|Assassination of Indira Gandhi|
|Location||at her residence in Safdarjung Road, New Delhi|
|Date||31 October 1984 |
|Weapons||.38 (9.1mm) revolver and Sterling submachine gun|
|Assailants||Satwant Singh and Beant Singh|
Treaties and accords
Missions and projects
Riots and attacks
Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated at 9:29 a.m. on 31 October 1984 at her residence in Safdarjung Road, New Delhi. She was killed by her Sikh bodyguards Satwant Singh and Beant Singh in the aftermath of Operation Blue Star. Operation Blue Star was an Indian military action carried out between 1 and 8 June 1984, ordered by Indira Gandhi to remove Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his followers from the holy Golden temple of the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar, Punjab. The collateral damage included the death of many pilgrims, as well as damage to the Akal Takht. The military action on the sacred temple was criticized both inside and outside India.
Operation Blue Star was a large Indian military operation carried out between 1 and 8 June 1984, ordered by Indira Gandhi to remove leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his followers from the buildings of the Harmandir Sahib complex in Amritsar, Punjab.
In June 1984, the Indian government ordered a military operation, Operation Blue Star to clear Darbar Sahib, Amritsar and thirty other Gurdwaras of militant Sikhs led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale who were with many other pilgrims in Gurdwaras. During this operation, the Indian army had around 83 casualties with 700 injuries, and 450-500 Sikh militants were killed. The handling of the operation, damage to the holy shrine and loss of life on both sides, led to widespread criticism of the Indian government.
The perception of threat to Gandhi's life increased after the operation. Accordingly, Sikhs were removed from her personal bodyguard by the Intelligence Bureau due to the fear of assassination. However, Gandhi was of the opinion that this would reinforce her anti-Sikh image among the public and strengthen her political opponents. She ordered the Special Protection Group to reinstate her Sikh bodyguards, including Beant Singh who was reported to be her personal favorite.
At about 9:20 a.m. Indian Standard Time, on 31 October 1984, Gandhi was on her way to be interviewed by British actor Peter Ustinov who was filming a documentary for Irish television. She was wearing a saffron saree with a black border, and accompanied by constable Narayan Singh, personal security officer Rameshwar Dayal and personal secretary, R. K. Dhawan. She was walking through the garden of the Prime Minister's Residence at No. 1 Safdarjung Road in New Delhi towards the neighboring 1 Akbar Road office.
Gandhi passed a wicket gate guarded by Satwant and Beant Singh, and the two men opened fire. Beant fired three rounds into her abdomen from his .38 (9.7 mm) revolver; then Satwant fired 30 rounds from his Sten after she had fallen to the ground. Both men then threw down their weapons and Beant said, "I have done what I had to do. You do what you want to do." In the next six minutes, Border Police officers Tarsem Singh Jamwal and Ram Saran captured and killed Beant, while Satwant was arrested by Gandhi's other bodyguards, along with an accomplice trying to escape; he was seriously wounded. Satwant Singh was hanged in 1989 with accomplice Kehar Singh.
Salma Sultan gave the first news of the assassination of Gandhi on Doordarshan's evening news on 31 October 1984, more than ten hours after she was killed. It is alleged by the Indian government that Gandhi's secretary R. K. Dhawan overruled intelligence and security officials who had ordered the removal of policemen as a security threat, including her assassins.
Beant was one of Gandhi's favorite guards, whom she had known for ten years. Because he was a Sikh, he had been taken off her staff after Operation Blue Star; however, Gandhi had made sure that he was reinstated. Satwant was 22 years old when he killed her, and had been assigned to Gandhi's guard just five months before her assassination.
Gandhi was taken to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi at 9:30 a.m., where doctors operated on her. She was declared dead at 2:20 p.m. The postmortem examination was conducted by a team of doctors headed by Tirath Das Dogra, who stated that 30 bullets had struck Gandhi from a Sterling sub-machine gun and a revolver. The assailants had fired 33 bullets at her, of which 30 had hit; 23 had passed through her body, while seven remained inside. Dogra extracted bullets to establish the identity of the weapons and to correlate each weapon with the bullets recovered by ballistic examination. The bullets were matched with respective weapons at CFSL Delhi.
Gandhi's body was taken in a gun carriage through Delhi roads on the morning of 1 November to Teen Murti Bhavan where her father stayed and where she lay in state. She was cremated with full state honours on 3 November near Raj Ghat, a memorial to Mahatma Gandhi, at an area named Shakti Sthal. Her elder son and successor Rajiv Gandhi lit the pyre.
The following foreign dignitaries attended the state funeral, among others:
|Algeria||Abdelhamid Brahimi (Prime Minister)|
|Australia||Ninian Stephen (Governor-General)|
Bob Hawke (Prime Minister)
|Bhutan||Jigme Singye Wangchuck (King)|
|Cambodia||Heng Samrin (Head of State)|
Chan Sy (Prime Minister)
|Canada||Brian Dickson (Chief Justice)|
Joe Clark (Former Prime Minister and Secretary of State for External Affairs)
|China||Yao Yilin (Vice-Premier)|
|Czechoslovak Socialist Republic||Lubomír Štrougal (Prime Minister)|
|East Germany||Horst Sindermann (President of the People's Chamber)|
|Fiji||Penaia Ganilau (Governor-General)|
Kamisese Mara (Prime Minister)
|France||Laurent Fabius (Prime Minister)|
|Indonesia||Umar Wirahadikusumah (Vice-President)|
|Japan||Yasuhiro Nakasone (Prime Minister)|
|Jordan||Prince Hassan bin Talal (Crown Prince)|
|Kenya||Mwai Kibaki (Vice President)|
Kaysone Phomvihane (Prime Minister)
|Liberia||Harry Moniba (Vice President)|
|Mauritius||Anerood Jugnauth (Prime Minister)|
|Mongolian People's Republic||T. Ragchaa (First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers)|
|Nauru||Hammer DeRoburt (President)|
|Nepal||Lokendra Bahadur Chand (Prime Minister)|
|New Zealand||David Beattie (Governor-General)|
David Lange (Prime Minister)
|North Korea||Pak Song-chol (Vice-President)|
|People's Republic of Bulgaria||Todor Zhivkov (General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Bulgarian Communist Party )|
|People's Republic of Mozambique||Samora Machel (President)|
|Poland||Wojciech Jaruzelski (Prime Minister)|
|Philippines||Imelda Marcos (First Lady)|
|South Korea||Chae Mun-shik (Speaker of the National Assembly)|
|Soviet Union||Nikolai Tikhonov (Chairman of the Council of Ministers)|
|SFR Yugoslavia||Veselin Đuranović (President)|
|Syria||Zuhair Masharqa (Vice President)|
Farouk al-Sharaa (Foreign Minister)
|Tanzania||Julius Nyerere (President)|
|Uganda||Milton Obote (President)|
|United Kingdom||Margaret Thatcher (Prime Minister).
The Princess Royal (Representing Her Majesty The Queen)
|United States||George Shultz (Secretary of State)|
|Vanuatu||Ati George Sokomanu (President)|
Walter Lini (Prime Minister)
|Vietnam||Trường Chinh (President)|
Phạm Văn Đồng (Prime Minister)
|Zambia||Kenneth Kaunda (President)|
|Zimbabwe||Robert Mugabe (Prime Minister)|
The Justice Thakkar Commission of Inquiry (headed by Justice Manharlal Pranlal Thakkar), set up to probe Gandhi's assassination, recommended a separate probe for the conspiracy angle behind the assassination. The Thakkar Report stated that the "needle of suspicion" pointed at R. K. Dhawan for complicity in the conspiracy.
Satwant Singh and alleged conspirator Kehar Singh were sentenced to death. Both were executed on 6 January 1989.
A Punjabi movie titled Kaum De Heere (Gems of the Community) highlighting the role/lives of the two guards that assassinated Indira Gandhi was set to be released on 22 August 2014, but was banned by the Indian government for 5 years.
In operation Bluestar a force of several battalions occupied the holy precincts in a battle lasting several hours. Bhindranwale and man of his associates were killed – but there was a very large number of civilian casualties as well.