|Purpose||Crewed lunar exploration|
|Maiden flight||Artemis 1|
|First crewed flight||Artemis 2|
|Part of a series on the|
The Artemis program is an ongoing crewed spaceflight program carried out by NASA, U.S. commercial spaceflight companies, and international partners such as ESA, with the goal of landing "the first woman and the next man" on the Moon, specifically at the lunar south pole region by 2024. Artemis would be the next step towards the long-term goal of establishing a sustainable presence on the Moon, laying the foundation for private companies to build a lunar economy, and eventually sending humans to Mars.
In 2017, the lunar campaign was authorized by Space Policy Directive 1, utilizing various ongoing spacecraft programs such as Orion, the Lunar Gateway, Commercial Lunar Payload Services, and an undeveloped crewed lander. The Space Launch System will serve as the primary launch vehicle for Orion, while commercial launch vehicles are planned for use to launch various other elements of the campaign. NASA requested $1.6 billion in additional funding for Artemis for fiscal year 2020, while the Senate Appropriations Committee requested from NASA a five-year budget profile which is needed for evaluation and approval by Congress.
The current Artemis program incorporates several major components of other cancelled NASA projects, such as the Constellation program and the Asteroid Redirect Mission. Originally legislated by the NASA Authorization Act of 2005, Constellation included the development of Ares I, Ares V, and the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. The program ran from the early 2000s until 2010.
In 2009, newly elected President Barack Obama established the Augustine Committee to determine how viable a Moon landing was by 2020 with the then-current budget. The committee concluded that the project was massively underfunded and that a 2020 Moon landing was impossible. Constellation was subsequently put on hold. On 15 April 2010, President Obama spoke at the Kennedy Space Center, announcing the administration's plans for NASA and cancelling the non-Orion elements of Constellation on the premise that the plan had become unviable. He instead promised $6 billion in additional funding and called for development of a new heavy lift rocket program to be ready for construction by 2015 with crewed missions to Mars orbit by the mid-2030s.
On 30 June 2017, President Donald Trump signed an executive order to re-establish the National Space Council, chaired by Vice-President Mike Pence. The Trump administration's first budget request kept Obama-era human spaceflight programs in place: Commercial Crew Development, the Space Launch System, and the Orion crew capsule for deep space missions, while reducing Earth science research and calling for the elimination of NASA's education office.
On 11 December 2017, President Trump signed Space Policy Directive 1, a change in national space policy that provides for a U.S.-led, integrated program with private sector partners for a human return to the Moon, followed by missions to Mars and beyond. The policy calls for the NASA administrator to "lead an innovative and sustainable program of exploration with commercial and international partners to enable human expansion across the solar system and to bring back to Earth new knowledge and opportunities." The effort intends to more effectively organize government, private industry, and international efforts toward returning humans on the Moon and laying the foundation of eventual human exploration of Mars.
On 26 March 2019, Vice President Mike Pence announced that NASA's Moon landing goal would be accelerated by 4 years with a planned landing in 2024. On 14 May 2019, NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine announced that the new program would be named Artemis, who is both the twin sister of Apollo and the goddess of the Moon in Greek mythology. Despite the immediate new goals, Mars missions by the 2030s are still intended.
Supporting programs and launchers
Implementation of the Artemis program will require additional programs, projects, and commercial launchers to support the construction of the Lunar Gateway, launch resupply missions to the station, and deploy numerous robotic spacecraft and instruments to the lunar surface. Several precursor robotic missions are being coordinated through the Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) program, that is dedicated to scouting and characterization of lunar resources, as well as testing principles for in-situ resource utilization.
Commercial Lunar Payload Services
In March 2018, NASA established the Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) program with the aim of sending small robotic landers and rovers mostly to the lunar south pole region as a precursor to and in support of crewed missions. The main goals include scouting of lunar resources, in situ resource utilization (ISRU) feasibility testing, and lunar science. NASA will award commercial providers indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity contracts to develop and fly lunar landers with scientific payloads . The first stage considered proposals capable of delivering at least 10 kilograms (22 lb) of payload by the end of 2021. Proposals for mid-sized landers capable of delivering between 500 kilograms (1,100 lb) and 1,000 kilograms (2,200 lb) of cargo will also be considered for launch beyond 2021.
In November 2018, NASA announced the first nine companies that are qualified to bid on the CLPS transportation service contracts. These companies are:
|Astrobotic Technology||Peregrine lander|
|Deep Space Systems||rover; design and development services|
|Draper Laboratory||Artemis-7 lander (the name is coincidentally similar|
to the Artemis program and not an endorsement.)
|Firefly Aerospace||Firefly Alpha and Beta launch vehicles|
|Intuitive Machines||Nova-C lander|
|Lockheed Martin Space Systems||McCandless Lunar Lander|
|Masten Space Systems||XL-1 lander|
|Moon Express||MX-1, MX-2, MX-5, MX-9 landers;|
sample return vehicle
|OrbitBeyond||Z-01 and Z-02 landers|
The first twelve payloads and experiments from NASA centers were announced on 21 February 2019. On 1 July 2019, NASA announced the selection of twelve additional payloads, provided by universities and industry. Seven of these are scientific investigations while five are technology demonstrations.
The Lunar Surface Instrument and Technology Payloads (LSITP) is a supporting program that is soliciting payloads that do not require significant additional development. They will include technology demonstrators to advance lunar science or the commercial development of the Moon.
Space Launch System
The initial SLS Block 1 is required by the US Congress to lift a payload of 95 metric tons (209,000 lb) to low Earth orbit (LEO), and will launch Artemis 1 and Artemis 2. The later Block 1B is intended to debut the Exploration Upper Stage and launch the Artemis 3 and the notional Artemis 4-8. Block 2 is planned to replace the initial Shuttle-derived boosters with advanced boosters and would have a LEO capability of more than 150 metric tons (330,000 lb), again as required by Congress. Block 2 is intended to enable crewed launches to Mars. The SLS will launch the Orion spacecraft and use the ground operations and launch facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
In March 2019, the Trump Administration released its Fiscal Year 2020 Budget Request for NASA. This budget did not include any money for the Block 1B and Block 2 variants of SLS. It is uncertain whether these future variants of SLS will be developed. However, it seems likely that Block 1B development will be continued, with a request for a budget increase of 1.6 billion dollars towards SLS, Orion, and crewed landers. Block 1B is currently intended to debut on Artemis 3, and will be used mainly for co manifested crew transfers and logistic rather than constructing the Gateway. An uncrewed Block 1B is planned to launch the Lunar Surface Asset in 2028, the first lunar outpost of the Artemis program. Block 2 development will most likely start in the late 2020s, after NASA is regularly visiting the lunar surface and shifts focus towards Mars.
The PPE module and the Minimal Habitation Module (MHM) of the Lunar Gateway, which were previously planned for the SLS Block 1B, will now fly on commercial launch vehicles yet to be determined. The Gateway will be supported and resupplied by approximately 28 commercial cargo missions launched by undetermined commercial rockets. The Gateway Logistics Services (GLS) will be in charge of the resupply missions, as well for contracting the construction of a resupply vehicle capable to remain docked to the Lunar Gateway for one year of operations, provide and generate its own power while docked, and be capable of autonomous disposal at the end of its mission.
The three components of an expendable crewed lunar lander will also be deployed to the station on a commercial launcher before the arrival of the first crewed mission, Artemis 3.
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion MPCV) is a US-European spacecraft intended to carry a crew of four astronauts to destinations at or beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Currently[when?] under development by the NASA and ESA for launch on the Space Launch System (SLS), Orion is intended to be the main crew vehicle of the Artemis lunar exploration program as well as potential crew flights to Mars and beyond.
The Lunar Gateway, officially named the Lunar Orbital Platform – Gateway (LOP-G), is a proposed space station in lunar orbit intended to serve as a solar-powered communications hub, science laboratory, short-term habitation module, and holding area for rovers and other robots.
The Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) started development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory during the now canceled Asteroid Redirect Mission. The original concept was a robotic, high performance solar electric spacecraft that would retrieve a multi-ton boulder from an asteroid and bring it to lunar orbit for study. When ARM was cancelled, the solar electric propulsion was repurposed for LOP-G. The PPE will allow access to the entire lunar surface and act as a space tug for visiting craft. It will also serve as the command and communications center of the Gateway. The PPE is estimated to have a mass of 8–9 t (18,000–20,000 lb) and the capability to generate 50 kW (67 hp) of solar electric power for its ion thrusters, which can be supplemented by chemical propulsion. It is targeting launch on a commercial vehicle in 2022. In May 2019, Maxar Technologies was contracted by NASA to manufacture this module, which is being based on Maxar's 1300 series satellite bus.
Crewed lander concepts
As of 2018, work on crewed landers was intended to be supported under a new budget line called "Advanced Cislunar and Surface Capabilities" included in the fiscal year 2019 budget proposal, which seeks $116.5 million for the program. As of November 2018, Congress had yet to pass a final fiscal year 2019 appropriations bill for NASA. Some lander architectures have already been suggested and are listed below.
- The Lockheed Martin Lunar Lander concept, presented in October 2018, proposes a reusable crewed lunar lander with a mass of 22 metric tons (49,000 lb) and capable of carrying up to 1 metric ton (2,200 lb) of payload, and a crew of four, for a duration of two weeks before returning to the Gateway for servicing and refueling. A drawback is that not even the future Block 1B version of Space Launch System can place more than 45 tons onto a trajectory to the Moon, so additional launches would be required to transport fuel depots for the lander.
- Advanced Exploration Lander is a three-stage lander concept by a NASA team. After departure from the Gateway, a transfer module would take the crew to a low lunar orbit and then separate, after which the descent module would handle the rest of the journey to the lunar surface. A crew of up to four would spend up to two weeks on the surface before reboarding the ascent module, which would take them back to the Gateway. Each module would have a mass of approximately 12 to 15 metric tons and would be delivered separately by commercial launchers and integrated at the Gateway. The astronauts would board the lander at the Gateway's near-rectilinear halo orbit that goes between about 1,000 and 70,000 kilometers (620 and 43,500 mi) above the Moon, with the circular low orbit about 100 kilometers (62 mi) high. Both the ascent and transfer modules could be designed to be reused, with the descent module left on the lunar surface. If selected and funded, it could be tested as a stand-alone robotic mission in 2024 and begin crewed landings in 2028 departing from the Gateway.
In May 2019 NASA announced 11 contracts worth $45.5 million in total for studies on transfer vehicles, descent elements, descent element prototypes, refueling element studies and prototypes. One of the requirements is that selected companies will have to contribute at least 20% of the total cost of the project "to reduce costs to taxpayers and encourage early private investments in the lunar economy."
Two of these proposed landers have been presented and described in some detail, the Lockheed Martin Lunar Lander and a stretched tank version of Blue Origin's Blue Moon lander with an added ascent stage.
|Aerojet Rocketdyne||One transfer vehicle study|
|Blue Origin||One descent element study, one transfer vehicle study, and one transfer vehicle prototype|
|Boeing||One descent element study, two descent element prototypes, one transfer vehicle study, one transfer vehicle prototype, one refueling element study, and one refueling element prototype|
|Dynetics||One descent element study and five descent element prototypes|
|Lockheed Martin Space Systems||One descent element study, four descent element prototypes, one transfer vehicle study, and one refueling element study|
|Masten Space Systems||One descent element prototype|
|Maxar (formerly SSL)||One refueling element study and one refueling element prototype|
|Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems||One descent element study, four descent element prototypes, one refueling element study, and one refueling element prototype|
|OrbitBeyond||Two refueling element prototypes|
|Sierra Nevada Corporation||One descent element study, one descent element prototype, one transfer vehicle study, one transfer vehicle prototype, and one refueling element study|
|SpaceX||One descent element study, one descent element prototype|
HERACLES robotic sample return
HERACLES (Human-Enhanced Robotic Architecture and Capability for Lunar Exploration and Science) is a proposed ESA-JAXA-CSA robotic lander and sample-return mission utilizing the Gateway station. It involves dispatching an 11-metric-ton (24,000 lb) lunar lander from Earth aboard an Ariane 6:slides 7, 9 and 10 which would land on the Moon with a descent module. The ascent module would launch from the lunar surface to the Gateway, and would be refueled and paired with a new descent module dispatched from Earth. The rovers would land on the first and fourth lander missions, collecting samples and loading them on the ascent module, then traversing the hundreds of kilometers between landing sites on the lunar surface to rendezvous and load the next lander. The ascent module would return each time to the Gateway, where it would be captured by the Canadian robotic arm and samples transferred to an Orion craft for transport to Earth with returning astronauts. The second and third landings would each have 500 kg (1,100 lb) payload available for alternate uses. The aim of the project is the development by ESA of a reusable lunar ascent engine, four of which could be clustered to power a reusable crewed or robotic lander in the future, alongside the development of Gateway telecommunication command and control technology. ESA envisages that HERACLES could be approved in 2019, allowing a sample-return on the fourth or fifth Orion flight in the 2026-2030 timeframe, generating an early scientific return for the station and robotic surveying of the conditions that will be encountered at future crewed landing sites several years in advance.
The Artemis program has received criticisms from several space professionals:
Aerospace engineer, author, and Mars Society founder Robert Zubrin has voiced his distaste for the Lunar Gateway which is part of the Artemis program as of 2019. He presented an alternative approach to a 2024 crewed lunar landing called Moon Direct, a successor to his proposed Mars Direct. His vision phases out the SLS and Orion, replacing them with Falcon rockets and Dragon 2. It also proposes using a heavy ferry/lander that would be refueled on the lunar surface via In situ resource utilization and transfer the crew from LEO to the lunar surface. The concept bears a heavy resemblance to NASA's own Space Transportation System proposal from the 1970s.
Former Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin disagrees with NASA's current goals and priorities, including their plans for a lunar outpost. He also questioned the benefit of the idea to "send a crew to an intermediate point in space, pick up a lander there and go down". On the other hand, Aldrin expressed support for Robert Zubrin's Moon Direct concept which involves lunar landers traveling from Earth orbit to the lunar surface and back.
Three tests of the Orion spacecraft have been conducted prior to the launch of Artemis 1. Pad Abort-1, the second and final mission in the preceding Constellation program,[dubious ] was a successful test of Orion's launch escape system using a boilerplate capsule on 6 May 2010. The second test of Orion was Exploration Flight Test-1 on 5 December 2014. A stripped down version of the Orion spacecraft was launched atop a Delta IV Heavy rocket, and its reaction control system was tested in two orbits around Earth, reaching an apogee of 5,800 kilometers (3,600 mi) before making a high-energy reentry at 32,000 kilometers per hour (20,000 mph). The third and final test of Orion prior to Artemis 1 was Ascent Abort-2 on 2 July 2019, which tested an updated launch abort system at maximum aerodynamic load, using a 10,000-kilogram (22,000 lb) Orion test article and a custom launch vehicle built by Orbital Sciences.
||N/A||Orion Launch Abort System (LAS)||Success||95 seconds|
|Exploration Flight Test 1||
||Success||4 hours 24 minutes|
|Ascent Abort-2||N/A||Orion Abort Test Booster||Success||3 minutes 13 seconds|
Artemis 1 is planned to be the maiden flight of the SLS and will be launched as a test of the completed Orion and SLS system. During the mission, an uncrewed Orion capsule will spend 10 days in a distant retrograde 60,000 kilometers (37,000 mi) orbit around the Moon before returning to Earth.
After Artemis 2, the Power and Propulsion Element of the Lunar Gateway and three components of an expendable lunar lander are planned to be delivered on multiple launches from commercial launch service providers.
Artemis 3 is planned to be the maiden flight of the SLS Block 1B and will use the minimalist Gateway and expendable lander to achieve the first crewed lunar landing of the program. The flight is planned to touch down on the lunar south pole region, with two astronauts staying there for about one week.
|Artemis 1||N/A||SLS Block 1 Crew||~25d|
|Artemis 2||TBA||SLS Block 1 Crew||~10d|
||TBA||SLS Block 1B Crew||~30d|
A proposal curated by William H. Gerstenmaier before his 10 July 2019 reassignment suggests four more launches of SLS Block 1B launch vehicles with crewed Orion spacecraft and logistical modules of the Gateway between 2024 and 2028. The crewed Artemis 4 through 7 would launch yearly between 2025 and 2028, testing in situ resource utilization and nuclear power on the lunar surface with a partially reusable lander. Artemis 8 would be an SLS Block 1B Cargo launch delivering a lunar outpost, known as the Lunar Surface Asset, to the Moon's surface in 2028. The Lunar Surface Asset would be used for an extended crewed lunar surface mission. Prior to each crewed Artemis mission, various payloads to the Gateway, such as refueling depots and expendable elements of the lunar lander, would be delivered on commercial launch vehicles.
|Mission||Proposed launch||Crew||Launch vehicle[a]||Duration|
||TBA||SLS Block 1B Crew||~30d|
||TBA||SLS Block 1B Crew||~30d|
||TBA||SLS Block 1B Crew||~30d|
||TBA||SLS Block 1B Crew||>60d|
||N/A||SLS Block 1B Cargo||~30d|
- Colonization of the Moon
- Commercial Crew Development
- Deep Space Transport
- Space policy of the United States
- Serial number displayed in parentheses.
- Bridenstine, Jim; Grush, Loren. "NASA administrator on new Moon plan: 'We're doing this in a way that's never been done before'". The Verge. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
- Berger, Eric (20 May 2019). "NASA's full Artemis plan revealed: 37 launches and a lunar outpost". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- Foust, Jeff (24 May 2019). "NASA Has a Full Plate of Lunar Missions Before Astronauts Can Return to Moon". Space.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
- Grush, Loren (3 October 2018). "This is Lockheed Martin's idea for a reusable lander that carries people and cargo to the Moon". The Verge. Archived from the original on 3 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
- Hill, Bill (27 August 2018). "Exploration Systems Development Update" (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- Sloss, Philip (11 September 2018). "NASA updates Lunar Gateway plans". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- Harwood, William (17 July 2019). "NASA boss pleads for steady moon mission funding". CBS News. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "NASA: Moon to Mars". NASA. Retrieved 19 May 2019.
- Gebhardt, Chris (6 April 2017). "NASA finally sets goals, missions for SLS – eyes multi-step plan to Mars". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
- Grush, Loren (18 July 2019). "NASA's daunting to-do list for sending people back to the Moon". The Verge. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- NASA administrator on new Moon plan: 'We're doing this in a way that's never been done before'. Loren Grush, The Verge. 17 May 2019.
- Senate appropriators advance bill funding NASA despite uncertainties about Artemis costs. Jeff Foust, Space News. 27 September 2019.
- Fernholz, Tim; Fernholz, Tim. "Trump wants $1.6 billion for a moon mission and proposes to get it from college aid". Quartz. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
- Berger, Eric (14 May 2019). "NASA reveals funding needed for Moon program, says it will be named Artemis". Ars Technica. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee; Augustine; Austin; Chyba; et al. "Seeking A Human Spaceflight Program Worthy of A Great Nation" (PDF). Final Report. NASA. Retrieved 15 April 2010.[verification needed]
- "President Barack Obama on Space Exploration in the 21st Century". Nasa.gov.[verification needed]
- Spaceflight Now, "Trump signs order reviving long-dormant National Space Council"[verification needed]
- Pearlman, Robert (14 May 2019). "NASA Names New Moon Landing Program Artemis After Apollo's Sister". Space.com. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
- Chang, Kenneth (13 May 2019). "For Artemis Mission to Moon, NASA Seeks to Add Billions to Budget". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
- Burghardt, Thomas (14 May 2019). "NASA aims for quick start to 2024 Moon landing via newly named Artemis Program". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Harwood, William (31 May 2019). "NASA taps 3 companies for commercial moon missions". CBS News. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Foust, Jeff (31 May 2019). "NASA awards contracts to three companies to land payloads on the moon". SpaceNews. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Bergin, Chris (19 March 2018). "NASA courts commercial options for Lunar Landers". NASASpaceFlight. Archived from the original on 8 May 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
NASA's new Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) effort to award contracts to provide capabilities as soon as 2019.
- "NASA Expands Plans for Moon Exploration: More Missions, More Science". NASA. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
- Foust, Jeff (28 April 2018). "NASA emphasizes commercial lunar lander plans with Resource Prospector cancellation". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 18 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
...selected but unspecified instruments from RP will instead be flown on future commercial lunar lander missions under a new Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) program. NASA released a draft request for proposals for that program April 27. [...] Under CLPS, NASA plans to issue multiple indefinite-delivery indefinite-quantity (IDIQ) contracts to companies capable of delivering payloads to the lunar surface. Companies would have to demonstrate their ability to land at least 10 kilograms of payload on the lunar surface by the end of 2021.
- Werner, Debra (24 May 2018). "NASA to begin buying rides on commercial lunar landers by year's end". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 18 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
NASA also will look for payloads for the miniature landers in addition to landers capable of delivering 500 to 1,000 kilograms to the surface of the Moon.
- "NASA Announces New Partnerships for Commercial Lunar Payload Delivery Services" (Press release). NASA. 29 November 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
- Richardson, Derek (26 February 2019). "NASA selects experiments to fly aboard commercial lunar landers". Spaceflight Insider. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Hautaluoma, Grey (1 July 2019). "NASA Selects 12 New Lunar Science, Technology Investigations" (Press release). NASA. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "DRAFT Lunar Surface Instrument and Technology Payloads Call for Community Comment". SSERVI. NASA. 14 February 2018. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- "NASA Selects Experiments for Possible Lunar Flights in 2019" (Press release). NASA. 21 February 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "Space Launch System". aerospaceguide.net.
- "The NASA Authorization Act of 2010". Featured Legislation. Washington DC, United States: United States Senate. 15 July 2010. Archived from the original on 10 April 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Smith, Rich (26 March 2019). "Is NASA Preparing to Cancel Its Space Launch System? -". The Motley Fool. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
- Kyle, Ed (16 May 2019). "NASA's Space Launch System". Space Launch Report. Retrieved 22 May 2019.
- "NASA FY 2019 Budget Overview" (PDF). NASA. p. 14.
Supports launch of the Power and Propulsion Element on a commercial launch vehicle as the first component of the LOP - Gateway
- Foust, Jeff (23 July 2019). "NASA to sole source Gateway habitation module to Northrop Grumman". SpaceNews. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Sloss, Philip (11 September 2018). "NASA updates Lunar Gateway plans". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
- Gebhardt, Chris (17 June 2019). "NASA determining best course for commercial Lunar Gateway resupply". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Aguiar, Laura (14 June 2019). "NASA to Partner with American Industry to Supply Artemis Moon Missions" (Press release). NASA. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Weitering, Hanneke (23 May 2019). "NASA Has a Full Plate of Lunar Missions Before Astronauts Can Return to Moon". Space.com. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
And before NASA sends astronauts to the moon in 2024, the agency will first have to launch five aspects of the lunar Gateway, all of which will be commercial vehicles that launch separately and join each other in lunar orbit. First, a power and propulsion element will launch in 2022. Then, the crew module will launch (without a crew) in 2023. In 2024, during the months leading up to the crewed landing, NASA will launch the last critical components: a transfer vehicle that will ferry landers from the Gateway to a lower lunar orbit, a descent module that will bring the astronauts to the lunar surface, and an ascent module that will bring them back up to the transfer vehicle, which will then return them to the Gateway.
- "Orion Quick facts" (PDF). NASA. 4 August 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Bergin, Chris (30 October 2014). "EFT-1 Orion completes assembly and conducts FRR". NASASpaceflight. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
- "NASA - A 21st Century-Style Return to the Moon". NASA. 22 July 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Jackson, Shanessa (11 September 2018). "Competition Seeks University Concepts for Gateway and Deep Space Exploration Capabilities". nasa.gov. NASA. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
- Greicius, Tony (20 September 2016). "JPL Seeks Robotic Spacecraft Development for Asteroid Redirect Mission". NASA. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Foust, Jeff (14 June 2017). "NASA closing out Asteroid Redirect Mission". SpaceNews. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- "Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission". www.jpl.nasa.gov. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- "NASA awards Artemis contract for lunar gateway power, propulsion". Aerotech News & Review. 24 May 2019. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- "Deep Space Gateway & Transport: Concepts for Mars, Moon Exploration Unveiled | Space Exploration | Sci-News.com". Breaking Science News | Sci-News.com. 4 April 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Clark, Stephen (24 May 2019). "NASA chooses Maxar to build keystone module for lunar Gateway station – Spaceflight Now". Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Foust, jeff (3 November 2017). "NASA issues study contracts for Deep Space Gateway element". SpaceNews. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Gebhardt, Chris (6 April 2017). "NASA finally sets goals, missions for SLS – eyes multi-step plan to Mars". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- Foust, Jeff (30 March 2018). "NASA considers acquiring more than one gateway propulsion module". SpaceNews. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Foust, Jeff (23 May 2019). "NASA selects Maxar to build first Gateway element". SpaceNews. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- Foust, Jeff (21 November 2018). "NASA Studying Three-Stage Approach to Human-Class Lunar Landers". Space.com. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "Lockheed Martin Reveals New Human Lunar Lander Concept" (Press release). Lockheed Martin. 3 October 2018. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Timothy Cichan; Stephen A. Bailey; Adam Burch; Nickolas W. Kirby (1–5 October 2018). Concept for a Crewed Lunar Lander Operating from the Lunar Orbiting Platform-Gateway (PDF). 69th International Astronautical Congress (IAC). Bremen, Germany. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Foust, Jeff (25 December 2018). "Is the Gateway the right way to the moon?". SpaceNews. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Gina Anderson; Cheryl Warner (16 May 2019). "NASA Taps 11 American Companies to Advance Human Lunar Landers" (Press release). NASA. Retrieved 17 May 2019.
- Raven, Benjamin (22 May 2019). "NASA awards $45.5M to 11 American companies to 'advance human lunar landers'". MLive.com. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- "Landing on the Moon and returning home: Heracles". ESA. 7 June 2019. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Landgraf, Markus (25 May 2016). "HERACLES: Preparing Human Exploration by Integrated Certification of Crew and Hardware for Lunar Surface Operations" (PDF). SpaceRef. ESA. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Landgraf, Markus; Carpenter, James; Sawada, Hirotaka (20–22 October 2015). HERACLES Concept - An International Lunar Exploration Study (PDF). Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (2015). Bibcode:2015LPICo1863.2039L. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Whittington, Mark (16 June 2018). "NASA's unnecessary $504 million lunar orbit project doesn't help us get back to the Moon". The Hill. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
- Foust, Jeff (16 November 2018). "Advisory group skeptical of NASA lunar exploration plans". SpaceNews. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
- Pearlman, Robert (6 May 2010). "NASA tests Pad Abort system, building on 50 years of astronaut escape system tests". collectSPACE. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
The Orion Pad Abort-1 team has successfully tested the first U.S. designed abort system since Apollo," said Doug Cooke, NASA's associate administrator for the exploration systems directorate, at a post-flight briefing [...] The PA1 test was conducted under NASA's Constellation program, which a former NASA administrator described as "Apollo on steroids.
- Sloss, Philip (24 May 2019). "NASA Orion AA-2 vehicle at the launch pad for July test". NASASpaceFlight.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
This will be the second and final planned LAS test following the Pad Abort-1 (PA-1) development test conducted in 2010 as a part of the ccanceled [sic] Constellation Program and the abort system design changed from PA-1 to AA-2 both inside and outside [...] in preparation for a scheduled daybreak test on July 2.
- David, Leonard (25 May 2019). "NASA Test Launches Rocket Escape System for Astronauts". Space.com. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
Called Pad Abort-1, the $220 million Orion escape system test showcased the system that could be used to rescue a crew and its spacecraft in case of emergencies at the launch pad.
- Davis, Jason (5 December 2014). "Orion Returns to Earth after Successful Test Flight". The Planetary Society. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
NASA's Orion spacecraft returned safely to Earth this morning following a picture-perfect test mission. [...] Orion itself was originally part of NASA's now-defunct Constellation program, and is now a key component of the space agency's Mars plans.
- Clark, Stuart; Sample, Ian; Yuhas, Alan (5 December 2014). "Orion spacecraft's flawless test flight puts Mars exploration one step closer". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
The launch at 12.05pm GMT aboard a Delta IV heavy rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida, was as free of problems as Thursday's aborted attempt was full of them. Immediately, Nasa tweeted "Liftoff! #Orion's flight test launches a critical step on our #JourneytoMars".
- Kramer, Miriam (5 December 2014). "Splashdown! NASA's Orion Spaceship Survives Epic Test Flight as New Era Begins". Space.com. Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
Orion's key systems were put to the test during the flight, which launched atop a United Launch Alliance Delta 4 Heavy rocket [...] the craft hit Earth's atmosphere as the capsule was flying through space at about 20,000 mph (32,000 km/h).
- Spaceflight Now staff (4 December 2014). "Orion Exploration Flight Test No. 1 timeline". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 9 December 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
The first orbital test flight of NASA’s Orion crew capsule will lift off on top of a United Launch Alliance Delta 4 rocket from Cape Canaveral]s Complex 37B launch pad. The rocket will send the unmanned crew module 3,600 miles above Earth...
- Phys.org staff (3 August 2018). "Image: The Orion test crew capsule". Phys.org. Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 17 October 2018.
In the Ascent Abort-2 test, NASA will verify that the Orion spacecraft's launch abort system can steer the capsule and astronauts inside it to safety in the event of an issue with the Space Launch System rocket when the spacecraft is under the highest aerodynamic loads it will experience during ascent...
- Johnson Space Center (November 2017). "Ascent Abort Flight Test-2" (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Retrieved 17 October 2018.
In April 2019, Orion is scheduled to undergo a full-stress test of the LAS, called Ascent Abort Test 2 (AA-2), where a booster provided by Orbital ATK will launch from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, carrying a fully functional LAS and a 22,000-pound Orion test vehicle...
- Orbital Sciences Corporation (11 April 2007). "Orbital to Provide Abort Test Booster for NASA Testing". Northrop Grumman. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
Orbital Sciences Corporation (NYSE:ORB) today announced that it has been selected [...] to design and build the next-generation NASA Orion Abort Test Booster (ATB).
- Brown, Katherine (2 July 2019). "Successful Orion Test Brings NASA Closer to Moon, Mars Missions". NASA. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
- Foust 2019, "Artemis 1, or EM-1, will be an uncrewed test flight of Orion and SLS and is scheduled to launch in June of 2020."
- Hill 2018, Page 2, "The first uncrewed, integrated flight test of NASA's Orion spacecraft [...] Enter Distant Retrograde Orbit for next 6–10 days [...] 37,000 miles from the surface of the Moon [...] Mission duration: 25.5 days"
- Sloss, Philip (9 August 2019). "Boeing assembling structures for NASA's second SLS Core Stage". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Hambleton, Kathryn (23 May 2019). "NASA's First Flight With Crew Important Step on Long-term Return to the Moon, Missions to Mars". NASA. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Hill 2018, Page 3, "Crewed Hybrid Free Return Trajectory, demonstrating crewed flight and spacecraft systems performance beyond Low Earth orbit (LEO) [...] lunar fly-by 4,800 nmi [...] 4 astronauts [...] Mission duration: 9 days"
- Bridenstine & Grush 2019, "Now, for Artemis 3 that carries our crew to the Gateway, we need to have the crew have access to a lander. So, that means that at Gateway we're going to have the Power and Propulsion Element, which will be launched commercially, the Utilization Module, which will be launched commercially, and then we'll have a lander there.
- Bridenstine & Grush 2019, "The direction that we have right now is that the next man and the first woman will be Americans, and that we will land on the south pole of the Moon in 2024."
- Chang, Kenneth (25 May 2019). "For Artemis Mission to Moon, NASA Seeks to Add Billions to Budget". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 May 2019. Retrieved 25 May 2019.
Under the NASA plan, a mission to land on the moon would take place during the third launch of the Space Launch System. Astronauts, including the first woman to walk on the moon, Mr. Bridenstine said, would first stop at the orbiting lunar outpost. They would then take a lander to the surface near its south pole, where frozen water exists within the craters.
- Foust, Jeff (21 July 2019). "NASA outlines plans for lunar lander development through commercial partnerships". SpaceNews. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Grush, Loren (12 July 2019). "NASA administrator on recent personnel shakeup: 'There's no turmoil at all'". The Verge. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Berger, Eric (17 July 2019). "NASA's large SLS rocket unlikely to fly before at least late 2021". Ars Technica. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- Boeing Space [@BoeingSpace] (31 July 2019). "Farther and faster: The next stage of America's Moon rocket is taking shape to dramatically reduce travel time in space and carry more on a single flight. The Boeing-built @NASA_SLS Exploration Upper Stage will fly on Artemis-3. pic.twitter.com/pNye8izfiE" (Tweet). Retrieved 31 July 2019 – via Twitter.
- Davenport, Christion (10 July 2019). "Shakeup at NASA as space agency scrambles to meet Trump moon mandate". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
- Berger 2019, "Developed by the agency's senior human spaceflight manager, Bill Gerstenmaier, this plan is everything Pence asked for—an urgent human return, a Moon base, a mix of existing and new contractors."
- Foust 2019, "After Artemis 3, NASA would launch four additional crewed missions to the lunar surface between 2025 and 2028. Meanwhile, the agency would work to expand the Gateway by launching additional components and crew vehicles and laying the foundation for an eventual moon base."
- Berger 2019, "This decade-long plan, which entails 37 launches of private and NASA rockets, as well as a mix of robotic and human landers, culminates with a "Lunar Surface Asset Deployment" in 2028, likely the beginning of a surface outpost for long-duration crew stays."
- Berger 2019, [Illustration] "NASA's "notional" plan for a human return to the Moon by 2024, and an outpost by 2028."