Ariaramnes was most likely the brother of Cyrus I of Anshan and son of Teispes, but this is not certain. In any case, he was a member of the Achaemenid House. As supported by the relief at Behistun he was the first king of a separate Achaemenid branch that ran parallel[clarification needed] to the reigns of Cyrus I and his son Cambyses I. As the great-grandfather of Darius the Great, this line ultimately absorbs the Dynasty and dominates the Persian Empire.
Sometime in the first half of the 20th century, two gold tablets relating to Ariaramnes were found in Ecbatana, modern Hamadan. These gold tablets allegedly documented the reigns of Ariaramnes and his son Arsames and were written in Old Persian in the first person. This is the only evidence from the time documenting his reign and thus this branch of the Achaemenid royal family.
Another attestation of his reign is the later Behistun Inscription, where his great-grandson Darius I states that eight Achaemenid kings preceded him - and then, he must be counting Ariaramnes as a king.