6.9% of the total U.S. population (2017)
|Regions with significant populations|
Other (2%) including Jain, Zoroastrian, Shinto, and Chinese folk religion (Taoist, Tengrism and Confucian)
|Related ethnic groups|
|Asian Hispanic and Latino Americans|
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry. The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have origins in East Asia, South Asia, or Southeast Asia, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. This includes people who indicate their race(s) on the census as "Asian" or reported entries such as "Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Other Asian". In 2017, Asian Americans comprised 5.6% of the U.S. population; including multiracial Asian Americans, that percentage increases to 6.9%.
Although migrants from Asia have been in parts of the contemporary United States since the 17th century, large-scale immigration did not begin until the mid-19th century. Nativist immigration laws during the 1880s–1920s excluded various Asian groups, eventually prohibiting almost all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s–60s, abolishing national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. Analyses of the 2010 census have shown that Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial or ethnic minority in the United States.
As with other racial and ethnicity-based terms, formal and common usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term. Prior to the late 1960s, people of Asian ancestry were usually referred to as Oriental, Asiatic, and Mongoloid. Additionally, the American definition of 'Asian' originally included West Asian ethnic groups, particularly Jewish Americans, Armenian Americans, Assyrian Americans, Iranian Americans, Kurdish Americans, and Arab Americans, although these groups are now considered Middle Eastern American. The term Asian American was coined by historian Yuji Ichioka, who is credited with popularizing the term, to frame a new "inter-ethnic-pan-Asian American self-defining political group" in the late 1960s. Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American. For example, since the removal of restrictive "national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has diversified greatly to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia.
Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is often shortened to Asian in common usage. The most commonly used definition of Asian American is the U.S. Census Bureau definition, which includes all people with origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. This is chiefly because the census definitions determine many governmental classifications, notably for equal opportunity programs and measurements.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Asian person" in the United States is sometimes thought of as a person of East Asian descent. In vernacular usage, "Asian" is often used to refer to those of East Asian descent or anyone else of Asian descent with epicanthic eyefolds. This differs from the U.S. Census definition and the Asian American Studies departments in many universities consider all those of East, South or Southeast Asian descent to be "Asian".
In the US Census, people with origins or ancestry in the Far East, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent are classified as part of the Asian race; while those with origins or ancestry in North Asia (Russians, Siberians), Central Asia (Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Turkmens, Tajiks, Kyrgyz, etc.), Western Asia (diaspora Jews, Turks, Persians, Kurds, Assyrians, Asian Arabs, etc.), and the Caucasus (Georgians, Armenians, Azeris, etc.) are classified as "white" or "Middle Eastern". As such, "Asian" and "African" ancestry are seen as racial categories for the purposes of the Census, since they refer to ancestry only from those parts of the Asian and African continents that are outside the Middle East and North Africa.
In 1980 and before, Census forms listed particular Asian ancestries as separate groups, along with white and black or negro. Asian Americans had also been classified as "other". In 1977, the federal Office of Management and Budget issued a directive requiring government agencies to maintain statistics on racial groups, including on "Asian or Pacific Islander". By the 1990 census, "Asian or Pacific Islander (API)" was included as an explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular ancestry as a subcategory. Beginning with the 2000 census, two separate categories were used: "Asian American" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander".
The definition of Asian American has variations that derive from the use of the word American in different contexts. Immigration status, citizenship (by birthright and by naturalization), acculturation, and language ability are some variables that are used to define American for various purposes and may vary in formal and everyday usage. For example, restricting American to include only U.S. citizens conflicts with discussions of Asian American businesses, which generally refer both to citizen and non-citizen owners.
In a PBS interview from 2004, a panel of Asian American writers discussed how some groups include people of Middle Eastern descent in the Asian American category. Asian American author Stewart Ikeda has noted, "The definition of 'Asian American' also frequently depends on who's asking, who's defining, in what context, and why... the possible definitions of 'Asian-Pacific American' are many, complex, and shifting... some scholars in Asian American Studies conferences suggest that Russians, Iranians, and Israelis all might fit the field's subject of study." Jeff Yang, of the Wall Street Journal, writes that the panethnic definition of Asian American is a unique American construct, and as an identity is "in beta". The majority of Asian Americans feel ambivalence about the term "Asian American" as a term by which to identify themselves.
Scholars have grappled with the accuracy, correctness, and usefulness of the term Asian American. The term "Asian" in Asian American most often comes under fire for encompassing a huge number of people with ancestry from (or who have immigrated from) a wide range of culturally diverse countries and traditions. In contrast, leading social sciences and humanities scholars of race and Asian American identity point out that because of the racial constructions in the United States, including the social attitudes toward race and those of Asian ancestry, Asian Americans have a "shared racial experience." Because of this shared experience, the term Asian American is still a useful panethnic category because of the similarity of some experiences among Asian Americans, including stereotypes specific to people in this category.
The demographics of Asian Americans describe a heterogeneous group of people in the United States who can trace their ancestry to one or more countries in Asia. Because they compose 6% of the entire U.S. population, the diversity of the group is often disregarded in media and news discussions of "Asians" or of "Asian Americans." While there are some commonalities across ethnic subgroups, there are significant differences among different Asian ethnicities that are related to each group's history. The Asian American population is greatly urbanized, with nearly three-quarters of them living in metropolitan areas with population greater than 2.5 million. As of July 2015[update], California had the largest population of Asian Americans of any state, and Hawaii was the only state where Asian Americans were the majority of the population.
The demographics of Asian Americans can further be subdivided into, as listed in alphabetical order:
- East Asian Americans, including Chinese Americans, Japanese Americans, Korean Americans, Mongolian Americans, Taiwanese Americans, and Tibetan Americans.
- South Asian Americans, including Bangladeshi Americans, Bhutanese Americans, Indian Americans, Nepalese Americans, Pakistani Americans, and Sri Lankan Americans
- Southeast Asian Americans, including Burmese Americans, Cambodian Americans, Filipino Americans, Hmong Americans, Indonesian Americans, Lao Americans, Malaysian Americans, Mien Americans, Singaporean Americans, Thai Americans, and Vietnamese Americans.
Asian Americans include multiracial or mixed race persons with origins or ancestry in both the above groups and another race, or multiple of the above groups.
In 2010, there were 2.8 million people (5 and older) who spoke one of the Chinese languages at home; after the Spanish language, it is the third most common language in the United States. Other sizeable Asian languages are Tagalog, Vietnamese, and Korean, with all three having more than 1 million speakers in the United States.
In 2012, Alaska, California, Hawaii, Illinois, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Texas and Washington were publishing election material in Asian languages in accordance with the Voting Rights Act; these languages include Tagalog, Mandarin Chinese, Vietnamese, Spanish, Hindi and Bengali. Election materials were also available in Gujarati, Japanese, Khmer, Korean, and Thai. A 2013 poll found that 48 percent of Asian Americans considered media in their native language as their primary news source.
The 2000 Census found the more prominent languages of the Asian American community to include the Chinese languages (Cantonese, Taishanese, and Hokkien), Tagalog,Vietnamese ,Korean, Japanese, Hindi, Urdu, and Gujarati. In 2008, the Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Tagalog, and Vietnamese languages are all used in elections in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Illinois, New York, Texas, and Washington state.
- 42% Christian
- 26% Unaffiliated with any religion
- 14% Buddhist
- 10% Hindu
- 4% Muslim
- 2% other religion
- 1% Sikh
The percentage of Christians among Asian Americans has declined sharply since the 1990s, chiefly due to largescale immigration from countries in which Christianity is a minority religion (China and India in particular). In 1990, 63% of the Asian Americans identified as Christians, while in 2001 only 43% did. This development has been accompanied by a rise in traditional Asian religions, with the people identifying with them doubling during the same decade.
As Asian Americans originate from many different countries, each population has its own unique immigration history.
Filipinos have been in the territories that would become the United States since the 16th century. In 1635, an "East Indian" is listed in Jamestown, Virginia; preceding wider settlement of Indian immigrants on the East Coast in the 1790s and the West Coast in the 1800s. In 1763, Filipinos established the small settlement of Saint Malo, Louisiana, after fleeing mistreatment aboard Spanish ships. Since there were no Filipino women with them, these 'Manilamen', as they were known, married Cajun and Native American women. The first Japanese person to come to the United States, and stay any significant period of time was Nakahama Manjirō who reached the East Coast in 1841, and Joseph Heco became the first Japanese American naturalized US citizen in 1858.
Chinese sailors first came to Hawaii in 1789, a few years after Captain James Cook came upon the island. Many settled and married Hawaiian women. Most Chinese, Korean and Japanese immigrants in Hawaii arrived in the 19th century as laborers to work on sugar plantations. There were thousands of Asians in Hawaii when it was annexed to the United States in 1898. Later, Filipinos also came to work as laborers, attracted by the job opportunities, although they were limited.
Large-scale migration from Asia to the United States began when Chinese immigrants arrived on the West Coast in the mid-19th century. Forming part of the California gold rush, these early Chinese immigrants participated intensively in the mining business and later in the construction of the transcontinental railroad. By 1852, the number of Chinese immigrants in San Francisco had jumped to more than 20,000. A wave of Japanese immigration to the United States began after the Meiji Restoration in 1868. In 1898, all Filipinos in the Philippine Islands became American nationals when the United States took over colonial rule of the islands from Spain following the latter's defeat in the Spanish–American War.
Under United States law during this period, particularly the Naturalization Act of 1790, only "free white persons" were eligible to naturalize as American citizens. Ineligibility for citizenship prevented Asian immigrants from accessing a variety of rights such as voting. Bhicaji Balsara became the first known Indian-born person to gain naturalized U.S. citizenship. Balsara's naturalization was not the norm but an exception; in a pair of cases, Ozawa v. United States (1922) and United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind (1923), the Supreme Court upheld the racial qualification for citizenship and ruled that Asians were not "white persons." Second-generation Asian Americans, however, could become U.S. citizens due to the birthright citizenship clause of the Fourteenth Amendment; this guarantee was confirmed as applying regardless of race or ancestry by the Supreme Court in United States v. Wong Kim Ark (1898).
From the 1880s to the 1920s, the United States passed laws inaugurating an era of exclusion of Asian immigrants. Although the exact number of Asian immigrants was small compared to that of immigrants from other regions, much of it was concentrated in the West, and the increase caused some nativist sentiment which was known as the "yellow peril". Congress passed restrictive legislation which prohibited nearly all Chinese immigration to the United States in the 1880s. Japanese immigration was sharply curtailed by a diplomatic agreement in 1907. The Asiatic Barred Zone Act in 1917 further barred immigration from nearly all of Asia, the "Asiatic Zone". The Immigration Act of 1924 provided that no "alien ineligible for citizenship" could be admitted as an immigrant to the United States, consolidating the prohibition of Asian immigration.
World War II-era legislation and judicial rulings gradually increased the ability of Asian Americans to immigrate and become naturalized citizens. Immigration rapidly increased following the enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1965 as well as the influx of refugees from conflicts occurring in Southeast Asia such as the Vietnam War. Asian American immigrants have a significant percentage of individuals who have already achieved professional status, a first among immigration groups.
The number of Asian immigrants to the United States "grew from 491,000 in 1960 to about 12.8 million in 2014, representing a 2,597 percent increase." Asian Americans were the fastest-growing racial group between 2000 and 2010. By 2012, more immigrants came from Asia than from Latin America. In 2015, Pew Research Center found that from 2010 to 2015 more immigrants came from Asia than from Latin America, and that since 1965 Asians have made up a quarter of all immigrants.
Asians have made up an increasing proportion of the foreign-born Americans: "In 1960, Asians represented 5 percent of the U.S. foreign-born population; by 2014, their share grew to 30 percent of the nation's 42.4 million immigrants." As of 2016, "Asia is the second-largest region of birth (after Latin America) of U.S. immigrants." In 2013, China surpassed Mexico as the top single country of origin for immigrants to the U.S. Asian immigrants "are more likely than the overall foreign-born population to be naturalized citizens"; in 2014, 59% of Asian immigrants had U.S. citizenship, compared to 47% of all immigrants. Postwar Asian immigration to the U.S. has been diverse: in 2014, 31% of Asian immigrants to the U.S. were from East Asia (predominately China and Korea); 27.7% were from South Asia (predominately India); 32.6% were from Southeastern Asia (predominately the Philippines and Vietnam) and 8.3% were from Western Asia.
Asian American movement
Prior to the 1960s, Asian immigrants and their descendants had organized and agitated for social or political purposes according to their particular ethnicity: Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, or Asian Indian. The Asian American movement (a term coined by historian and activist Yuji Ichioka) gathered all those groups into a coalition, recognizing that they shared common problems with racial discrimination and common opposition to American imperialism, particularly in Asia. The movement developed during the 1960s, inspired in part by the Civil Rights Movement and the protests against the Vietnam War. "Drawing influences from the Black Power and antiwar movements, the Asian American movement forged a coalitional politics that united Asians of varying ethnicities and declared solidarity with other Third World people in the United States and abroad. Segments of the movement struggled for community control of education, provided social services and defended affordable housing in Asian ghettoes, organized exploited workers, protested against U.S. imperialism, and built new multiethnic cultural institutions." William Wei described the movement as "rooted in a past history of oppression and a present struggle for liberation." The movement as such was most active during the 1960s and 1970s.
Arts and entertainment
Asian Americans have been involved in the entertainment industry since the first half of the 19th century, when Chang and Eng Bunker (the original "Siamese Twins") became naturalized citizens. Acting roles in television, film, and theater were relatively few, and many available roles were for narrow, stereotypical characters. More recently, young Asian American comedians and film-makers have found an outlet on YouTube allowing them to gain a strong and loyal fanbase among their fellow Asian Americans. There have been several Asian American-centric television shows in American media, beginning with Mr. T and Tina in 1976, and as recent as Fresh Off the Boat in 2015.
When Asian Americans were largely excluded from labor markets in the 19th century, they started their own businesses. They have started convenience and grocery stores, professional offices such as medical and law practices, laundries, restaurants, beauty-related ventures, hi-tech companies, and many other kinds of enterprises, becoming very successful and influential in American society. They have dramatically expanded their involvement across the American economy. Asian Americans have been disproportionately successful in the hi-tech sectors of California's Silicon Valley, as evidenced by the Goldsea 100 Compilation of America's Most Successful Asian Entrepreneurs.
Compared to their population base, Asian Americans today are well represented in the professional sector and tend to earn higher wages. The Goldsea compilation of Notable Asian American Professionals show that many have come to occupy high positions at leading U.S. corporations, including a disproportionately large number as Chief Marketing Officers.
Asian Americans have made major contributions to the American economy. In 2012, Asian Americans own 1.5 million businesses, employ around 3 million people who earn an annual total payroll of around $80 billion. Fashion designer and mogul Vera Wang, who is famous for designing dresses for high-profile celebrities, started a clothing company, named after herself, which now offers a broad range of luxury fashion products. An Wang founded Wang Laboratories in June 1951. Amar Bose founded the Bose Corporation in 1964. Charles Wang founded Computer Associates, later became its CEO and chairman. Two brothers, David Khym and Kenny Khym founded Hip hop fashion giant Southpole (clothing) in 1991. Jen-Hsun Huang co-founded the NVIDIA corporation in 1993. Jerry Yang co-founded Yahoo! Inc. in 1994 and became its CEO later. Andrea Jung serves as Chairman and CEO of Avon Products. Vinod Khosla was a founding CEO of Sun Microsystems and is a general partner of the prominent venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers. Steve Chen and Jawed Karim were co-creators of YouTube, and were beneficiaries of Google's $1.65 billion acquisition of that company in 2006. In addition to contributing greatly to other fields, Asian Americans have made considerable contributions in science and technology in the United States, in such prominent innovative R&D regions as Silicon Valley and The Triangle.
Government and politics
Asian Americans have a high level of political incorporation in terms of their actual voting population. Since 1907, Asian Americans have been active at the national level and have had multiple officeholders at local, state, and national levels.
The highest ranked Asian American to serve in the United States Congress was Senator and President pro tempore Daniel Inouye, who died in office in 2012. There are several active Asian Americans in the United States Congress. With higher proportions and densities of Asian American populations, Hawaii has most consistently sent Asian Americans to the Senate, and Hawaii and California have most consistently sent Asian Americans to the House of Representatives.
The first Asian American member of the U.S. cabinet was Norman Mineta, who served as Secretary of Commerce and then Secretary of Transportation in the George W. Bush administration. The highest ranked Asian American by order of precedence currently in office is Secretary of Transportation Elaine Chao, who previously served as Secretary of Labor.
As of 2019[update], three Asian Americans have ran for the office of President of the United States. In 1964 and 1968, Hawaiian Senator Hiram Fong ran for president. During the 2016 presidential election, Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal ran for the office. Founder of a non-profit, and entrepreneur, Andrew Yang is a candidate for the 2020 US presidential election.
Connie Chung was one of the first Asian American national correspondents for a major TV news network, reporting for CBS in 1971. She later co-anchored the CBS Evening News from 1993 to 1995, becoming the first Asian American national news anchor. At ABC, Ken Kashiwahara began reporting nationally in 1974. In 1989, Emil Guillermo, a Filipino American born reporter from San Francisco, became the first Asian American male to co-host a national news show when he was senior host at National Public Radio's "All Things Considered." In 1990, Sheryl WuDunn, a foreign correspondent in the Beijing Bureau of The New York Times, became the first Asian American to win a Pulitzer Prize. Ann Curry joined NBC News as a reporter in 1990, later becoming prominently associated with The Today Show in 1997. Carol Lin is perhaps best known for being the first to break the news of 9-11 on CNN. Dr. Sanjay Gupta is currently CNN's chief health correspondent. Lisa Ling, a former co-host on The View, now provides special reports for CNN and The Oprah Winfrey Show, as well as hosting National Geographic Channel's Explorer. Fareed Zakaria, a naturalized Indian-born immigrant, is a prominent journalist and author specializing in international affairs. He is the editor-at-large of Time magazine, and the host of Fareed Zakaria GPS on CNN. Juju Chang, James Hatori, John Yang, Veronica De La Cruz, Michelle Malkin, Betty Nguyen, and Julie Chen have become familiar faces on television news. John Yang won a Peabody Award. Alex Tizon, a Seattle Times staff writer, won a Pulitzer Prize in 1997.
Since the War of 1812 Asian Americans have served and fought on behalf of the United States. Serving in both segregated and non-segregated units until the desegregation of the US Military in 1948, 31 have been awarded the nation's highest award for combat valor, the Medal of Honor. Twenty-one of these were conferred upon members of the mostly Japanese American 100th Infantry Battalion of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team of World War II, the most highly decorated unit of its size in the history of the United States Armed Forces. The highest ranked Asian American military official was Secretary of Veteran Affairs, four-star general and Army Chief of Staff Eric Shinseki.
Science and technology
Asian Americans have made many notable contributions to Science and Technology.
Asian Americans have contributed to sports in the United States through much of the 20th Century. Some of the most notable contributions include Olympic sports, but also in professional sports, particularly in the post-World War II years. As the Asian American population grew in the late 20th century, Asian American contributions expanded to more sports.
In recognition of the unique culture, traditions, and history of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders, the United States government has permanently designated the month of May to be Asian Pacific American Heritage Month. Asian American parenting as seen through relationships between Chinese parents and adolescence, which is described as being more authoritarian and less warm than relations between European parents and adolescence, has become a topic of study and discussion. These influences affect how parents regulate and monitor their children, and has been described as Tiger parenting, and has received interest and curiosity from non Chinese parents.
Health and medicine
Asian immigrants are also changing the American medical landscape through increasing number of Asian medical practitioners in the United States. Beginning in the 1960s and 1970s, the US government invited a number of foreign physicians particularly from India and the Philippines to address the shortage of physicians in rural and medically underserved urban areas. The trend in importing foreign medical practitioners, however, became a long-term solution as US schools failed to produce enough health care providers to match the increasing population. Amid decreasing interest in medicine among American college students due to high educational costs and high rates of job dissatisfaction, loss of morale, stress, and lawsuits, Asian American immigrants maintained a supply of healthcare practitioners for millions of Americans. It is documented that Asian American international medical graduates including highly skilled guest workers using the J1 Visa program for medical workers, tend to serve in health professions shortage areas (HPSA) and specialties that are not filled by US medical graduates especially primary care and rural medicine.
Among Asian Americans, nearly one in four are likely to use common alternative medicine. This includes Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Ayurveda. Due to the prevalence of usage, engaging with Asian American populations, through the practitioners of these common alternative medicines, can lead to an increase of usage of underused medical procedures.
or higher (2010)
|Total U.S. population||83.9%||27.9%|
|Sources: 2004 and 2010|
Among America's major racial categories, Asian Americans have the highest educational qualifications. This varies, however, for individual ethnic groups. For example, a 2010 study of all Asian American adults found 42% have at least a college degree, but only 16% of Vietnamese Americans and only 5% for Laotians and Cambodians. It has been noted, however, that 2008 US Census statistics put the bachelor's degree attainment rate of Vietnamese Americans at 26%, which is not very different from the rate of 27% for all Americans. Census data from 2010 show 50% of Asian adults have earned at least a bachelor's degree, compared to 28% for all Americans, and 34% for non-Hispanic whites. Indian Americans have some of the highest education rates, with nearly 71% having attained at least a bachelor's degree in 2010. as of December 2012[update] Asian Americans made up twelve to eighteen percent of the student population at Ivy League schools, larger than their share of the population. For example, the Harvard Class of 2016 is 21% Asian American.
In the years immediately preceding 2012, 61% of Asian American adult immigrants have a bachelor or higher level college education.
Social and political issues
This concept appears to elevate Asian Americans by portraying them as an elite group of successful, highly educated, intelligent, and wealthy individuals, but it can also be considered an overly narrow and overly one-dimensional portrayal of Asian Americans, leaving out other human qualities such as vocal leadership, negative emotions, risk taking, ability to learn from mistakes, and desire for creative expression. Furthermore, Asian Americans who do not fit into the model minority mold can face challenges when people's expectations based on the model minority myth do not match with reality. Traits outside of the model minority mold can be seen as negative character flaws for Asian Americans despite those very same traits being positive for the general American majority (e.g., risk taking, confidence, empowered). For this reason, Asian Americans encounter a "bamboo ceiling", the Asian American equivalent of the glass ceiling in the workplace, with only 1.5% of Fortune 500 CEOs being Asians, a percentage smaller than their percentage of the total United States population.
The bamboo ceiling is defined as a combination of individual, cultural, and organisational factors that impede Asian Americans' career progress inside organizations. Since then, a variety of sectors (including nonprofits, universities, the government) have discussed the impact of the ceiling as it relates to Asians and the challenges they face. As described by Anne Fisher, the "bamboo ceiling" refers to the processes and barriers that serve to exclude Asians and American people of Asian descent from executive positions on the basis of subjective factors such as "lack of leadership potential" and "lack of communication skills" that cannot actually be explained by job performance or qualifications. Articles regarding the subject have been published in Crains, Fortune magazine, and The Atlantic.
In 2012, there were 1.3 million alien Asian Americans; and for those awaiting visas, there were lengthy backlogs with over 450 thousand Filipinos, over 325 thousand Indians, over 250 thousand Vietnamese, and over 225 thousand Chinese are awaiting visas. As of 2009, Filipinos and Indians accounted for the highest number of alien immigrants for "Asian Americans" with an estimated illegal population of 270,000 and 200,000 respectively. Indian Americans are also the fastest growing alien immigrant group in the United States, an increase in illegal immigration of 125% since 2000. This is followed by Koreans (200,000) and Chinese (120,000). Nonetheless, Asian Americans have the highest naturalization rates in the United States. In 2015, out of a total of 730,259 applicants, 261,374 became new Americans. According to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, legal permanent residents or green card holders from India, Philippines and China were among the top nationals applying for U.S. naturalization in 2015.
Due to the stereotype of Asian Americans being successful as a group and having the lowest crime rates in the United States, illegal immigration is mostly focused on those from Mexico and Latin America while leaving out Asians. Asians are the second largest racial/ethnic alien immigrant group in the U.S. behind Hispanics and Latinos. While the majority of Asian immigrants to the United States immigrate legally, up to 15% of Asian immigrants immigrate without legal documents.
Asian Americans have been the targets of violence based on their race and or ethnicity. This includes, but is not limited to, such events as the Rock Springs massacre, Watsonville Riots, Bellingham Riots in 1916 against South Asians, attacks upon Japanese Americans following the attack on Pearl Harbor, and Korean American businesses targeted during the 1992 Los Angeles riots. Attacks on Chinese in the American frontier were common, this included the slaughter by Paiute Indians of forty to sixty Chinese miners in 1866 during the Snake War, and an attack on Chinese miners at Chinese Massacre Cove in 1887 by cowboys resulting in 31 deaths. In the late 1980s, South Asians in New Jersey faced assault and other hate crimes by a group of Latinos known as the Dotbusters. In the late 1990s, the lone death that occurred during the Los Angeles Jewish Community Center shooting by a white supremacist was a Filipino postal worker.
After the September 11 attacks, Sikh Americans were targeted, becoming the victims of numerous hate crimes, including murder. Other Asian Americans have also been the victims of race-based violence in Brooklyn, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Bloomington, Indiana. Furthermore, it has been reported that young Asian Americans are more likely to be the targets of violence than their peers. In 2017, racist graffiti and other property damage was done to a community center in Stockton's Little Manila. Racism and discrimination still persist against Asian Americans, occurring not only against recent immigrants but also against well-educated and highly trained professionals.
Recent waves of immigration of Asian Americans to largely African American neighborhoods have led to cases of severe racial tension. Acts of large-scale violence against Asian American students by their black classmates have been reported in multiple cities. In October 2008, 30 black students chased and attacked 5 Asian students at South Philadelphia High School, and a similar attack on Asian students occurred at the same school one year later, prompting a protest by Asian students in response.
Asian-owned businesses have been a frequent target of tensions between black and Asian Americans. During the 1992 Los Angeles riots, more than 2000 Korean-owned businesses were looted or burned by groups of African Americans. From 1990 to 1991, a high-profile, racially motivated boycott of an Asian-owned shop in Brooklyn was organized by a local black nationalist activist, eventually resulting in the owner being forced to sell his business. Another racially motivated boycott against an Asian-owned business occurred in Dallas in 2012, after an Asian American clerk fatally shot an African American who had robbed his store. During the Ferguson unrest in 2014, Asian-owned businesses were looted, and Asian-owned stores were looted during the 2015 Baltimore protests while African-American owned stores were bypassed. Violence against Asian Americans continue to occur based on their race, with one source asserting that Asian Americans are the fastest growing targets of hate crimes and violence.
Until the late 20th century, the term "Asian American" was adopted mostly by activists, while the average person of Asian ancestries identified with their specific ethnicity. The murder of Vincent Chin in 1982 was a pivotal civil rights case, and it marked the emergence of Asian Americans as a distinct group in United States.
Stereotypes of Asians have been largely collectively internalized by society and these stereotypes have mainly negative repercussions for Asian Americans and Asian immigrants in daily interactions, current events, and governmental legislation. In many instances, media portrayals of East Asians often reflect a dominant Americentric perception rather than realistic and authentic depictions of true cultures, customs and behaviors. Asians have experienced discrimination and have been victims of hate crimes related to their ethnic stereotypes.
Study has indicated that most non-Asian Americans do not generally differentiate between Asian Americans of different ethnicities. Stereotypes of Chinese Americans and Asian Americans are nearly identical. A 2002 survey of Americans' attitudes toward Asian Americans and Chinese Americans indicated that 24% of the respondents disapprove of intermarriage with an Asian American, second only to African Americans; 23% would be uncomfortable supporting an Asian American presidential candidate, compared to 15% for an African American, 14% for a woman and 11% for a Jew; 17% would be upset if a substantial number of Asian Americans moved into their neighborhood; 25% had somewhat or very negative attitude toward Chinese Americans in general. The study did find several positive perceptions of Chinese Americans: strong family values (91%); honesty as business people (77%); high value on education (67%).
There is a widespread perception that Asian Americans are not "American" but are instead "perpetual foreigners". Asian Americans often report being asked the question, "Where are you really from?" by other Americans, regardless of how long they or their ancestors have lived in United States and been a part of its society. Many Asian Americans are themselves not immigrants but rather born in the United States. Many East Asian Americans are asked if they are Chinese or Japanese, an assumption based on major groups of past immigrants.
Asian Americans are sometimes characterized as a model minority in the United States because many of their cultures encourage a strong work ethic, a respect for elders, a high degree of professional and academic success, a high valuation of family, education and religion. Statistics such as high household income and low incarceration rate, low rates of many diseases, and higher than average life expectancy are also discussed as positive aspects of Asian Americans.
The implicit advice is that the other minorities should stop protesting and emulate the Asian American work ethic and devotion to higher education. Some critics say the depiction replaces biological racism with cultural racism, and should be dropped. According to the Washington Post, "the idea that Asian Americans are distinct among minority groups and immune to the challenges faced by other people of color is a particularly sensitive issue for the community, which has recently fought to reclaim its place in social justice conversations with movements like #ModelMinorityMutiny."
The model minority concept can also affect Asians' public education. By comparison with other minorities, Asians often achieve higher test scores and grades compared to other Americans. Stereotyping Asian American as over-achievers can lead to harm if school officials or peers expect all to perform higher than average. The very high educational attainments of Asian Americans has often been noted; in 1980, for example, 74% of Chinese Americans, 62% of Japanese Americans, and 55% of Korean Americans aged 20–21 were in college, compared to only a third of the whites. The disparity at postgraduate levels is even greater, and the differential is especially notable in fields making heavy use of mathematics. By 2000, a plurality of undergraduates at such elite public California schools as UC Berkeley and UCLA, which are obligated by law to not consider race as a factor in admission, were Asian American. The pattern is rooted in the pre-World War II era. Native-born Chinese and Japanese Americans reached educational parity with majority whites in the early decades of the 20th century. One group of writers who discuss the "model minority" stereotype, have taken to attaching the term "myth" after "model minority," thus encouraging discourse regarding how the concept and stereotype is harmful to Asian American communities and ethnic groups.
The model minority concept can be emotionally damaging to some Asian Americans, particularly since they are expected to live up to those peers who fit the stereotype. Studies have shown that some Asian Americans suffer from higher rates of stress, depression, mental illnesses, and suicides in comparison to other races, indicating that the pressures to achieve and live up to the model minority image may take a mental and psychological toll on some Asian Americans.
The "model minority" stereotype fails to distinguish between different ethnic groups with different histories. When divided up by ethnicity, it can be seen that the economic and academic successes supposedly enjoyed by Asian Americans are concentrated into a few ethnic groups. Cambodians, Hmong, and Laotians (and to a lesser extent, Vietnamese), all of whose relatively low achievement rates are possibly due to their refugee status, and that they are non-voluntary immigrants; additionally, one in five Hmong and Bangladeshi people live in poverty.
Social and economic disparities among Asian Americans
In 2015, Asian American earnings were found to exceed all other racial groups when all Asian ethnic groups are grouped as a whole. Yet, a 2014 report from the Census Bureau reported that 12% of Asian Americans were living below the poverty line, while 10.1% of non-Hispanic White Americans live below the poverty line. A 2017 study of wealth inequality within Asian Americans found a greater gap between wealthy and non-wealthy Asian Americans compared to non-Hispanic white Americans. Once country of birth and other demographic factors are taken into account, a portion of the sub-groups that make up Asian Americans are much more likely than non-Hispanic White Americans to live in poverty.
There are major disparities that exist among Asian Americans when specific ethnic groups are examined. For example, in 2012, Asian Americans had the highest educational attainment level of any racial demographic in the country. Yet, there are many sub groups of Asian Americans who suffer in terms of education with some sub groups showing a high rate of dropping out of school or lacking a college education. This occurs in terms of household income as well, in 2008 Asian Americans had the highest median household income overall of any racial demographic. There are Asian sub groups have average median incomes lower than both the U.S. average and non-Hispanic Whites. In 2014, data released by the United States Census Bureau revealed that 5 Asian American ethnic groups are in the top 10 lowest earning ethnicities in terms of per capita income in all of the United States.
The Asian American groups that have low educational attainment and high rates of poverty both in average individual and median income are Bhutanese Americans, Bangladeshi Americans, Cambodian Americans, Burmese Americans, Nepali Americans, Hmong Americans, and Laotian Americans. This affects Vietnamese Americans as well, albeit to a lesser degree, as early 21st century immigration from Vietnam are not from refugee backgrounds. These individual ethnicities experience social issues within their communities, some specific to their individual communities themselves. Issues such as suicide, crime, and mental illness. Other issues experienced include deportation, and poor physical health. Within the Bhutanese American community, it has been documented that there are issues of suicide greater than the world's average. Cambodian Americans, some of whom immigrated as refugees, are subject to deportation. Crime and gang violence are common social issues among Southeast Asian Americans of refugee backgrounds such as Cambodian, Laotian, Hmong, and Vietnamese Americans.
- Asian American and Pacific Islander Policy Research Consortium
- Asian American studies
- Asian Americans in New York City
- Asian Latin Americans
- Asian Argentines
- Asian Brazilians
- Asian Peruvians
- Asian Mexicans
- Asian Canadians
- Asian Australians
- Asian New Zealanders
- Asian Pacific American
- Asian pride
- East Asia–United States relations
- Hyphenated American
- Jade Ribbon Campaign
- Index of Asian American-related articles
- "Asian Alone or in any Combination by Selected Groups". United States Census Bureau. p. 2017 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
- Jonathan H. X. Lee; Kathleen M. Nadeau (2011). Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife. ABC-CLIO. pp. 333–334. ISBN 978-0-313-35066-5.
Since the Philippines was colonized by Spain, Filipino Americans in general can speak and understand Spanish too.
- "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. July 19, 2012. Retrieved February 15, 2013.
Christian 42%, Buddhist 14%, Hindu 10%, Muslim 4%, Sikh 1%, Jain *% Unaffiliated 26%, Don't know/Refused 1%
- Karen R. Humes; Nicholas A. Jones; Roberto R. Ramirez (March 2011). "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
- U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 1 Technical Documentation, 2001, at Appendix B-14. "A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Other Asian."
- "U.S. Census Show Asians Are Fastest Growing Racial Group". NPR.org. Retrieved October 26, 2016.
- K. Connie Kang (September 7, 2002). "Yuji Ichioka, 66; Led Way in Studying Lives of Asian Americans". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
Yet Ichioka created the first inter-ethnic pan-Asian American political group. And he coined the term "Asian American" to frame a new self-defining political lexicon. Before that, people of Asian ancestry were generally called Oriental or Asiatic.
- Mio, Jeffrey Scott, ed. (1999). Key Words in Multicultural Interventions: A Dictionary. ABC-Clio ebook. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 20. ISBN 9780313295478. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
The use of the term Asian American began in the late 1960s alongside the civil rights movement (Uba, 1994) and replaced disparaging labels of Oriental, Asiatic, and Mongoloid.
- "Proceedings of the Asiatic Exclusion League" Asiatic Exclusion League. San Francisco: April 1910. Pg. 7. "To amend section twenty-one hundred and sixty-nine of the Revised Statutes of the United States. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that section twenty-one hundred and sixty-nine of the Revised Statutes of the United States be, and the same is hereby, amended by adding thereto the following: And Mongolians, Malays, and other Asiatics, except Armenians, Assyrians, and Jews, shall not be naturalized in the United States."
- Cortellessa, Eric (October 23, 2016). "Israeli, Palestinian Americans could share new 'Middle Eastern' census category". Times of Israel. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
Nussbaum Cohen, Debra (June 18, 2015). "New U.S. Census Category to Include 'Israeli' Option". Haaretz. Retrieved April 22, 2018.
- How the U.S. Courts Established the White Race Archived August 11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- Yen Espiritu (January 19, 2011). Asian American Panethnicity: Bridging Institutions and Identities. Temple University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-4399-0556-2.
- Chin, Gabriel J. (April 18, 2008). "The Civil Rights Revolution Comes to Immigration Law: A New Look at the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965". SSRN 1121504. Cite journal requires
- Robert M. Jiobu (1988). Ethnicity and Assimilation: Blacks, Chinese, Filipinos, Koreans, Japanese, Mexicans, Vietnamese, and Whites. SUNY Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-88706-647-4.
Chang, Benjamin (February 2017). "Asian Americans and Education". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education. 1. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.013.102. Retrieved March 27, 2018.
- Sailer, Steve (July 11, 2002). "Feature: Who exactly is Asian American?". UPI. Los Angeles. Retrieved September 4, 2018.
- "Asian American". Oxford University Press. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
- "Asian". AskOxford.com. Archived from the original on April 15, 2008. Retrieved September 29, 2007.[full citation needed]
- Epicanthal folds: MedicinePlus Medical Encyclopedia states that "The presence of an epicanthal fold is normal in people of Asiatic descent" assuming it the norm for all Asians
Kawamura, Kathleen (2004). "Chapter 28. Asian American Body Images". In Thomas F. Cash; Thomas Pruzinsky (eds.). Body Image: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. Guilford Press. pp. 243–249. ISBN 978-1-59385-015-9.
- "American Community Survey; Puerto Rico Community Survey; 2007 Subject Definitions" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau: 31. Cite journal requires
"American Community Survey; Puerto Rico Community Survey; 2007 Subject Definitions" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 11, 2011.[permanent dead link]
"American Community Survey and Puerto Rico Community Survey: 2017 Code List" (PDF). Code Lists, Definitions, and Accuracy. U.S. Department of Commerce. 2017. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
"American Community Survey and Puerto Rico Community Survey: 2017 Subject Definitions" (PDF). Code Lists, Definitions, and Accuracy. U.S. Department of Commerce. 2017. pp. 114–116. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
Asian. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam. It includes people who indicate their race as “Asian Indian,” “Chinese,” “Filipino,” “Korean,” “Japanese,” “Vietnamese,” and “Other Asian” or provide other detailed Asian responses.
- Cornell Asian American Studies Archived May 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine; contains mentions to South Asians
UC Berkeley – General Catalog – Asian American Studies Courses Archived December 21, 2008, at the Wayback Machine; South and Southeast Asian courses are present
"Asian American Studies". 2009–2011 Undergraduate Catalog. University of Illinois at Chicago. 2009. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
"Welcome to Asian American Studies". Asian American Studies. California State University, Fullerton. 2003. Archived from the original on July 11, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
"Program". Asian American Studies. Stanford University. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
"About Us". Asian American Studies. Ohio State University. 2007. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
"Welcome". Asian and Asian American Studies Certificate Program. University of Massachusetts Amherst. 2011. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
"Overview". Cornell University Asian American Studies Program. Cornell University. 2007. Archived from the original on June 15, 2012. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
- "State & County QuickFacts: Race". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved August 31, 2009.
- U.S. Census Bureau, 2000 Census of Population, Public Law 94-171 Redistricting Data File.Race at the Wayback Machine (archived November 3, 2001). (archived from the original on November 3, 2001).
- "COMPARATIVE ENROLLMENT BY RACE/ETHNIC ORIGIN" (PDF). Diversity and Inclusion Office. Ferris State University. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
original peoples of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East.
"Not Quite White: Race Classification and the Arab American Experience". Arab American Institute. Arab Americans by the Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown University. April 4, 1997. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
Ian Haney Lopez (1996). "How the U.S. Courts Established the White Race". Model Minority. New York University Press. Archived from the original on August 11, 2014. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
"Race". United States Census Bureau. U.S. Department of Commerce. 2010. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
White. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as "White" or report entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan, or Caucasian.
Kleinyesterday, Uri (June 18, 2015). "New U.S. census category to include 'Israeli' option - Jewish World Features - Haaretz - Israel News". Haaretz.com. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
"Public Comments Received on Federal Register notice 79 FR 71377 : Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2015 National Content Test : U.S. Census Bureau; Department of Commerce : December 2, 2014 – February 2, 2015" (PDF). Census.gov. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
- 1980 Census: Instructions to Respondents, republished by Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota at http://www.ipums.org Accessed November 19, 2006.
- Lee, Gordon. Hyphen magazine. "The Forgotten Revolution". Archived from the original on July 7, 2003. Retrieved June 1, 2016.. 2003. January 28, 2007 (archived from the original Archived October 2, 2007, at the Wayback Machine on March 17, 2008).
- Wu, Frank H. Wu (2003). Yellow: race in America beyond black and white. New York: Basic Books. p. 310. ISBN 9780465006403. Retrieved April 15, 2011.
- 1990 Census: Instructions to Respondents, republished by Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota at http://www.ipums.org Accessed November 19, 2006.
Reeves, Terrance Claudett, Bennett. United States Census Bureau. Asian and Pacific Islander Population: March 2002. 2003. September 30, 2006.
- "Census Data / API Identities | Research & Statistics | Resources Publications Research Statistics | Asian Pacific Institute on Gender-Based Violence". www.api-gbv.org. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- Wood, Daniel B. "Common Ground on who's an American." Christian Science Monitor. January 19, 2006. Retrieved February 16, 2007.
- Mary Frauenfelder. "Asian-Owned Businesses Nearing Two Million". census.gov. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
- "Searching For Asian America. Community Chats - PBS". pbs.org. Archived from the original on November 4, 2015. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
- S. D. Ikeda. "What's an "Asian American" Now, Anyway?". Archived from the original on June 10, 2011.
- Yang, Jeff (October 27, 2012). "Easy Tiger (Nation)". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
- Park, Jerry Z. (August 1, 2008). "Second-Generation Asian American Pan-Ethnic Identity: Pluralized Meanings of a Racial Label" (PDF). Sociological Perspectives. 51 (3): 541–561. doi:10.1525/sop.2008.51.3.541. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
- Han, Chong-Suk Winter (2015). Geisha of a Different Kind: Race and Sexuality in Gaysian America. New York: New York University Press. p. 4.
- Barringer, Felicity (March 2, 1990). "Asian Population in U.S. Grew by 70% in the 80's". New York Times. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
Lowe, Lisa (2004). "Heterogeneity, Hybridity, Multiplicity: Marking Asian American Differences" (PDF). In Ono, Kent A. (ed.). A Companion to Asian American Studies. Blackwell Companions in Cultural Studies. John Wiley & Sons. p. 272. ISBN 978-1-4051-1595-7. Archived from the original on 1991. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- Skop, Emily; Li, Wei (2005). "Asians In America's Suburbs: Patterns And Consequences of Settlement". The Geographical Review. 95: 168.
- Fehr, Dennis Earl; Fehr, Mary Cain (2009). Teach boldly!: letters to teachers about contemporary issues in education. Peter Lang. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-4331-0491-6. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
Raymond Arthur Smith (2009). "Issue Brief #160: Asian American Protest Politics: "The Politics of Identity"" (PDF). Majority Rule and Minority Rights Issue Briefs. Columbia University. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Lott, Juanita Tamayo (January 9, 2004). Asian-American Children Are Members of a Diverse and Urban Population (Report). Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
Hune, Shirley (April 16, 2002). "Demographics and Diversity of Asian American College Students". New Directions for Student Services. 2002 (97): 11–20. doi:10.1002/ss.35.
Franklin Ng (1998). The History and Immigration of Asian Americans. Taylor & Francis. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-8153-2690-8.
Xue Lan Rong; Judith Preissle (September 26, 2008). Educating Immigrant Students in the 21st Century: What Educators Need to Know. SAGE Publications. p. 133. ISBN 978-1-4522-9405-6.
- Wile, Rob (June 26, 2016). "Latinos are no longer the fastest-growing racial group in America". Fusion. Doral, Florida. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
- "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2012". United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. March 21, 2012. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- Timothy Pratt (October 18, 2012). "More Asian Immigrants Are Finding Ballots in Their Native Tongue". New York Times. Las Vegas. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- Leslie Berestein Rojas (November 6, 2012). "Five new Asian languages make their debut at the polls". KPCC. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- Shaun Tandon (January 17, 2013). "Half of Asian Americans rely on ethnic media: poll". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
- "Language Use and English-Speaking Ability: 2000: Census 2000 Brief" (PDF). census.gov. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
- EAC Issues Glossaries of Election Terms in Five Asian Languages Translations to Make Voting More Accessible to a Majority of Asian American Citizens. Election Assistance Commission. June 20, 2008. (archived from the original on July 31, 2008)
- "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths" (overview) (Archive). Pew Research. July 19, 2012. Retrieved on May 3, 2014.
- Leffel, Gregory P. Faith Seeking Action: Mission, Social Movements, and the Church in Motion. Scarecrow Press, 2007. ISBN 1461658578. p. 39
- Sawyer, Mary R. The Church on the Margins: Living Christian Community. A&C Black, 2003. ISBN 1563383667. p. 156
- Taylor, Paul; D'Vera Cohn; Wendy Wang; Jeffrey S. Passel; Rakesh Kochhar; Richard Fry; Kim Parker; Cary Funk; Gretchen M. Livingston; Eileen Patten; Seth Motel; Ana Gonzalez-Barrera (July 12, 2012). "The Rise of Asian Americans" (PDF). Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends. Pew Research Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 5, 2016. Retrieved January 28, 2013.
- Gonzalez, Joaquin (2009). Filipino American Faith in Action: Immigration, Religion, and Civic Engagement. NYU Press. pp. 21–22. ISBN 9780814732977. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
Juan Jr., E. San (2009). "Emergency Signals from the Shipwreck". Toward Filipino Self-Determination. SUNY series in global modernity. SUNY Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 9781438427379. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Martha W. McCartney; Lorena S. Walsh; Ywone Edwards-Ingram; Andrew J. Butts; Beresford Callum (2003). "A Study of the Africans and African Americans on Jamestown Island and at Green Spring, 1619–1803" (PDF). Historic Jamestowne. National Park Service. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
Francis C. Assisi (May 16, 2007). "Indian Slaves in Colonial America". India Currents. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
- Okihiro, Gary Y. (2005). The Columbia Guide To Asian American History. Columbia University Press. p. 178. ISBN 9780231115117. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
- "Filipinos in Louisiana". Retrieved January 5, 2011.
- Wachtel, Alan (2009). Southeast Asian Americans. Marshall Cavendish. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-7614-4312-4. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
- John E. Van Sant (2000). Pacific Pioneers: Japanese Journeys to America and Hawaii, 1850-80. University of Illinois Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-252-02560-0.
Sang Chi; Emily Moberg Robinson (January 2012). Voices of the Asian American and Pacific Islander Experience. ABC-CLIO. p. 377. ISBN 978-1-59884-354-5.
Joseph Nathan Kane (1964). Famous first facts: a record of first happenings, discoveries and inventions in the United States. H. W. Wilson. p. 161.
- Wai-Jane Cha. "Chinese Merchant-Adventurers and Sugar Masters in Hawaii: 1802–1852" (PDF). University of Hawaii at Manoa. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- Xiaojian Zhao; Edward J.W. Park Ph.D. (November 26, 2013). Asian Americans: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political History [3 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political History. ABC-CLIO. pp. 357–358. ISBN 978-1-59884-240-1.
- Ronald Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (2nd ed. 1998) pp 133–78
- The Office of Multicultural Student Services (1999). "Filipino Migrant Workers in California". University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on December 4, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2011.
Castillo, Adelaida (1976). "Filipino Migrants in San Diego 1900–1946". The Journal of San Diego History. San Diego Historical Society. 22 (3). Retrieved January 12, 2011.
- L. Scott Miller (1995). An American Imperative: Accelerating Minority Educational Advancement. Yale University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-300-07279-2.
- Richard T. Schaefer (March 20, 2008). Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. SAGE Publications. p. 872. ISBN 978-1-4522-6586-5.
- Stephanie Hinnershitz-Hutchinson (May 2013). "The Legal Entanglements of Empire, Race, and Filipino Migration to the United States". Humanities and Social Sciences Net Online. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
Baldoz, Rick (2011). The Third Asiatic Invasion: Migration and Empire in Filipino America, 1898–1946. NYU Press. p. 204. ISBN 9780814709214. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
- "Amazon.com: Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America (Politics and Society in Twentieth-Century America) eBook: Mae M. Ngai: Books". www.amazon.com. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- Elliott Robert Barkan (January 17, 2013). Immigrants in American History: Arrival, Adaptation, and Integration [4 volumes]: Arrival, Adaptation, and Integration. ABC-CLIO. p. 301. ISBN 978-1-59884-220-3.
- Soodalter, Ron (2016). "By Soil Or By Blood". American History. 50.6: 56–63.
Not including children of diplomats.
- Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (1998) pp 370–78
- Rothman, Lily; Ronk, Liz (February 2, 2017). "Congress Tightened Immigration Laws 100 Years Ago. Here's Who They Turned Away". Time. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
Excluded from entry in 1917 were not only convicted criminals, chronic alcoholics and people with contagious diseases, but also people with epilepsy, anarchists, most people who couldn't read and almost everyone from Asia, as well as laborers who were "induced, assisted, encouraged, or solicited to migrate to this country by offers or promises of employment, whether such offers or promises are true or false" and "persons likely to become a public charge."
Boissoneault, Lorraine (February 6, 2017). "Literacy Tests and Asian Exclusion Were the Hallmarks of the 1917 Immigration Act". Smithsonian. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
The act also levied an $8 tax on every adult immigrant (about $160 today) and barred all immigrants from the “Asiatic zone.”
Little, Becky (September 7, 2017). "The Birth of 'Illegal' Immigration". History. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
A decade later, the Asiatic Barred Zone Act banned most immigration from Asia, as well as immigration by prostitutes, polygamists, anarchists, and people with contagious diseases.
Uma A. Segal (August 14, 2002). A Framework for Immigration: Asians in the United States. Columbia University Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-231-50633-5.
Less than ten years later, Congress passed the Immigration Act of February 5, 1917 (commonly known as the Barred Zone Act), which enumerated the classes of people who were ineligible to enter the United States. Among them were those who were natives of a zone defined by latitude and longitude the geographic area identified became known as the Asiatic Barred Zone, and the act clearly became the Asiatic Barred Zone Act. Under the Asiatic Barred Zone Act, the only Asians allowed entry into the United States were Japanese and Filipinos.
Sixty-Fourth Congress (February 5, 1917). "CHAP. 29. - An Act To regulate the immigration of aliens to, and the residence of aliens in, the United States" (PDF). Library of Congress. Archived from the original (PDF) on Autumn 2007. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
unless otherwise provided for by existing treaties, persons who are natives of islands not possessed by the United States adjacent to the Content of Asia, situate south of the twentieth parallel latitude north, west of the one hundred and sixtieth meridian of longitude east of Greenwich, and north of the tenth parallel of latitude south, or who are natives of any country, province, or dependency situate on the Continent of Asia west of the one hundred and tenth meridian of longitude east from Greenwich and east of the fiftieth meridian of longitude east from Greenwhich and south of the fiftieth parallel of latitude north, except that portion of said territory situate between the fiftieth and the sixty-fourth meridians of longitude east from Greenwhich and the twenty-fourth and thirty-eighth parallels of latitude north, and no alien now in any way excluded from, or prevented from entering, the United States shall be admitted to the United States.
- Franks, Joel (2015). "Anti-Asian Exclusion In The United States During The Nineteenth And Twentieth Centuries: The History Leading To The Immigration Act Of 1924". Journal of American Ethnic History. 34 (3): 121–122. doi:10.5406/jamerethnhist.34.3.0121.
Takaki, Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (1998) pp 197–211
- Elaine Howard Ecklund; Jerry Z. Park. "Asian American Community Participation and Religion: Civic "Model Minorities?"". Project MUSE. Baylor University. Retrieved March 7, 2012.
- Jie Zong & Jeanne Batalova, Asian Immigrants in the United States, Migration Policy Institute (January 6, 2016).
- Adams, Shar (May 3, 2012). "Growing Asian-American Communities Underrepresented". The Epoch Times. Archived from the original on December 15, 2013. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- Semple, Kirk (January 8, 2013). "Asian-Americans Gain Influence in Philanthropy". New York Times. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
From 2000 to 2010, according to the Census Bureau, the number of people who identified themselves as partly or wholly Asian grew by nearly 46 percent, more than four times the growth rate of the overall population, making Asian-Americans the fastest growing racial group in the nation.
- Semple, Ken (June 18, 2012). "In a Shift, Biggest Wave of Migrants Is Now Asian". New York Times. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
"New Asian 'American Dream': Asians Surpass Hispanics in Immigration". ABC News. United States News. June 19, 2012. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
Jonathan H. X. Lee (January 16, 2015). History of Asian Americans: Exploring Diverse Roots: Exploring Diverse Roots. ABC-CLIO. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-313-38459-2.
- Rivitz, Jessica (September 28, 2015). "Asians on pace to overtake Hispanics among U.S. immigrants, study shows". CNN. Atlanta. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
- Erika Lee, Chinese immigrants now largest group of new arrivals to the U.S., USA Today (July 7, 2015).
- Maeda, Daryl Joji. "The Asian American Movement". Oxford Research Dictionaries. Retrieved February 23, 2019.
- Rhea, Joseph Tilden (May 1, 2001). Race Pride and the American Identity. Harvard University Press. p. 43. ISBN 9780674005761.
- We Are Siamese Twins-Fai的分裂生活 Archived December 22, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- Lee, Elizabeth (February 28, 2013). "YouTube Spawns Asian-American Celebrities". VAO News. Archived from the original on February 18, 2013. Retrieved March 4, 2013.
- Chow, Kat (February 5, 2015). "A Brief, Weird History Of Squashed Asian-American TV Shows". NPR. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
Cruz, Lenika (February 4, 2015). "Why There's So Much Riding on Fresh Off the Boat". The Atlantic. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
Gamboa, Glenn (January 30, 2015). "Eddie Huang a fresh voice in 'Fresh Off the Boat'". Newsday. Long Island, New York. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
Lee, Adrian (February 5, 2015). "Will Fresh Off The Boat wind up being a noble failure?". MacLeans. Canada. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
Oriel, Christina (December 20, 2014). "Asian American sitcom to air on ABC in 2015". Asian Journal. Los Angeles. Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
Beale, Lewis (February 3, 2015). "The Overdue Asian TV Movement". The Daily Beast. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
Yang, Jeff (May 2, 2014). "Why the 'Fresh Off the Boat' TV Series Could Change the Game". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
Joann Faung Jean Lee (August 1, 2000). Asian American Actors: Oral Histories from Stage, Screen, and Television. McFarland. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-7864-0730-9.
Branch, Chris (February 5, 2015). "'Fresh Off The Boat' Brings Asian-Americans To The Table On Network TV". Huffington Post. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
- "100 Most Successful Asian American Entrepreneurs".
- "Broad racial disparities persist". Retrieved December 18, 2006.
- "Notable Asian American Professionals".
- Kai-Hwa Wang, Francis (June 25, 2015). "Indian Americans React to Bobby Jindal Presidential Announcement". NBC News. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
- "Hiram L. Fong, 97, Senator From Hawaii in 60's and 70's". The New York Times. The Associated Press. August 19, 2004. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
Zhao, Xiaojian; Ph.D., Edward J.W. Park (November 26, 2013). Asian Americans: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political History [3 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of Social, Cultural, Economic, and Political History. ABC-CLIO. p. 435. ISBN 978-1-59884-240-1.
- Fahrenthold, David A.; Hohmann, James (June 24, 2015). "Bobby Jindal announces entry into 2016 presidential race". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
- Graham, David A. (August 15, 2019). "The 2020 U.S. Presidential Race: A Cheat Sheet". The Atlantic. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
- "CONNIE CHUNG". World Changers. Portland State University. Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- McNaughton, James C.; Edwards, Kristen E.; Price, Jay M. (November 1, 2002). ""Incontestable Proof Will Be Exacted": Historians, Asian Americans, and the Medal of Honor". The Public Historian. 24 (4): 11–33. doi:10.1525/tph.2002.24.4.11. ISSN 0272-3433.
- 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry, globalsecurity.org.
- Harper, Jon; Tritten, Travis J. (May 30, 2014). "VA Secretary Eric Shinseki resigns". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
- "About Asian-Pacific American Heritage Month". Library of Congress. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
George Bush: "Statement on Signing Legislation Establishing Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month", October 23, 1992. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=21645
- Russell, Stepehn (2010). "Introduction: Asian American Parenting and Parent-Adolescent Relationships". Asian American Parenting and Parent-Adolescent Relationships. New York, NY: Springer. pp. 1–15. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-5728-3_1. ISBN 978-1-4419-5727-6.
Karen Kurasaki; Sumie Okazaki; Stanley Sue (December 6, 2012). Asian American Mental Health: Assessment Theories and Methods. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 260. ISBN 978-1-4615-0735-2.
- Amy Chua (December 6, 2011). Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother. A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-4088-2509-9.
Wang, Scarlett (Spring 2013). "The "Tiger Mom": Stereotypes of Chinese Parenting in the United States". Opus. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
Chang, Bettina (June 18, 2014). "The Problem With A Culture of Excellence". Pacific Standard. The Social Justice Foundation. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
- Koehn NN, Fryer GE Jr, Phillips RL, Miller JB, Green LA. (2007) The increase in international medical graduates in family practice residency programs. Journal of Family Medicine, 34(6):468–9.
- Mick SS, Lee SY. (2007) Are there need-based geographical differences between international medical graduates and U.S. medical graduates in rural U.S. counties? J Rural Health. 1999 Winter;15(1):26–43.
- Regan A. R. Gurung (April 21, 2014). Multicultural Approaches to Health and Wellness in America [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 156. ISBN 978-1-4408-0350-5.
- Caroline Young; Cyndie Koopsen (2005). Spirituality, Health, and Healing. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-7637-4024-5.
Montenegro, Xenia P. (January 2015). The Health and Healthcare of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders Age 50+ (PDF) (Report). AARP. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
- Wang, Jun; Burke, Adam; Ysoh, Janice Y.; Le, Gem M.; Stewart, Susan; Gildengorin, Ginny; Wong, Ching; Chow, Elaine; Woo, Kent (2014). "Engaging Traditional Medicine Providers in Colorectal Cancer Screening Education in a Chinese American Community: A Pilot Study". Preventing Chronic Disease. 11. doi:10.5888/pcd11.140341. PMC 4264464. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
- "International Medical Graduates by Country". American Medical Association. Archived from the original on July 5, 2008.
- Sweis, L, and Guay, A. (2007) Foreign-trained dentists licensed in the United States: Exploring their origins. J Am Dent Assoc 2007;138;219–224
- "Foreign Educated Nurses". ANA: American Nurses Association. Archived from the original on July 27, 2011. Retrieved August 31, 2009.
- Pakistan American Educational Attainment Archived February 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
- "The American Community-Asians: 2004" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. February 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 26, 2007. Retrieved September 5, 2007. Cite journal requires
|journal=(help) (Figure 11, p.15)
- Pakistani Migration to the United States: An economic perspective Archived January 22, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved October 1, 2010.
- Stella U. Ogunwole; Malcolm P. Drewery Jr; Merarys Rios-Vargas (May 2012). "The Population With a Bachelor's Degree or Higher by Race and Hispanic Origin: 2006–2010" (PDF). American Community Survey Briefs. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- C.N. Le (2010). "School of Education at Johns Hopkins University-A Closer Look at Asian Americans and Education". New Horizons for Learning. Johns Hopkins University. Archived from the original on June 30, 2015. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- U.S. Census Bureau (March 3, 2008). "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2008". Facts for Features. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 23, 2010. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
- "Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2012". Profile America Facts for Features. United States Census Bureau. March 21, 2012. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- Richard Perez-Pena (February 23, 2012). "U.S. Bachelor Degree Rate Passes Milestone". New York Times. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- Chen, Carolyn (December 19, 2012). "Asians: Too Smart for Their Own Good?". New York Times. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
- "A Brief Profile of the Admitted Class of 2016". statistics. President & Fellows of Harvard College. 2012. Archived from the original on March 26, 2013. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- Fehr, Dennis Earl; Fehr, Mary Cain (2009). Teach boldly!: letters to teachers about contemporary issues in education. Peter Lang. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-4331-0491-6. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
Raymond Arthur Smith (2009). "Issue Brief #160: Asian American Protest Politics: "The Politics of Identity"" (PDF). Majority Rule and Minority Rights Issue Briefs. Columbia University. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
Min, Pyong G. Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends andIssues. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2006. Google Books.Web. July 28, 2013.
- Lee, Robert G. Orientals: Asian Americans in PopularCulture. Philadelphia: Temple UP, 1999. Google Books. Web. 28 July 2013.
- Cheng, Joy; Charles Hsieh; Scott Lu; Sarah Talog. "Asian Americans and the Media: Perpetuating the Model Minority". Psychology 457.002. University of Michigan. Archived from the original on May 17, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
- Sylvia Ann Hewlett (July 28, 2011). "Asians in America: What's Holding Back the "Model Minority?"". Forbes. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
- Anne Fisher (August 8, 2005). "Piercing the 'Bamboo Ceiling'". CNN. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
- Anne Fisher (November 18, 2011). "Training executives to think globally". Crain's New York Business. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
Anne Fisher (October 7, 2011). "Is there a 'bamboo ceiling' at U.S. companies?". Fortune Magazine. Archived from the original on February 12, 2012. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
Hans Villarica (May 15, 2012). "Study of the Day: There's a 'Bamboo Ceiling' for Would-Be Asian Leaders". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
- "Annual Report of Immigration Visa Applicants in the Family-sponsored and Employment-based preferences Registered at the National Visa Center as of November 1, 2012" (PDF). Bureau of Consular Affairs. United States Secretary of State. November 1, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 17, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
Demby, Gene (January 31, 2013). "For Asian-Americans, Immigration Backlogs Are A Major Hurdle". National Public Radio. Retrieved February 5, 2013.
- IANS. "Indians fastest-growing illegal immigrants in U.S." siliconindia.com. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
Illegal Indians in US Archived August 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- Hoeffer, Michael; Rytina, Nancy; Campbell, Christopher. "Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2009" (PDF). Department of Homeland Security. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 7, 2010. Retrieved April 9, 2010.
- "US Citizenship Important to Asian Immigrants". VOA. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
- "Infographics 2015". Department of Homeland Security. January 31, 2017. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
- Weingarten, Liza; Raymond Arthur Smith (2009). "Asian American Immigration Status" (PDF). Majority Rule and Minority Rights Issue Briefs. Columbia University. Retrieved March 4, 2012.
Deemed successful as a complete group, the national immigration debate often leaves out Asians focusing instead on South America primarily. Furthermore, a failed attempt to naturalize can actually result in deportation. Because fluency in English is one of the criteria for naturalization, certain ethnicities within the panethnic Asian American immigrant identity are more strongly affected than others. But Asians are noticeably absent from the immigration debate, according to public radio reports.
- Passel, Jeffrey (March 21, 2005). "Estimates of the Size and Characteristics of the Undocumented Population" (PDF). Pew Hispanic Center.
Erwin De Leon (2011). "Asian Immigration and the Myth of the "Model Minority"". WNYC. Archived from the original on June 8, 2012. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
- "New Asian Immigrants To US Now Surpass Hispanics". CBSDC. June 19, 2012. Retrieved June 19, 2012.
While immigrants from Asia often obtain visas and arrive legally, many also sneak across the U.S. border or become undocumented residents after overstaying their visas.
- Guarino, Mark (June 19, 2012). "How Asians displaced Hispanics as biggest group of new US immigrants". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved June 21, 2012.
For example, 45 percent of Hispanic immigrants are undocumented compared with about 13 percent of Asian immigrants, according to the survey.
- Tanner, Russel; Margie Fletcher Shanks (2008). Rock Springs. Arcadia Publishing. p. 31 28. ISBN 9780738556420. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
- "Racial Riots". Office of Multicultural Student Services. University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on January 6, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
"Racial hate once flared on Central Coast". The Weekend Pinnacle Online. October 27, 2006. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
Kevin L. Nadal (March 23, 2011). Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. John Wiley & Sons. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-118-01977-1.
- Scott Ingram (July 2006). South Asian Americans. World Almanac Library. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-8368-7318-4.
Seema Sohi (2014). Echoes of Mutiny: Race, Surveillance, and Indian Anticolonialism in North America. Oxford University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-19-937625-4.
- Tenbroek, Jacobus; Edward Norton Barnhart; Floyd W. Matson (1975). Prejudice, war, and the Constitution. University of California Press. p. 352. ISBN 9780520012622. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
- Chung Kim, Kwang (1999). Koreans in the hood: conflict with African Americans. JHU Press. p. 146. ISBN 9780801861048. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
- Bruce Cumings (November 17, 2009). Dominion from Sea to Sea: Pacific Ascendancy and American Power. Yale University Press. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-300-15497-9.
Gregory Michno (2007). The Deadliest Indian War in the West: The Snake Conflict, 1864–1868. Caxton Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN 978-0-87004-487-8.
- Sang Chi; Emily Moberg Robinson (February 13, 2012). Voices of the Asian American and Pacific Islander Experience [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 297. ISBN 978-1-59884-355-2.
Franklin Odo (2002). The Columbia Documentary History of the Asian American Experience. Columbia University Press. p. 411. ISBN 978-0-231-11030-3.
- Thomas Streissguth (2009). Hate Crimes. Infobase Publishing. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-4381-1904-5.
"Racist Gets Life Term for L.A. Rampage / Filipino postal worker killed in hate attack". San Francisco Chronicle. Los Angeles Times. March 27, 2001. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
Wong, Grace (August 9, 2014). "Ileto family remembers Joseph Ileto, slain 15 years ago". Los Angeles Daily Bulletin. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
Sanchez, Rene (August 13, 1999). "L.A. Shooting Suspect Faces State, U.S. Charges". Washington Post. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
- Valarie Kuar Brar (September 30, 2002). "Turbans and Terror: Racism After Sep. 11". The Sikh Times. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
Klug, Foster (September 17, 2001). "Sikh killed, others are targeted; Arizona man held". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Lisa A. Suzuki; J. Manuel Casas; Charlene M. Alexander (2009). Handbook of Multicultural Counseling. SAGE. p. 472. ISBN 9781412964326. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
Min, Pyong Gap (2006). Asian Americans: contemporary trends and issues. Pine Forge Press. p. 216. ISBN 9781412905565. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- "Asian youth persistently harassed by U.S. peers". USA Today. November 13, 2005. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- Hoye, Sarah (October 22, 2010). "Racial violence spurred Asian students to take a stand". CNN. Archived from the original on January 29, 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
Johnson, Danielle (December 7, 2009). "Attacked Asian Students Afraid To Go to School". WCAU. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- C.W. Nevius (April 29, 2010). "Asian American attacks focus at City Hall". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- Danielle Wiener-Bronner (November 1, 2010). "Asian Students Attacked At Indiana University". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- Lu, Hubert; Peter Schurmann (July 1, 2007). "Asian Parents and Students Face Challenge of Diversity". Douwei Times. Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
Thomas M. Menino (August 2005). "Report of the 2004 Boston Youth Survey" (PDF). Harvard Youth Violence Prevention Center. Harvard School of Public Health. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 12, 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- Garces, Audrey (October 12, 2017). "Little Manila Center Vandalized During Filipino American History Month". The California Report. San Francisco: KQED. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
Layug, Margaret Claire (October 12, 2017). "US-based Filipino foundation sees vandalism on property as hate crime". GMA News. Philippines. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
Guillermo, Emil (October 13, 2017). "Not-so-little act of hate at Stockton's Little Manila". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Makati City. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
- Lee, Evelyn (2000). Working with Asian Americans: A Guide for Clinicians. New York: Guilford Press. p. 22. ISBN 9781572305700. Retrieved March 6, 2012.
- Baltimore Sun: "Black, Korean tension is focus U.S. civil rights panel to meet in Baltimore" By Erin Texeira July 23, 1998
- USA Today: "Bullying against Asian students roils Philadelphia high school" January 22, 2010
CNN: "Racial violence spurred Asian students to take a stand" By Sarah Hoye October 22, 2010
Sowell, Thomas (May 9, 2010). "Race and Resentment". Real Clear Politics. Archived from the original on February 14, 2011. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
- Teague, Matthew. "Heroes: South Philly High's Protesters." Philadelphia (magazine). August 2010. 4. Retrieved on May 4, 2016,
- Teague, Matthew. "Heroes: South Philly High's Protesters." Philadelphia (magazine). August 2010. 8. Retrieved on January 31, 2013.
- Kim, Kwang Chung (1999). Koreans in the Hood: Conflict With African Americans. Baltimore, Maryland: JHU Press. p. 250. ISBN 9780801861048. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
Abelmann, Nancy; Lie, John (1995). Blue Dreams: Korean Americans and the Los Angeles Riots. Harvard University Press. p. 288. ISBN 9780674077058. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
Kim, Rose M. (2012). "3. "Violence and Trauma as Constitutive Elements in Korean American Racial Identity Formation: The 1992 L.A. Riots/Insurrection/Saigu."". Ethnic & Racial Studies. 35 (11): 1999–2018. doi:10.1080/01419870.2011.602090. Retrieved November 8, 2012.
- Goodman, Walter. "Review/Television; The Boycotting of a Korean Grocery in Brooklyn". The New York Times. July 12, 1990
- "Racial Tension Rising in Dallas Against Korean Community". The Chosun Ilbo. January 31, 2012.
"Racial tensions flare in protest of South Dallas gas station". The Dallas Morning News. February 5, 2012.
- Mak, Tim (August 20, 2014). "Ferguson's Other Race Problem: Riots Damaged Asian-Owned Stores". The Daily Beast. The Daily Beast Company LLC. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
- Aizenmen, Nurith (April 30, 2015). "Baltimore Unrest Reveals Tensions Between African-Americans And Asians". NPR. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
- Thomas Sowell (May 9, 2010). "Race and Resentment". Real Clear Politics. Archived from the original on February 14, 2011. Retrieved March 21, 2011.
- C.N. Le (March 21, 2011). "Anti-Asian Racism & Violence". asian-nation.org. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2011.
- Yip, Alethea. "Remembering Vincent Chin". Asian Week. Archived from the original on March 18, 2007. Retrieved March 14, 2007.
- ACAPAA. "Pilicy Recommendation Document" (PDF). State of Michigan. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 8, 2007. Retrieved March 14, 2007.
- Kashiwabara, Amy, Vanishing Son: The Appearance, Disappearance, and Assimilation of the Asian-American Man in American Mainstream Media, UC Berkeley Media Resources Center
- "Pearl Harbor and Asian-Americans". New York Times. October 26, 1991. Retrieved December 31, 2012.
- Espiritu, Yen le (1993). Asian American panethnicity: bridging institutions and identities. Temple University Press. p. 139. ISBN 9781566390965. Retrieved March 18, 2011.
- Committee of 100 (April 25, 2001). "Committee of 100 Announces Results of Landmark National Survey on American Attitudes towards Chinese Americans and Asian Americans". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2007.
- Yi, Matthew; et al. (April 27, 2001). "Asian Americans seen negatively". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved June 14, 2007.
- Frank H. Wu. "Asian Americans and the Perpetual Foreigner Syndrome". Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2007.
- Lien, Pei-te; Mary Margaret Conway; Janelle Wong (2004). The politics of Asian Americans: diversity and community. Psychology Press. p. 7. ISBN 9780415934657. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
In addition, because of their perceived racial difference, rapid and continuous immigration from Asia, and on going detente with communist regimes in Asia, Asian Americans are construed as "perpetual foreigners" who cannot or will not adapt to the language, customs, religions, and politics of the American mainstream.
- Wu, Frank H. (2003). Yellow: race in America beyond black and white. Basic Books. p. 79. ISBN 9780465006403. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- K. Bergquist. "Image Conscious". Archived from the original on July 9, 2007. Retrieved June 14, 2007.
- Le, C.N. (2001). "The Model Minority Image". Asian-Nation: The Landscape of Asian America. C.N. Le. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
Wu, Frank H. (2002). "The Model Minority: Asian American 'Success' as a Race Relations Failure" (PDF). Yellow: Race in America Beyond Black and White. New York: Basic Books. pp. 39–77. ISBN 9780465006403. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- Bureau of Justice Statistics: Criminal Offenders Statistics at the Wayback Machine (archived July 16, 2008), November 13, 2005. (archived from the original on July 16, 2008)
- William Saletan (March 16, 2005). "The Soft Bigotry of Life Expectancy". Slate.
Asian-Americans were beating white life expectancy by six years among men and 6.5 years among women.
- Chih-Chieh Chou, "Critique on the notion of model minority: an alternative racism to Asian American?", Asian Ethnicity, October 2008, Vol. 9#3 Issue 3, pp 219–229
- Wang, Yanan (October 20, 2015). "Asian Americans speak out against a decades-old 'model minority' myth". Washington Post. Retrieved January 12, 2016.
- Kumar, Revathy; Maehr, Martin L. (2010). "Schooling, Cultural Diversity, and Student Motivation". In Meece, Judith L.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S. (eds.). Handbook of Research on Schools, Schooling and Human Development. Routledge. p. 314. ISBN 9780203874844. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
- "Asian Americans outperform whites in terms of their overall or average grades (GPA), grades in math, and test scores in math", School Performance Archived February 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Tseng, V., Chao, R. K., & Padmawidjaja, I. (2007). Asian Americans educational experiences. In F. Leong, A. Inman, A. Ebreo, L. Yang, L. Kinoshita, & M. Fu (Eds.), Handbook of Asian American Psychology, (2nd Edition) Racial and Ethnic Minority Psychology (REMP) Series (pp. 102–123). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications (MS Word format, via Multicultural Families and Adolescents Study Archived February 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Publications Archived September 20, 2006, at the Wayback Machine).
- Yang, Wesley (May 8, 2011). "Paper Tigers". New York Magazine. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
Shankar, Shalini (April 6, 2015). "Fifty years on, the overachiever stereotype is still hurting Asian Americans". Quartz. Atlantic Media Inc. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
Nicholas Daniel Hartlep (June 1, 2013). The Model Minority Stereotype: Demystifying Asian American Success. IAP. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-62396-360-6.
- Charles Hirschman and Morrison G. Wong, "The Extraordinary Educational Attainment of Asian-Americans: A Search for Historical Evidence and Explanations", Social Forces, September 1986, Vol. 65#1 pp 1–27
- Museus, Samuel D.; Kiang, Peter N. (2009-03). "Deconstructing the model minority myth and how it contributes to the invisible minority reality in higher education research". New Directions for Institutional Research. 2009(142): 5–15. doi:10.1002/ir.292. ISSN 0271-0579.
- Nhan, Doris (May 15, 2012). "Asians Often Burdened as Model Minority". National Journal. Archived from the original on January 9, 2013. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
- "Mental Health and Depression in Asian Americans" Archived January 21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- Cohen, Elizabeth (May 16, 2007). "Push to achieve tied to suicide in Asian-American women". CNN. Retrieved February 19, 2013.
- Fuchs, Chris (August 22, 2017). "Behind the 'Model Minority' Myth: Why the 'Studious Asian' Stereotype Hurts". NBC News. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
- Mohan, Pavithra (July 12, 2018). "Here's another reason why the "model minority" myth is so damaging". Fast Company. Mansueto Ventures. Retrieved March 27, 2019.
- "Socioeconomic Statistics & Demographics : Asian-Nation :: Asian American History, Demographics, & Issues". Asian-Nation. Retrieved November 11, 2012.
Hing, Julianne (June 22, 2012). "Asian Americans to Pew Study: We're Not Your 'Model Minority'". The Hartford Guardian. Retrieved June 22, 2012.
- Patten, Eileen. "Racial, gender wage gaps persist in U.S. despite some progress". Pew Research Center. Pew Research Center. Retrieved July 2, 2016.
- "Income and Poverty in the United States : 2014" (PDF). Census.gov. Retrieved February 27, 2017.
- "Asian-Americans: Smart, High-Incomes And ... Poor?". npr.org. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
- "Wealth Inequality Among Asian Americans Greater Than Among Whites - Center for American Progress". americanprogress.org. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
"RELEASE: Wealth Inequality Among Asian Americans Greater Than Among Whites, Finds New CAP Report Based on Analysis of Exclusive Data - Center for American Progress". americanprogress.org. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
Guo, Jeff (December 20, 2016). "The staggering difference between rich Asian Americans and poor Asian Americans". Retrieved November 22, 2017 – via www.washingtonpost.com.
Yam, Kimberly (January 4, 2017). "Huge Asian-American Wealth Gap Pretty Much Invalidates 'Model Minority' Concept". Retrieved November 22, 2017 – via Huff Post.
- Takei, Isao; Sakamoto, Arthur (January 1, 2011). "Poverty among Asian Americans in the 21st Century". Sociological Perspectives. 54 (2): 251–276. doi:10.1525/sop.2011.54.2.251. JSTOR 10.1525/sop.2011.54.2.251.
Wu, Huizhong. "The 'model minority' myth: Why Asian-American poverty goes unseen". mashable.com. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
Yam, Kimberly (May 8, 2017). "Asian-Americans Have Highest Poverty Rate In NYC, But Stereotypes Make The Issue Invisible". Retrieved November 22, 2017 – via Huff Post.
- "Pass or Fail in Cambodia Town - Episodes - America By The Numbers". Pass or Fail in Cambodia Town - Episodes - America By The Numbers. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
- "Key facts about Asian Americans, a diverse and growing population". pewresearch.org. September 8, 2017. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
- "Critical Issues Facing Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders - The White House". March 21, 2016. Archived from the original on March 21, 2016. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
- PBS (October 2, 2014). "AMERICA BY THE NUMBERS - Model Minority Myth - PBS". Retrieved November 22, 2017 – via YouTube.
"These groups of Asian-Americans rarely attend college, but California is trying to change that". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved November 22, 2017.
Ngo, Bic; Lee, Stacey J. (December 1, 2007). "Complicating the Image of Model Minority Success: A Review of Southeast Asian American Education". Review of Educational Research. 77 (4): 415–453. doi:10.3102/0034654307309918.
http://www.searac.org/sites/default/files/SEARAC_Fact_Sheets_OVERVIEW_FINAL.pdf Archived February 19, 2018, at the Wayback Machine
- "Educational Attainment in the United States: 2007" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. 2009.
- "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. 2009. p. 9.
- "Median houseland income in the past 12 months (in 2014 inflation-adjusted dollars)". American Community Survey. United States Census Bureau. 2014. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
- "New poverty measure highlights positive effect of government assistance". Epi.org. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- "Key facts about Asian Americans, a diverse and growing population". Pewresearch.org. September 8, 2017. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- Wu, Huizhong. "The 'model minority' myth: Why Asian-American poverty goes unseen". Mashable.com. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- "Nepalese in the U.S. Fact Sheet". Pewsocialtrends.org. September 8, 2017. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- Ngo, Bic; Lee, Stacey (December 2007). "Complicating the Image of Model Minority Success: A Review of Southeast Asian American Education". Review of Educational Research. 77 (4): 415–453. doi:10.3102/0034654307309918.
"Project MUSE - Journal of Asian American Studies - Growing Up American: How Vietnamese Children Adapt to Life in the United States". Muse.jhu.edu. Retrieved April 13, 2009.
- NAWHO. "Mental Health and Depression in Asian Americans" (PDF). National Asian Women's Health Organization. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 21, 2015. Retrieved March 20, 2015.
Lee, S., & Chang, J. (2012a). "Mental health status of the Hmong Americans in 2011: Three decades revisited." Journal of Social Work in Disability and Rehabilitation, 11(1), 55–70.
Lee, S., & Chang, J. (2012b). "Revisiting 37 years later: A brief summary of existing sources related to Hmong and their mental health status." Hmong Studies Journal, 13.2, 1–13.
Chung, R. C; Bemak, F.; Wong, S. (2000). "Vietnamese refugees' level of distress, social support, and acculturation: Implications for mental health counseling". Journal of Mental Health & Counseling (22): 150–161.
- Friis, Robert H.; Garrido-Ortega, Claire; Safer, Alan M.; Wankie, Che; Griego, Paula A.; Forouzesh, Mohammed; Trefflich, Kirsten; Kuoch, Kimthai (May 18, 2011). "Socioepidemiology of Cigarette Smoking Among Cambodian Americans in Long Beach, California". Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health. 14 (2): 272–280. doi:10.1007/s10903-011-9478-1. ISSN 1557-1912. PMID 21590336.
- "New to America, Bhutanese refugees face suicide crisis". America.aljazeera.com. Retrieved January 9, 2018.
- Mintier, Tom (November 19, 2002). "One-way ticket for convicted Cambodians". CNN. Retrieved October 3, 2006.
Schwartzapfel, Beth (May 14, 2005). "Fighting to Stay". AlterNet. Archived from the original on February 24, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2006.
"Cambodian-Americans confronting deportation". Boston Globe. January 27, 2013. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
- Pirro, John (January 12, 2010). "Police tie 2005 Bethel home invasion, rape to violent NYC gang". The News-Times. Danbury, CT.
Minnesota - Gangland Documentary - Menace Of Destruction Gang (MOD), Gangland
Gang Criminal Justice Directory
WILLWERTH, JAMES (June 24, 2001). "From Killing Fields to Mean Streets". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
Hanna, Maddie. 10 arrested during series of Lowell gang raids, Boston.com, July 20, 2008.
- Bhatt, Amy, et al. Roots and Reflections: South Asians in the Pacific Northwest (2013)
- Chan, Sucheng. "The changing contours of Asian-American historiography", Rethinking History, March 2007, Vol. 11 Issue 1, pp 125–147; surveys 100+ studies of defining events; Asian diasporas; social dynamics; cultural histories.
- Chan, Sucheng. Asian Americans: an interpretive history (Twayne, 1991). ISBN 978-0-8057-8437-4
- Chau Trinh-Shevrin, Nadia Shilpi Islam, Mariano Jose Rey. Asian American Communities and Health: Context, Research, Policy, and Action (Public Health/Vulnerable Populations), 2009. ISBN 978-0-7879-9829-5
- Cheng, Cindy I-Fen. Citizens of Asian America: Democracy and Race during the Cold War (2013)
- Chin, Gabriel J., Ed., U.S. Commission on Civil Rights: Reports on Asian Pacific Americans (2005) ISBN 978-0-8377-3105-6
- Choi, Yoonsun. "Academic Achievement and Problem Behaviors among Asian Pacific Islander American Adolescents." (Archive, Alternate link) Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Received August 26, 2006. Accepted October 13, 2006. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. doi:10.1007/s10964-006-9152-4. May 2007, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 403–415.
- Chiu, Monica, ed. Asian Americans in New England: Culture and Community (Durham: University of New Hampshire Press, 2009. xviii, 252 pp.) ISBN 978-1-58465-794-1
- Isaacs, Harold R. Scratches on Our Minds: American Images Of China And India (1958) online
- Kwong, Peter and Dusanka Miscevic. Chinese America: The Untold Story of America's Oldest New Community (2005)
- Lee, Jonathan H. X. History of Asian Americans: Exploring Diverse Roots (2015)
- Lee, Jonathan H. X. and Fumitaka Matsuoka, eds. Asian American Religious Cultures (2 vol. 2015)
- Lee, Jonathan H. X. and Kathleen M. Nadeau, eds. Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife (3 vol. 2010)
- Ling, Huping, and Allan W. Austin, eds. Asian American History and Culture: An Encyclopedia (Routledge, 2015)
- Lowe, Lisa Immigrant Acts: On Asian American Cultural Politics Durham: Duke University Press, 1996. ISBN 978-0-8223-1864-4
- Matsumoto, Jon. "Asian Americans Anchor Their Influence." Los Angeles Times. September 4, 1998.
- Okamoto, Dina G. Redefining Race: Asian American Panethnicity and Shifting Ethnic Boundaries (Russell Sage Foundation, 2014)
- Okihiro, Gary Y. The Columbia Guide to Asian American History (Columbia UP, 2005) excerpt and text search
- Okihiro, Gary Y. American History Unbound: Asians and Pacific Islanders (University of California Press, 2015). xiv, 499 pp.
- Pyong Gap Min Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues Thousand Oaks, Ca.: Pine Science Press, 2005. ISBN 978-1-4129-0556-5
- Takaki, Ronald Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans New York: Little, Brown, 1998. ISBN 978-0-316-83130-7.
- adapted by Rebecca Stefoff: Raising Cane. The World of Plantation Hawaii, Chelsea House Publishers, New York/Philadelphia 1994, ISBN 0-7910-2178-5.
- Tamura, Eileen H. "Using the Past to Inform the Future: An Historiography of Hawaii's Asian and Pacific Islander Americans", Amerasia Journal, 2000, Vol. 26 Issue 1, pp 55–85
- Wu, Frank H. Yellow: Race in American Beyond Black and White New York: Basic Books, 2002. ISBN 978-0-465-00639-7
- Zia, Helen Asian American Dreams: The Emergence of an American People New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2000. ISBN 978-0-374-52736-5.
- Zhou, Min and Carl L. Bankston III Growing Up American: How Vietnamese Children Adapt to Life in the United States New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1998. ISBN 978-0-871-54995-2.
- "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths" (full report) (Archive). Pew Research Center. July 19, 2012.
- Asian American Data Links — demographic information and reports from the U.S. Census Bureau
- UCLA Asian American Studies Center