The Army National Guard (ARNG), in conjunction with the Air National Guard, is an organized militia force and a federal military reserve force of the United States Army. They are simultaneously part of two different organizations: the Army National Guard of each state, most territories, and the District of Columbia (also referred to as the Militia of the United States), and the Army National Guard of the United States (as part of the United States National Guard). The Army National Guard is divided into subordinate units stationed in each U.S. state and territory, as well the District of Columbia, operating under their respective governors and governor-equivalents.
The foundation for what became the Army National Guard occurred in the city of Salem, Massachusetts, in 1692, the first time that a regiment of militia drilled for the common defense of a multi-community area.
Members or units of the Army National Guard may be ordered, temporarily or indefinitely, into the service of the United States. If mobilized for federal service, the member or unit becomes part of the Army National Guard of the United States, which is a reserve component of the United States Army. Individuals volunteering for active federal service may do so subject to the consent of their governors. Governors generally cannot veto involuntary activations of individuals or units for federal service, either for training or national emergency. (See Perpich v. Department of Defense.)
The President may also call up members and units of the Army National Guard, in its status as the militia of the several states, to repel invasion, suppress rebellion, or enforce federal laws. The Army National Guard of the United States is one of two organizations administered by the National Guard Bureau, the other being the Air National Guard of the United States. The Director of the Army National Guard is the head of the organization, and reports to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau. Because the Army National Guard is both the militia of the several states and a federal reserve component of the Army, neither the Chief of the National Guard Bureau nor the Director of the Army National Guard "commands" it. This operational command authority is performed in each state or territory by the State Adjutant General, and in the District of Columbia by the Commanding General of the District of Columbia National Guard when a unit is in its militia status. While under federal activation, the operational command authority is transferred to the commanders of the unified combatant commands, who command all U.S. forces within their area of responsibility. The Chief of the National Guard Bureau and the Director of the Army National Guard serve as the channel of communications between the Department of the Army and the Army National Guard in each state and territory, and administer federal programs, policies, and resources for the National Guard.
The Army National Guard's portion of the president's proposed federal budget for Fiscal Year 2018 is approximately $16.2 billion to support an end strength of 343,000, including appropriations for personnel pay and allowance, facilities maintenance, construction, equipment maintenance and other activities.
Abraham Lincoln, served in the Illinois Militia during the Black Hawk War. He commanded a company in the 4th Illinois Regiment with the rank of captain from April to May, 1832. He was a private in Captain Alexander White's Company from May to June, 1832. He served as a private in Captain Jacob Earley's company from June to July, 1832.
Ulysses S. Grant, having left the Army as a captain, at the start of the Civil War he served in the Illinois Militia as aide de camp and mustering officer for GovernorRichard Yates. He held these positions until being appointed commander of the 21st Illinois Infantry, which set him on the path to becoming a general and commander of all Union armies.
Rutherford B. Hayes, joined a militia company in 1846 intending to fight in the Mexican–American War, but resigned because of ill health. Enlisted as a private in a Cincinnati militia company at the start of the Civil War in 1861, and was elected commander with the rank of captain. He was subsequently appointed a major in the 23rd Ohio Infantry, and ended the war as a brigade commander and brevet Major General.
Chester A. Arthur, became a member of the New York Militia soon after becoming a lawyer. During the Civil War he served on the staff of GovernorEdwin D. Morgan as Quartermaster General with the rank of brigadier general. He later served as Morgan's inspector general, responsible for visiting New York's front line units, assessing conditions and recommending improvements.
William McKinley, joined a volunteer militia company called the Poland Guards at the start of the Civil War. The company was subsequently mustered in as part of the 23rd Ohio Infantry, the same regiment in which President Hayes served. McKinley ended the war as a major and chief of staff for division commander Samuel S. Carroll.
Deployable Army units are organized as table of organization and equipment (TOE) or modified table of organization (MTOE) organizations. Non-deployable units, such as a state's joint force headquarters or regional training institute are administered as table of distribution and allowance (TDA) units.
In addition to many deployable units which are non-divisional, the Army National Guard's deployable units include eight Infantry divisions. These divisions, their subordinate brigades or brigades with which the divisions have a training oversight relationship, and the states represented by the largest units include:
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 28th Infantry Division
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 29th Infantry Division
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 34th Infantry Division
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 35th Infantry Division
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 36th Infantry Division
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 38th Infantry Division
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 40th Infantry Division
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 42nd Infantry Division
The Army and Air National Guard in each state are headed by the State Adjutant General. The Adjutant General (TAG) is the de facto commander of a state's military forces, and reports to the state governor.
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 47th Infantry Division, inactivated in 1991
Shoulder sleeve insignia of the 50th Armored Division, inactivated in 1993
Several units have been affected by Army National Guard reorganizations. Some have been renamed or inactivated. Some have had subordinate units reallocated to other commands. A partial list of inactivated major units includes:
National Guard Bureau organizational chart depicting command and reporting relationships
Army National Guard staff organizational chart
Upon the creation of the United States Air Force in 1947, the National Guard Bureau was organized into two divisions; Army National Guard and Air National Guard. Each were headed by a major general who reported to the chief of the National Guard Bureau. The head of the Army National Guard was originally established as the chief of the Army Division at the National Guard Bureau. The position was downgraded to brigadier general in 1962 due to force reduction. It was renamed to Director of the Army National Guard and elevated back to major general in 1970. The position was later elevated to the rank of lieutenant general in 2001. The Army National Guard is also authorized a deputy director which was originally established as a brigadier general office in 1970. It was elevated to the rank of major general in 2006.
The director of the Army National Guard oversees a staff which aids in planning and day-to-day organization and management. In addition to a chief of staff, the Director's staff includes several special staff members, including a chaplain and protocol and awards specialists. It also includes a primary staff, which is organized as directorates, divisions, and branches. The directorates of the Army National Guard staff are arranged along the lines of a typical American military staff: G-1 for personnel; G-2 for intelligence; G-3 for plans, operations and training; G-4 for logistics; G-5 for strategic plans, policy and communications; G-6 for communications; and G-8 for budgets and financial management.
List of chiefs and directors
Chiefs of the Army Division at the National Guard Bureau
^10 USC 12401. Army and Air National Guard of the United States: status
^10 USC 10105. Army National Guard of the United States: composition
^North Atlantic Treaty organization, Fact Sheet, National Reserve Forces Status: United States of America, 2006, p. 1
^National Guard Bureau, Today in Guard History (June), 11 June 1990, 2013
^10 USC 12406. National Guard in Federal service: call
^Cornell University, legal Information Institute, 10 USC § 10503 – Functions of National Guard Bureau: Charter, accessed 20 June 2013
^Matthews, William (1 July 2017). "Busting The Caps". National Guard. Arlington, VA.
^Mark Lardas (2011). George Washington. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-84908-881-7.
^Aaron Bancroft (1855). The Life of George Washington ... Phillips, Sampson. p. 39.
^Fawn McKay Brodie (1974). Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-393-31752-7.
^Ralph Louis Ketcham (1990). James Madison: A Biography. University of Virginia Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-8139-1265-3.
^Michael Teitelbaum (2002). James Monroe. Capstone. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-7565-0253-9.
^Carl Cavanagh Hodge; Cathal J. Nolan (2007). U.S. Presidents and Foreign Policy: From 1789 to the Present. ABC-CLIO. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-85109-790-6.
^H. W. Brands (2006). Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-307-27854-8.
^Samuel Putnam Waldo (1819). Memoirs of Andrew Jackson: Major-general in the Army of the United States; and Commander in Chief of the Division of the South. J. & W. Russell. pp. 41–42.
^Spencer Tucker; James R. Arnold; Roberta Wiener; Paul G. Pierpaoli; John C. Fredriksen (2012). The Encyclopedia of the War of 1812: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 331. ISBN 978-1-85109-956-6.
^James Hall (1836). A Memoir of the Public Services of William Henry Harrison, of Ohio. Key & Biddle. p. 310.
^Stuart L. Butler (2012). Defending the Old Dominion: Virginia and Its Militia in the War of 1812. University Press of America. p. 282. ISBN 978-0-7618-6040-2.
^Louise A. Mayo (2006). President James K. Polk: The Dark Horse President. Nova Publishers. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-59454-718-8.
^Barbara Bennett Peterson (2002). Sarah Childress Polk, First Lady of Tennessee and Washington. Nova Publishers. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-59033-145-3.
^John Seigenthaler (2004). James K. Polk: The American Presidents Series: The 11th President, 1845-1849. Henry Holt and Company. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-8050-6942-6.
^Roger Sherman Skinner, ed. (1830). The New-York State Register for 1830–1831. p. 361.
^Buffalo Historical Society; Buffalo Historical Society (Buffalo, N.Y.) (1907). Publications. The Society. p. xxxii.
^John Farmer; G. Parker Lyon, eds. (1832). The New-Hampshire Annual Register, and United States Calendar. p. 53.
^Ralph E. Eshelman (2011). A Travel Guide to the War of 1812 in the Chesapeake: Eighteen Tours in Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia. JHU Press. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-8018-9837-2.
^Philip Shriver Klein (1962). President James Buchanan, a biography. Pennsylvania State University Press. p. 18.
^Illinois Adjutant General's Office (1882). Record of the Services of Illinois Soldiers in the Black Hawk War, 1831–32, and in the Mexican War, 1846-8. H. W. Rokker, state printer. pp. 100, 176, 183.
^Hans L. Trefousse (1997). Andrew Johnson: A Biography. W. W. Norton, Incorporated. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-393-31742-8.
^James Knox Polk (1989). Wayne Cutler; Herbert Weaver (eds.). Correspondence of James K. Polk. 7. Univ. of Tennessee Press. p. 439. ISBN 978-0-8265-1225-3.
^Kate Havelin (2004). Andrew Johnson. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-8225-1000-0.
^Gary L. Donhardt (2007). In the Shadow of the Great Rebellion: The Life of Andrew Johnson, Seventeenth President of the United States (1808-1875). Nova Publishers. p. 6. ISBN 978-1-60021-086-0.
^Clifton R. Hall (1916). Andrew Johnson: MIlitary Governor of Tennessee. p. 19.
^James S. Brisbin (1868). The campaign lives of Ulysses S Grant and Schuyler Colfax. Gale Cengage Learning. pp. 58–59.
^Ulysses Simpson Grant (1969). The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant: April to September, 1861. SIU Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-8093-0366-3.
^William Farina (2007). Ulysses S. Grant, 1861–1864: His Rise from Obscurity to Military Greatness. McFarland. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-7864-8051-7.
^William Dean Howells; Rutherford Birchard Hayes (1876). Sketch of the life and character of Rutherford B. Hayes. Also a biographical sketch of William A. Wheeler. Hurd and Houghton. p. 29.
^Hardesty's Historical and Geographical Encyclopedia, Military and Personal Sketches of Ohio's Rank and File from Sandusky County in the War of the Rebellion, 1885, republished on the Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center web site
^John Clark Ridpath (1881). The Life and Work of James A. Garfield ...: Embracing an Account of the Scenes and Incidents of His Boyhood. Jones brothers. pp. 91–92.
^James T. Wall (2008). Wall Street and the Fruited Plain: Money, Expansion, and Politics in the Gilded Age. University Press of America. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-7618-4124-1.
^Emma Rogers (1921). Chester A. Arthur: Man and President. University of Wisconsin—Madison. pp. 7–9.
^Lew Wallace; Murat Halstead (1892). Life and Public Services of Hon. Benjamin Harrison, President of the U.S.: With a Concise Biographical Sketch of Hon. Whitelaw Reid. Edgewood Publishing Company. pp. 178–181.
^Newburgh Daily Journal, "Death of General Harrison", 14 March 1901
^Muncie Free Press, Daniels adds President Benjamin Harrison to Hoosier Heritage Portrait Collection Archived 24 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, 20 March 2009
^Eric Foner (2002). Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877. HarperCollins. p. 584. ISBN 978-0-06-093716-4.
^John W. Tyler (1901). The Life of William McKinley. P. W. Ziegler & Company. p. 37.
^Kevin Phillips (2003). William McKinley: The American Presidents Series: The 25th President, 1897–1901. Henry Holt and Company. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-8050-6953-2.
^William Montgomery Clemens (1914). The Ancestry of Theodore Roosevelt. W.M. Clemens. p. 11.
^Bill Bleyer, Long Island Newsday, "Roosevelt's Medal of Honor Coming to LI", 21 February 2001
^Gabriele Arnold (2006). Harry S. Truman – his foreign policy. GRIN Verlag. p. 4. ISBN 978-3-638-51025-7.
^Michael J. Devine (2009). Harry S. Truman, the State of Israel, and the Quest for Peace in the Middle East. Truman State Univ Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-935503-80-4.
^Minnesota Military Museum, The 47th "Viking" Infantry Division, 1991
^National Guard Educational Foundation, 48th Armored Division Archived 27 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, 2011
^Texas Army National Guard, History of the 36th Infantry Division Archived 5 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 19 June 2013
^Texas Military Forces Museum, 36th Infantry Division, The "Texas" Division, accessed 19 June 2013
^U.S. House Appropriations Committee, Hearing Record, Department of Defense Appropriations for 1995, Volume 1, 1994, p. 296
^Served as director in the rank of major general from 1998 to 2001. The 2001 National Defense Authorization Act, elevated the position to lieutenant general. Schultz was appointed another term as director and was promoted.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to United States Army National Guard.
Army National Guard News
National Guard Web Site
Army National Guard Web Site[permanent dead link]
Army National Guard Recruiting
Unit Designations in the Army Modular Force, accessed 23 November 2006
National Guard Maneuver Enhancement Brigade's Role in Domestic Missions