Arabic Braille

Summary

Arabic Braille (Arabic: بِرَيْل الْعَرَبِيَّة, birayl alʿarabīyah) is the braille alphabet for the Arabic language. It descends from a braille alphabet brought to Egypt by an English missionary prior to 1878, so the letter assignments generally correspond to English Braille and to the same romanization as in other braille systems, like Greek and Russian. However, there were once multiple standards, some of which (such as Algerian Braille) were unrelated to Egyptian Braille. A unified Arabic Braille was adopted in the 1950s as part of the move toward international braille, and it is the standard throughout the Arab world.[1] Other Arabic-based alphabets have braille systems similar to Arabic Braille, such as Urdu and Persian Braille, but differ in some letter and diacritic assignments.[2]

Arabic Braille
Script type
abjad
ca. 1950
Print basis
Arabic alphabet
LanguagesArabic
Related scripts
Parent systems
Braille

Arabic Braille is read from left to right, following the international convention. Numbers are also left to right, as in printed Arabic.

Arabic braille chartEdit

Arabic braille includes numerous abbreviations, some marked by dot 4 or dot 5 (the comma), which are not described here. A conference in Saudi Arabia in 2002 set up a unified braille standard for Arabic, but as of 2013 not all countries had signed up; those not adopting the standard include some Arab countries but also non-Arab Muslim countries such as Iran, Malaysia, and Indonesia.

LettersEdit

Although short-vowel letters are not diacritics in Arabic Braille, they are optional and generally omitted, just as in print Arabic.

Print ا ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر
Braille                    
Braille (Unicode)
Print ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف
Braille                    
Braille (Unicode)
Print ق ك ل م ن ه و ي ى ة
Braille                    
Braille (Unicode)
Print ال أ إ آ أو ؤ ئ ء
Braille                  
Braille (Unicode)
Print ــُ ــَ ــِ ــٌ ــً ــٍ ــْ ــّ
Braille                
Braille (Unicode)

Shaddahــّ‎⟩ comes before the consonant; sukunــْ‎⟩ and the vowels after.

Punctuation and formattingEdit

There are some differences in quotation marks, brackets, and underlining between traditional and unified Arabic braille conventions.

Common punctuation
Print ، ؛ : . ! ؟ -
Braille               
Braille (Unicode) ⠐⠂
Legacy punctuation
Print “...” (...) * abbre-
viation
under-
lining
Braille               
Braille (Unicode) ⠦ ⠴ ⠶ ⠶ ⠔⠔
Unified Arabic punctuation
Print “...” (...) [...] {...} underlining
Braille                       
Braille (Unicode) ⠶ ⠶ ⠦ ⠴ ⠠⠦ ⠴⠄ ⠐⠦ ⠴⠂ ⠠⠤

See alsoEdit

 
A sample of Moon type in various languages including Arabic.
  • Moon type is a simplification of the Latin alphabet for embossing. An adaptation for Arabic-reading blind people has been proposed.

External linksEdit

  • Arabic to Braille Translator

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Archived copy". www.sagma.ma. Archived from the original on 5 June 2007. Retrieved 14 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "World Braille Usage" (PDF). UNESCO. Retrieved 2012-04-27.