Operators Edit

Civil operators Edit

An-28 on USSR postal stamp

Major operators of the 16 Antonov An-28 aircraft remaining in airline service include:

  • Skiva Air (2)

Former civilian operators Edit

  • Avluga-Trans (11)
  • Blue Wing Airlines (formerly operated five with three lost in crashes on 3 April 2008, 15 October 2009, and 15 May 2010)

Military operators Edit


Former military operators Edit


Former operators Edit

  Soviet Union

Notable accidents and incidents Edit

19 October 1992
Aeroflot Flight 302 stalled and crashed shortly after takeoff from Ust-Nem, Russia following a loss of control due to engine failure, killing 15 of 16 on board.[6]
29 December 1999
Ecuato Guineana (3C-JJI) An-28 crashed into the Black Sea off İnebolu, killing all six people on board.[7]
23 November 2001
ELK Airways Flight 1007, an An-28 ES-NOV operated by Enimex, struck trees and crashed about 1.5 km from the airport while attempting to land in bad weather at Kärdla Airport, Estonia. Of the 14 passengers and 3 crew on board, 2 passengers were killed.[8]
29 August 2002
Vostok Aviation Company Flight 359 struck a mountain slope near Ayan, Russia after the pilot descended too soon during the approach to Ayan, killing all 16 on board.[9]
25 May 2005
A chartered Maniema Union An-28, owned by Victoria Air, crashed into a mountain near Walungu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, about 30 minutes after takeoff. All of the 22 passengers and five crew members were killed.
3 August 2006
A TRACEP-Congo Aviation An-28 (9Q-COM) struck a mountainside in low cloud while descending for Bukavu, Democratic Republic of the Congo, killing all 17 on board.[10]
3 April 2008
A Blue Wing Airlines An-28 crashed upon landing near Benzdorp in Suriname. All 19 on board were killed.[11]
15 October 2009
A Blue Wing Airlines An-28 overran the runway on landing at Kwamelasemoetoe Airstrip, Suriname and hit an obstacle. The aircraft was substantially damaged and four people were injured, one seriously.[12]
15 May 2010
A Blue Wing Airlines An-28 crashed over the upper Marowijne district approximately 5 kilometres (3 mi) north-east of Poketi, Suriname. The two pilots and six passengers died.[13]
30 January 2012
A TRACEP-Congo Aviation An-28 crashed while on a domestic cargo flight from Bukavu-Kamenbe Airport to Namoya Airstrip, Democratic Republic of the Congo, killing three of the five crew.[14]
12 September 2012
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Air Flight 251 crashed while on a domestic flight from Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky to Palana Airport, killing ten of 14 people.[15]
16 July 2021
SiLA Airlines Flight 42 force-landed and crashed upside-down in the Bakcharsky District, Tomsk Oblast, Russia after both engines failed due to icing; all 18 on board survived.[16]
27 February 2022

An An-28 was damaged by Russian artillery during the attack on Hostomel.[17][18]

Specifications (An-28) Edit

Comparison of the An-14 and the An-28

Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1993–94[19]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Capacity:
    • 17 passengers or
    • 1,750 kg (3,860 lb)
  • Length: 13.10 m (43 ft 0 in)
  • Wingspan: 22.06 m (72 ft 5 in)
  • Height: 4.90 m (16 ft 1 in)
  • Wing area: 39.72 m2 (427.5 sq ft)
  • Airfoil: TsAGI R-II-14 (14% thickness)
  • Empty weight: 3,900 kg (8,598 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 6,500 kg (14,330 lb)
  • Fuel capacity: 1,960 L (430 imp gal; 520 US gal)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Glushenkov TVD-10B turboprop engines, 720 kW (960 shp) each
  • Propellers: 3-bladed AW-24AN, 2.80 m (9 ft 2 in) diameter


  • Maximum speed: 350 km/h (220 mph, 190 kn) at 3,000 m (9,800 ft)
  • Cruise speed: 335 km/h (208 mph, 181 kn) at 3,000 m (9,800 ft)
  • Never exceed speed: 390 km/h (240 mph, 210 kn)
  • Range: 1,365 km (848 mi, 737 nmi) (max fuel, 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) payload)
  • Service ceiling: 6,000 m (20,000 ft)
  • g limits: +3
  • Rate of climb: 8.3 m/s (1,640 ft/min)
  • Take-off run to 10.7 m (35 ft): 410 m (1,350 ft)
  • Landing run from 15 m (50 ft): 315 m (1,033 ft)

See also Edit

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

References Edit

  1. ^ Lundgren, Johan (1996–2006). "The Antonov/PZL Mielec An-28". AirNav Systems LLC. Archived from the original on 18 June 2006. Retrieved 1 July 2006.
  2. ^ Morrison, Murdo; Fafard, Antoine (31 July 2015). "World Airliner Census 2015". Flightglobal Insight. Flight International (Flightglobal, published 11 August 2015)
  3. ^ Green, W. 1976. The Observer's Book of Aircraft. (25th ed.) Frederick Warne & Co. pp. 254. ISBN 0-7232-1553-7
  4. ^ Hoyle 2016, p. 35.
  5. ^ Hoyle 2016, p. 48.
  6. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Antonov An-28 CCCP-28785 Ust-Nem". Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  7. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Antonov An-28 3C-JJI Inebolu". Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  8. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Antonov 28 ES-NOV Kärdla".
  9. ^ Accident description for RA-28932 at the Aviation Safety Network
  10. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Antonov An-28 9Q-COM Bukavu". Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  11. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Antonov An-28 PZ-TSO Lawa-Antino Airport". Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  12. ^ "Accident description". Aviation safety network. Archived from the original on 30 October 2009. Retrieved 18 October 2009.
  13. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Antonov An-28 PZ-TSV Poeketi". Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  14. ^ "9Q-CUN? Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 5 February 2012.
  15. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Antonov An-28 RA-28715 Palana Airport". Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  16. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Antonov An-28 RA-28728 Kedrovo". Retrieved 4 June 2022.
  17. ^ "В ДП «Антонов» розповіли про знищені літаки в Гостомелі". (in Ukrainian). 4 April 2022.
  18. ^ "Утилізовувати Ан-225 "Мрія" не будуть, тривають слідчі дії – Дмитро Антонов". (in Ukrainian). 5 June 2022. As for other planes that remained in Gostomel, the pilot said that the An-74 and An-26 were destroyed. But An-22 and An-124 "Ruslan" are damaged. Regarding their recovery, the pilot said:"I believe that Ruslan will be restored, An-28 will be restored. The An-22 may also be restored, but it has been severely damaged."
  19. ^ Lambert 1993, pp. 231–233
  • Hoyle, Craig (6–12 December 2016). "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International. Vol. 190, no. 5566. pp. 22–53. ISSN 0015-3710.
  • Lambert, Mark, ed. (1993). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1993–94. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Data Division. ISBN 0-7106-1066-1.

External links Edit

  • List of all PZL M28 aircraft used by Polish Air Force
  • An-28/M28/M28B production list