عَرَب ('arab) (in Arabic)
|c. 450 million (2011 est.)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Arab League 430,000,000|
|Significant Arab diaspora|
(including partial ancestry)
|Israel (native)||1,700,000[improper synthesis?]|
|Iran (native)[clarification needed]||1,500,000|
|Chad (native)[clarification needed]||1,493,410|
|Canada||380,620 (2011 Census)|
|Predominantly: Islam |
(Sunni · Shia · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawite)
Sizable minority: Christianity
(Greek Orthodox · Greek Catholic)
Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions (Druze · Bahá'í Faith)
Historically: Pre-Islamic Arabian polytheism
|Related ethnic groups|
|Other Afroasiatic-speaking peoples, especially Semitic peoples such as Assyrians and Jews|
a Arab ethnicity should not be confused with non-Arab ethnicities that are also native to the Arab world.
b Not all Arabs are Muslims and not all Muslims are Arabs. An Arab can follow any religion or irreligion.
c Arab identity is defined independently of religious identity.
Arabs (/ˈærəbz/; Arabic: عَرَب, ISO 233 ‘arab; Arabic pronunciation: [ˈʕarab] (listen)) are a ethnic group inhabiting the Arab world. They primarily live in the Arab states in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and western Indian Ocean islands. They also form a significant diaspora, with Arab communities established around the world.
The first mention of Arabs is from the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people in eastern and southern Syria and the north of the Arabian Peninsula. The Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (911–612 BCE), and the succeeding Neo-Babylonian (626–539 BCE), Achaemenid (539–332 BCE), Seleucid, and Parthian empires. Arab tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids, begin to appear in the southern Syrian Desert from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to later stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires.
Before the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661 C.E.), "Arab" referred to any of the largely nomadic and settled Semitic people from the Arabian Peninsula, Syrian Desert, and North and Lower Mesopotamia. Today, "Arab" refers to a large number of people whose native regions form the Arab world due to the spread of Arabs and the Arabic language throughout the region during the early Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries and the subsequent Arabisation of indigenous populations. The Arabs forged the Rashidun (632–661), Umayyad (661–750), Abbasid (750–1517) and the Fatimid (901–1071) caliphates, whose borders reached southern France in the west, China in the east, Anatolia in the north, and the Sudan in the south. This was one of the largest land empires in history. In the early 20th century, the